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Journal 

of the 

New York 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Devoted to Entomology in General 


VOLUME LXII 


-asses* 


Published by the Society 
New York, N. Y. 


Business Press, Inc. 
^Lancaster, Pennsylvania 


CONTENTS OF VOLUME LXII 


PAGE 

Alexander, Charles P. 

Records and Descriptions of Neotropical Crane-Flies 
(Tipulidag, Diptera), XXVIII 139 

Battista, Guido W. 

Changes in the Fat Content of the Japanese Beetle 
(Popillia japonica Newman) During Metamorphosis 27 

Book Notice 160 

Boyle, W. Wayne 

Concerning the Status of Ischyrus graphicus Lacordaire, 
with Descriptions of Four New Erotylid Species from 
Western North America (Coleoptera: Erotylidae) 39 

Brown, William L., Jr. 

The Neotropical Species of the Ant Genus Strumigenys 
Fr. Smith : Group of Saliens Mayr 55 

Cummings, Edward D. 

Notes on Some Siphonaptera from Albany County, New 
New York 161 

De La Torre y Callejas, Salvador Luis 

An Annotated List of the Butterflies and Skippers of 
Cuba (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) 1, 113, 189, 207 

Gibbs, Robert H., Jr. and Sarah Preble Gibbs 

The Odonata of Cape Cod, Massachusetts 167 

Hood, J. Douglas 

New American Terebrantian Thysanoptera 129 

A New Arachisothrips from Argentina 99 

Johnson, Phyllis T. 

Myodopsylla setosa and Tiarapsylla bella, New Species 
of Fleas from Peru 193 

Levi, Herbert W. 

The Spider Genera Episinus and Spintharus from North 
America, Central America and the West Indies 
(Aranese: Theridiidas) 65 


SCHNEIRLA, T. C. 

International Union for the Study of Social Insects 63 

Smith, Marion It. and Merle W. Wing 

Redescription of Discothyrea testacea Roger, A Little- 
Known North American Ant, with Notes on the Genus 


(Hymenoptera : Formicidse) 105 

Soraci, F. A. 

New Arrangements for Journal 98 

Southwestern Research Station 206 

Townsend, Lee H. 

Gibbium Psylloides Czempinski in Kentucky 26 

Weiss, H. B. 

Joseph Cooper’s Papers on Insects 38 

Exhibits of Insects in New York City before 1800 104 

The Faneuil Hall Grasshopper and Shem Drown 166 

Andrew S. Fuller, Early Economic Entomologist of 
New Jersey 185 

Gaylord Crossette Hall, 1871-1954 153 

Insects for Sale in New York City before 1800 104 

“Tulane Studies in Zoology”, a New Periodical 54 

Whelden, Roy M. 

Notes on the Bumble-Bee (Bombus fervidus Fabricius) 
and Its Chromosomes 91 




IV 


No. 1 


'i . 


. 


S c i r . 76 6 73 

/N •$ £&'X“5 ' 


Vol. LXII 

MARCH, 1954 

Journal 

of the 


New York Entomological Society 


Devoted to Entomology in General 

/ ' 

Editor Emeritus HARRY B. WEISS 



Edited by FRANK A. SORACI 


Dlf . 

u.s. »atl: was 


Publication Committee 


FRANK A. SORACI HERBERT F. SCHWARZ 

E. W. TEALE JAMES MULLEN 


Subscription $5.00 per Year 


CONTENTS 


An Annotated List of the Butterflies and Skippers of Cuba 
(Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) 

By Salvador Luis de la Torre y Callejas 1 

Gibbium Psylloides Czempinski in Kentucky 

By Lee H. Townsend 26 

Changes in the Fat Content of the Japanese Beetle (Popillia 
japonica Newman) During Metamorphosis 
By Guido W. Battista 27 

Joseph Cooper’s Papers on Insects 

By H. B. Weiss . . 38 

Concerning the Status of Ischyrus graphicus Lacordaire, 

With Descriptions of Four New Erotylid Species from 
Western North America (Coleoptera: Erotylidze) 

By W. Wayne Boyle 39 

"Tulane Studies in Zoology”, a New Periodical 

By H. B. Weiss 54 

The Neotropical Species of the Ant Genus Strumigenys Fr. 
Smith: Group of Saliens Mayr 
By William L. Brown, Jr 55 

International Uniop for the Study of Social Insects 

By T. C. ScHNfeiRLA 63 

NOTICE: Volume LXI, Number 4, of the Journal 
of the New York Entomological Society was 
Published on February 20, 1954. 


Published Quarterly for the Society 
By United Printing Services, Inc. 

263 Chapel St., New Haven, Conn. 

Subscriptions should be sent to the Treasurer, Dr. John Rehn, 90 Church 
St., New York City, N. Y. 

Entered as second class matter July 7, 1925, at the post office at New Haven, 
Conn., under the Act of August 24, 1912. 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate bf postage provided for in the Act of Feb- 
ruary 28, 1925, embodied in Paragraph (d-2) Section 34.40 P. L. & R. of 1948. 


JOURNAL 

OF THE 

New York Entomological Society 

Vol. LXII March, 1954 No, 1 


AN ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BUTTERFLIES AND 
SKIPPERS OF CUBA 
(LEPIDOPTERA, RHOPALOCERA) 

By Salvador Luis de la Torre y Callejas 
Professor of Zoology 
Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba 

PREFACE 

In view of the fact that since the year 1935 when Mr. Marston 
Bates published his paper entitled "The Butterflies of Cuba’X 1 ), 
several species and subspecies of butterflies have been reported 
which had not previously been observed in Cuba, and bearing in mind 
that since the publication of Bates’ catalog there has developed an 
intense activity in the field of taxonomy, we have considered it 
necessary to rectify the classification of many of the species included 
in the above mentioned catalog and to publish this paper giving the 
correct names of all the species and subspecies of butterflies found 
in Cuba up to the year 1953. 

As we have consulted some publications not available to Bates, 
besides others edited after his work appeared, our bibliography will 
be found useful to those who desire to widen their knowledge of 
the Lepidoptera of Cuba. 

While assembling our data and consulting our bibliography we 
have had the help of many scientists and librarians to whom we wish 
to express our gratitude, among them Dr. William T. M. Forbes, of 

x See Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 
LXXVIII, No. 2, February, 1935, pp. 63-250. 


2 New York Entomological Society [Vol. LXII 

the Department of Entomology of Cornell University; Dr. Charles 
D. Michener, Associate Curator of the American Museum of Natural 
History and now in the Department of Entomology of the University 
of Kansas; Ernest L. Bell, Dr. Alexander B. Klots and William P. 
Comstock, Research Associates of the American Museum of Natural 
History; the late Jose R. de la Torre-Bueno, who was editor of the 
Brooklyn Entomological Society; N. D. Riley, of the Department of 
Entomology of the British Museum; L. E. Commerford, Chief of 
Division of Publications of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington; 
Ralph L. Chermock, Assistant Professor of the Biology Department 
of the University of Alabama; Dr. Carlos G. Aguayo, Professor of 
Zoology of the University of Havana, Cuba; J. A. Ramos, Professor 
and Director of the Department of Biology of the University of Porto 
Rico; Dr. Oliveiro M. de Oliveira and Dr. Benedicto A. Monteiro 
Soares, Director and Sub-Director, respectively, of the Department of 
Zoology of the Ministry of Agricultura of Sao Paulo, Brazil; F. Martin 
Brown, of Fountain Valley School, Colorado Springs; Romualdo 
Ferreira D’Almeida, of the Ministry of Education and Health of Rio 
de Janeiro, Brazil; Dr. Charles L. Remington, editor of the Lepidop- 
terists’ News; Miss Anita Hoffmann, daughter of the late Carlos Hoff- 
mann, of Mexico; Rene Lichy, of Caracas, Venezuela; Dr. H. B. 
Hungerford, Head of the Department of Entomology of the Univer- 
sity of Kansas; Abel Dufrane, Conservateur Musee d’Histoire Nat- 
urelle, of Ville de Mons, Belgium; Dr. Leonila Vazquez, of the 
Instituto of Biology Mexico; Harry K. Clench, of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology at Harvard College; Dr. Richard M. Fox, of 
the Department of Entomology of the Carnegie Museum; S. G. Kir- 
iakoff, of the University of Gent, Belgium; Zdenek Losenicky, of 
Plzen, Czechoslovakia; William D. Field, Associate Curator of the 
United States National Museum, Washington; Cyril F. dos Passos, of 
Mendham, N. J.; John S. Garth, of the University of Southern Cali- 
fornia and Ricardo N. Orfila, Chief Section Ent. Inst. Nac. Inv. 
Ciencias Nat., Buenos Aires, Argentina. 


Mar., 1954] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


3 


Order LEPIDOPTERA 
Suborder Rhopalocera 
Superfamily PAPILIONOIDEA 

Family PAPILIONIDA3 
Subfamily PAPILIONIN^E 

Genus Papilio Linnaeus 

Papilio Linnaeus, 1758: 458. 

Genotype: Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758. 

1. papilio (hectorides) gundlachianus Felder & Felder 
Papilio gundlachianus Felder & Felder, 1864; Gundlach, 1881: 124; 

id., 1891: 450; Bates, 1935: 106; S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 27; 
Jaume, 1947: 91; Brown, 1950: 40. 

Papilio columbus : Rothschild & Jordan, 1906: 436. 

Illustrations. — Bates, 1935: f. 3, (venation); S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 
pi. 10, f. 38-40, (scales); id., 1947b: pi. 1, f. 1. 

2. papilio (l^rtias) devilliers Godart 

Papilio devilliers Godart, 1823; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906: 514; 
Bates, 1935: 106; S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 28; Jaume, 1947: 92; 
Brown, 1950: 41. 

Papilio devilliersii : Gundlach, 1881: 123. 

Papilio devilliersi : Holland, 1942: 313. 

Illustrations.— Holland, 1942: pi. LXX, f. 1; S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 
pi. 1, f. 2. 

3. papilio ( l^ertias) polydamus cubensis Dufrane 
Papilio {Pharmacophagus) polydamas cubensis Dufrane, 1946: 102. 
Papilio polydamas : Gundlach, 1881: 121; id., 1891: 450; Dethier, 

1940: 22. 

Papilio polydamas polydamas : Rothschild Sc Jordan, 1906: 520; Bates, 
1935: 108; Berger, 1939: 189; Comstock, 1944: 535; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1947b: 29; Jaume, 1947: 93. 

Papilio polydamus polydamus : Bruner, Scaramuzza Sc Otero, 1945: 17; 

Beebe, 1949: 123; Brown, 1950: 41. 

Papilio ( Lcertias ) polydamas cubensis : S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 184. 


4 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


This subspecies was described by Abel Dufrane in 1946 (see "Pa- 
pilionidae”. Bull. & Ann. Soc. Ent. Belgium, vol. 82, pp. 101-122). 
Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: pi. 1, f. 3; Beebe, 1949: 
pi. I, f. 9. 

4. PAPILIO ( PAPILIO) POLYXENES POLYXENES Fabricius 
Papilio polyxenes Fabricius, 1775; Gundlach, 1881: 136; Comstock, 

1944: 539. 

Papilio polyxenes polyxenes : Rothschild & Jordan, 1906: 547; Bates, 
1935: 108; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 79, 128, 132; S. L. 
de la Torre, 1947b: 32; Jaume, 1947: 96. 

Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: pi. 4, f. 15, 16. 

5. PAPILIO (HERACLIDES) THOAS OVIEDO Gundlach 
Papilio oviedo Gundlach, 1866: 279; id., 1881: 133. 

Papilio thoas oviedo : Rothschild & Jordan, 1906: 557; Bates, 1935: 
109; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 145, 188; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1947b: 37; Jaume, 1947: 94. 

Illustrations. — Gundlach, 1866: pi. 5, f. 1; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 
pi. 10, f. 43, 44, (scales); id., 1947b: pi. 3, f. 14. 

6. * papilio (heraclides) cresphontes Cramer 

Papilio cresphontes Cramer, 1777; Gundlach, 1866: 279; id., 1881: 
131; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906: 562; Showalter, 1927: 109; 

Clark, 1932: 178; Hoffmann, 1933: 225; id, 1936: 262; id, 
1940c: 659; Fazzini, 1934: 26; Bates, 1935: 110; Field, 1938b: 
208; Holland, 1942: 317; Brown, 1943: 171; Jaume, 1947: 97. 
Papilio cresphontes cresphontes'. Hoffmann 1940b: 633; Chermock, 
1946: 146. 

Papilio thoas cresphontes : S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 38. 

The writer has not seen any Cuban specimens of this species, 
neither were they seen by Bates and the writer thinks the species was 
wrongly classified by Gundlach, having taken into consideration that 
only the Papilio thoas has been observed. 


The marked ( * ) species have been collected in Cuba only a few times. 


Mar., 1954] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


5 


Illustrations. — Gundlach, 1866: pi. 5, fig. 2; Shouwalter, 1927: pi. 
V, f. 4; Clark, 1932: pi. 31, f. 1, pi. 32, f. 1; Holland, 1942, pi. 
XLII, f. 3, pi. II, f. 16, (larva), pi. VI, f. 8-10, (pupa); S. L. de la 
Torre, 1947b: pi. 3, f. 13, pi. 2, f. 8. 

7. PAPILIO (HERACLIDES) CA1GUANABUS Poey 

Papilio caiguanabus Poey, 1854; Gundlach, 1881: 127; Rothschild 
& Jordan, 1906: 567; Bates, 1935: 110; S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 
33; Jaume, 1947: 98; Brown, 1950: 64. 

Illustration. — S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: pi. 2, f. 12. 

8. PAPILIO (HERACLIDES) ARISTODEMUS TEMENES Latreille 
Papilio temenes Latreille (not Godart), 1819. (See Brown, 1941: 

131). 

Papilio cresphontinus : Gundlach, 1881: 130. 

Papilio aristodemus temenes : Rothschild & Jordan, 1906: 569; Bates, 
1935: 111; Comstock, 1944: 536; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 
1945: 12; S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 38; Jaume, 1947: 99. 
Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: pi. 2, f. 10; id., 1946: pi. 10, 
f. 42, (scales). 

9. PAPILIO (HERACLIDES) ANDR/EMON ANDRCEMON (Hiibner) 
Heraclides andrcemon Hiibner, 1823?. 

Papilio andrcemon : Gundlach, 1881: 128; Holland, 1916: 500; Brown, 
1950: 64. 

Papilio andrcemon andrcemon : Rothschild & Jordan, 1906: 571; 

Bates, 1935: 112; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 50, 156; 
S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 36; Jaume, 1947: 100. 

Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: pi. 2, f. 7; Bruner, Sca- 
ramuzza & Otero, 1945: pi IX, f. 3; R. de la Torre, 1936: pi. 
24, f. 1. 

10. papilio (heraclides) andr^mon hernandezi Torre 
Papilio ( Heraclides ) andrcemon hernandezi R. de la Torre, 1936: 
333; S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65. 

Papilio andrcemon hernandezi : S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 36. 

This subspecies was described by Dr. Ricardo de la Torre Madrazo 
in 1936. (See Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat., vol. X, p, 333), 
Illustration. — R. de la Torre, 1936: pi. 24, f. 2. 


6 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


11. * PAPILIO (HERACLIDES) PALAMEDES Drury 

Papilio palamedes : Clark, 1932: 232; Bates, 1933: 236; J. H. Com- 
stock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 55; Hoffmann, 1940c: 651; Hol- 
land, 1942: 321; S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 26; Brown, 1950: 64. 
This species was captured once in the province of Havana. (See 
Poey, 1846: 234; Gundlach, 1881: 138, and Bates, 1935: 236). 
Illustrations. — Clark, 1932: pi. 47, f. 1, 2; J. H. Comstock & A. B. 
Comstock, 1936: pi. VII, f. 1; Holland, 1942: pi. XLII, f. 1. 

12. PAPILIO (HERACLIDES) ANDROGEUS EPIDAURUS Godman & 
Salvin 

Papilio epidaurus Godman & Salvin, 1890. 

Papilio polycaon : Gundlach, 1881: 134; id., 1891: 454. 

Papilio androgens epidaurus : Rothschild & Jordan, 1906: 578; Hof- 
fmann, 1933: 225; id, 1940c: 651; Bates, 1935: 112; id, 1939: 
1; Comstock, 1944: 536; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 51; 
S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 34; Jaume, 1947: 117. 

Illustrations. — Comstock, 1944: pi. 11, f. 1; S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 
pi. 2, f. 9, 11. 

13. * PAPILIO (PTEROURUS) TROILUS ILIONEUS J. E. Smith 
Papilio troilus ilioneus : Clark, 1932: 191; Field, 1938b: 212. 
Papilio troilus : J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 59. 

Papilio troilus form ilioneus : Holland, 1942: 321. 

Papilio ( Pterourus ) troilus ilioneus : S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65; 
S. L. de la Torre & J. T. Sierra, 1949: 195. 

This species was reported by us in 1949. (See The Lepidopterists’ 
News, vol. Ill, No. 6, p. 65, and Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat, vol. 
XIX, p. 195). 

Illustrations. — J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: pi. IX, f, 
1-2; Holland, 1942: pi. XLI, f. 5, pi. II, f. 18, 19, 22, (larva), 
pi. IV, f. 5-7, (pupa). 

14. PAPILIO (pterourus) pelaus atkinsi Bates 
Papilio pelaus pelaus : Rothschild & Jordan, 1906: 603. 

Papilio pelaus atkinsi Bates, 1935: 113; Comstock, 1944: 538; S. L. 
de la Torre, 1947b: 29; Jaume, 1947: 90. 


The marked ( * ) species have been collected in Cuba only a few times. 


Mar., 1954] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


7 


Papilio pelaus : Gunduach, 1881: 126. 

Papililo pelaeus atkinsi : Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 188. 
Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: pi. 1, f. 5; id., 1946: pi. 10, 
f. 41, (scales). 

15. papilio (pterourus) oxynius (Hlibner) 

Lcertias oxynius Hlibner, 183 — ?. 

Papilio oxynius: Gundlach, 1881: 127; id., 1891: 452; Rothschild & 
Jordan, 1906: 603; Bates, 1935: 114; id., 1939: 1; Bruner, Scaramu- 
zza & Otero, 1945: 188; S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 30; Jaume, 1947: 
118; Brown, 1950: 64. 

Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: pi. 1, f. 6. 

16. PAPILIO ( IPHICLIDES) CELADON Lucas 

Papilio celadon Lucas, 1852; Gundlach, 1881: 125; Rothschild & 
Jordan, 1906: 691; Holland, 1916: 500; id., 1942: 321; Bates, 1935: 
114; Dethier, 1940: 22; S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 31; Jaume, 1947: 
119. 

Illustrations. — Holland, 1942: pi. LXX, f. 11; S. L. de la Torre, 1947b: 
pi. 1, f. 4; id. 1946: pi. 10, f. 36, 37, (scales). 

Family Pierrot 
S ubfamily PlERlN^T 
Genus Ascia Scopoli 

Ascia Scopoli, 1777. 

Genotype: Papilio monuste Linnaeus, 1764. 

17. ascia (ascia) monuste monuste (Linnaeus) 

Papilio monuste Linnaeus, 1764. 

Ascia ( Ascia ) monuste crameri: Field, 1938b: 198. 

Ascia (Ascia) monuste form crameri : Hoffmann, 1940c: 662. 

Ascia monuste var. crameri: Holland, 1942: 278. 

Ascia monuste monuste: Comstock, 1943: 1; id., 1944: 529; S. L. de 
la Torre, 1949: 65; id, 1949d: 172. 

This subspecies was reported by the writer in 1949. (See The Lepi- 
dopterists’ News, vol. Ill, No. 6, p. 65, and Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. 
Nat, vol. XIX, p. 172). 


8 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


Illustrations.— Holland, 1942: pi. LXVII, f. 17; Comstock, 1944: pi. 
8, f. 9; S. L. de la Torre, 1949d: pi. 5, f. 1, 2, 6. 

18. ASCIA (ASCIA) MONUSTE EUBOTEA (Latreille) 

Pieris eubotea Latreille, 1819. 

Pieris monuste : Gundlach, 1881: 100; Holland, 1916: 496. 

Pieris phileta phileta : Bates, 1935: 116; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 
1945: 17, 22, 23, 51, 184, 193. 

Pontia monuste: J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 72. 

Ascia ( Ascia ) monuste: Field, 138b: 198; Hoffmann, 1940c: 662. 
Ascia monuste: Holland, 1942: 278. 

Ascia monuste eubotea: Comstock, 1943: 3; id., 1944: 529; Beatty, 
1944: 157; J. A. Ramos, 1946: 54; S. L. de la Torre, 1949d: 173. 
Pieris monuste eubotea: Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 268. 
Illustrations. — Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: pi. VI, f. 4, (larva); 
J. H. Comstock, & A. B. Comstock, 1936: pi. XIII, f. 1; Holland, 
1942: pi. XXXV, f. 1, 2; Comstock, 1944, pi. 10, f. 3, 4; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1949d: pi. 5, f 3, 4; id., 1946: pi. 10, f. 20-22, (scales). 

19. ASCIA (ASCIA) MONUSTE PHILETA (Fabridus) 

Papilio phileta Fabridus, 1775. 

Ascia (Ascia) monuste form phileta: Field, 1938b: 198; Hoffmann, 
1940c: 662. 

Ascia monuste dimorphic 2 , phileta: Holland, 1942: 278. 

Ascia monuste phileta: Comstock, 1943: 3; id., 1944: 530; Chermock, 
1946: 144; S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65; id., 1949d: 174. 

This subspecies was reported by the writer in 1949. (See The Lepi- 
dopterists’ News, vol. Ill, No. 6, p. 65, and Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. 
Nat., vol. XIX, p. 174). 

Illustrations. — Holland, 1942: pi. LXVII, f. 16; S. L. de la Torre, 
1949d: pi. 5, f. 5. 

20. ASCIA (ganyra) mencle (Ramsden) 

Pieris menciae Ramsden, 1915: 15; Bates, 1935: 118; Jaume, 1947: 120. 
Ascia (Ganyra) josephina mencicel: Comstock, 1943: 6. 

Ascia mencice: S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 178; id., 1949d: 171. 

Genus Pieris Schrank 

Pieris Schrank, 1801. 

Andropodum Hiibner, 1822. 


Mar., 1954] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


9 


Tachyptera Berge, 1842. 

Genotype: Papilio brassicce Linnaeus, 1758. 

21. * pieris (synchloe) protodice protodice Boisduval & 

Leconte 

Pieris protodice : Clark, 1932: 1 66; Anon. (Aguayo?), 1934: 110; M. 
Sanchez Roig & G. S. Villalba, 1934: 108; id., 1934b: 31; Bates, 
1935: 236; Hoffmann, 1936: 261; id, 1940c: 661; Holland, 1942: 
280; Brown, 1944: 116; Rawson, 1945: 49; Bruner, Scaramuzza 
& Otero, 1945: 22; Garth, 1950: 15. 

Pieris rupee: Anon. (Aguayo?), 1934: 34. 

Pontia protodice protodice: J.H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 73. 
Pieris ( Synchloe ) protodice f. protodice: Field, 1938b: 196. 

Pieris protodice protodice: S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65; id, 1949d: 171. 

In 1933 several specimens of this species were captured by Dr. Mario 
Sanchez Riog and Gaston S. Villalba on the banks of the Almendares 
river, Havana province. (See Memorias Sociedad Cubana de Hist. 
Natural, vol. VIII, p. 108). 

In 1934 Mr. Jose Cabrera collected three specimens more in Cotorro, 
Havana province. ( Memorias Sociedad Cubana de Hist. Natural, vol. 
VIII, p. 34, and p. 110, (errata). 

Illustrations.— Clark, 1932: pi. 29, f. 5-8; Holland, 1942: pi. XXXIV, 
f. 10,11; pi. II, f. 7, (larva); pi. V, f. 66, 67, (pupa), text fig. 26a, 
(larva), 26b, pupa); J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: pi. 
XIII, f. 2, 3, 4; text fig. 27, (venation). 

Genus Appias Hiibner 

Appias Hiibner, 1819. 

Genotype: Papilio zelmira Cramer, 1780. 

22. APPIAS ( GLUTOPHRISSA) DRUSILLA PCEYI Butler 
Appias poeyi Butler, 1872. 

Pieris ilaire : Poey, 1832. 

Pieris poeyi: Gundlach, 1881: 103. 

Tachyris ilaire: Holland, 1916: 496. 

Appias ilaire poeyi: Bates 1935: 119; Jaume, 1947: 122. 

Appias drusilla poeyi: Hall, 1936: 275. 

Appias ( Glutophrissa ) ilaire poeyi: Field, 1938b: 194. 


10 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


Appias {Glutophrissa) drusilla molpadia: D’ Almeida, 1939c: 58; id., 
1945; 233. 

Appias peregrina: D’ Almeida, 1945: 236. 

Appias ( Glutophrissa ) drusilla poeyi: Comstock, 1943b: 2; id., 1944: 
526; Dillon, 1947: 97; S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 179, 180. 
Illustrations. — Poey, 1832: 3 figs, not numbered; D’Almeida, 1939c: 
pi. 3, f. A, C, pi. 4, f. E. 

23. APPIAS (GLUTOPHRISSA) DRUSILLA POEYI /. PEREGRINA Rober 

Appias janeira f. peregrina Rober, 1909. 

Appias peregrina: Bates, 1935: 237; Jaume, 1947: 121; D’Almeida, 
1939c: 62. 

Appias ( Glutophrissa ) drusilla poeyi var. peregrina: Comstock, 
1943b: 3. 

Appias ( Glutophrissa ) drusilla poeyi f. peregrina : S. L. de la Torre, 
1949c: 180. 

Genus Melete Swainson 
Melete Swainson, 1831-32. 

Daptonoura Butler, 1869. 

Genotype: Melete limnobia Swainson, 1831-32 {—Pieris limnoria 

Latreille, 1819). 

According to D’Almeida (1943: 80), the genotype of Daptonoura 
Butler is Papilio flippantha Fabricius, 1793 ( —Papilio lycimnia Cramer, 
illl), being Pieris limnoria, type of the genus Melete, a simple sub- 
species of Papilio lycimnia Cramer. 

24. melete SALACIA cubana Fruhstorfer 
Melete lycimnia cubana Fruhstorfer, 1908. 

Daptonoura salacia: Gundlach, 1881: 105. 

Melete salacia: Bates, 1935: 119, Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 
131, 138; Jaume, 1947: 123. 

Melete salacia cubana: Bates, 1936: 225. 

Illustrations. — Bates, 1935: f. 4, (venation), 5, (profile of head): 
S. L. de la Torre, 1946: pi. 10, f. 16, 17, (scales). 

Genus Eurema Hiibner 

Eurema Hiibner, 1819. 

Terias Swainson, 1821. 


Mar., 1954] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


11 


Sphcenogona Butler, 1870. 

Genotype: Pieris daira Latreille, 1819 ( —Eurema demoditas Hiibner, 
1819. —Papilio delta Cramer, 1780; homonym of Papilio 
delia Schiffermiiller & Denis, 1775). 

25. eurema ( ABAns) nicippe (Cramer) 

Papilio nicippe Cramer, 1779. 

Eurema nicippe: Gundlach, 1881: 82; Klots, 1929: 103, 110, 120, 132, 
147, 155; id., 1948: 51; 1935: 127; J. H. Comstock & A. B. Com- 
stock 1936: 97; Holland, 1942: 301; Bruner, Scaramuzza 8c Otero, 
1945: 32, 33; Avinoff and Shoumatoff, 1946: 269; S. L. de la Torre, 
1946: 104; Garth, 1950: 13. 

Terias nicippe: Holland, 1916: 498; D’ Almeida, 1936: 13; id., 1944d: 
74 

Eurema nicippe nicippe: Clark, 1932: 149. 

Eurema (Terias) nicippe: Hoffmann, 1933: 226. 

Terias (Abaeis) nicippe : D’Almeida, 1936b: 189, 192, 327; id., 1938: 
242. 

Abaeis nicippe: Brown, 1944: 114. 

Eurema ( Pyrisitia ) nicippe: Comstock, 1944: 525. 

Eurema (Abaeis) nicippe: Field, 1938b: 189; Hoffmann, 1940c: 659; 

Munroe, 1947: 3; S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: 10. 
Illustrations.— Klots, 1929: pi. II, f. 36, 37; J. H. Comstock & A. B. 
Comstock, 1936: pi. XV, f. 3, 5; Holland, 1942: pi. XXXVII, f. 3, 
4, 6, pi. II, f. 6, (larva), pi. V, f. 51, 52, (pupa); S. L. de la Torre, 
1946: pi. 10, f. 4-7, (scales); d’Almeida, 1936: pi. 2, f. 1, 6, pi. 8, 
f. 1, 2, (nerviation), pi. 9, f. 4, (genital), pi. 10, f. 2, (genital), 
f. 3, (palp), pi. 14, f. 4, (antenna), pi. 17, f. 2, 8, 12, (legs), 
Clark, 1932, pi. 28, f. 6; Comstock, 1944: pi. 8, f. 5; Klots, 1928: 
pi. II, f. 8, (genital), PI. Ill, f. 15; S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: 
pi. VIII, f. 1, 2, 5, 6. 

26. eurema (pyrisitia) proterpia proterpia (Fabricius) 
Papilio proterpia Fabricius, 1775. 

Eurema proterpia: Gundlach, 1881: 84; Holland, 1942: 301; Avinoff 
& Shoumatoff, 1946: 269. 

Eurema (T erias) proterpia: Hoffmann, 1933: 226. 

Eurema proterpia: Klots, 1929: 104, 106, 107, 137, 147, 159; id., 


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[Vol. LXII 


1948: 51; Bates, 1935: 128; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 105. 

Terias proterpia proterpia: d’Almeida, 1936: 16; id., 1944: 74; Lichy, 
1943: 175. 

Terias ( Pyisitia ) proterpia proterpia : d’Almeida, 1936b: 192, 328; id., 
1938: 242. 

Eurema ( Pyrisitia ) proterpia: Hoffmann, 1940c: 659. 

Pyrisitia proterpia: Brown, 1944: 112. 

Eurema ( Pyrisitia ) proterpia proterpia: S. L. de la Torre & Alayo; 
1953: 11. 

Illustrations.— Holland, 1942: pi. XXXVII, f. 2; Klots, 1929 pi. Ill, 
f. 68, 69; id., 1928: pi. Ill, f. 14, (genital), f. 18, (venation); 
Bates, 1935: f. 6, (venation); S. L. de la Torre, 1946: pi. 10, f. 9, 
(scales); d’Almeida, 1936: pi. 2, f. 4, 5, pi. 7, f. 1, 2, (venation); 
pi. 9, f. 5, (genital), pi. II, f. 1, (genital); S. L. de la Torre & 
Alayo, 1953: pi. I, figs. 1, 2, 5, 6. 

27. EUREMA (PYRISITIA) PROTERPIA PROTERPIA /. GUNDLACHIA 
(Poey) 

Terias gundlachia Poey, 1853. 

Eurema gundlachia: Gundlach, 1881: 85; Klots, 1929, 104, 106, 
137, 145, 159, 160; id., 1948: 51; Bates, 1935: 129; Holland, 1942: 
300; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 105. 

Terias gundlachia gundlachia: d’Almeida, 1936: 21; id., 1944d: 75. 
Terias ( Pyrisitia ) gundlachia gundlachia: d’Almeida, 1936b: 192, 329. 
Eurema ( Pyrisitia ) gundlachia: Hoffmann, 1940c: 659. 

Eurema longicauda: Holland, 1942: 300. 

Terias proterpia gundlachia: Lichy, 1943: 175. 

Pyrisitia gundlachia: Brown, 1944: 111. 

Eurema ( Pyrisitia ) proterpia proterpia f. gundlachia: S. L. de la Torre 
& Alayo, 1953: 12. 

Illustrations.— Klots, 1929: pi. Ill, f. 72, 73; Holland, 1942: pi. 
LXXIII, f. 25, pi. XXXVII, f. 1, (=E. longicauda) ; d’Almeida, 
1936: pi. 2, f. 3, 9, pi. 9, f. 7, (genital), pi. 10, f. 6, (palp), pi. 
11, f. 2. (genital), pi. 17, f. 3, (legs); S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 
1953: pi. I, f. 3, 4, 7, 8. 

28. EUREMA (PYRISITIA) DINA DINA (Poey) 

Terias dina Poey, 1832; Holland, 1916: 498. 


Mar., 1954] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


13 


Eurema dina: Gundlach, 1881: 86. 

Eurema dina dina: Klots, 1929: 105, 119, 139, 144, 160; id., 1948: 51; 

Bates, 1935: 130, (part); Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 139. 
Terias ( Pyrisitia ) dina dina: d’Almeida, 1936b: 194, 216; id., 1944d: 
79. 

Eurema ( Pyrisitia ) dina dina: Comstock, 1944: 525; S. L. de la 
Torre & Alayo, 1953: 13. 

Illustrations. — Poey, 1832: 2 figs, not numbered; Klots, 1929: pi. Ill, 
f. 79; d’Almeida, 1936b: pi. 5, f. 3, (genital), pi. 9, f. 7, (genital), 
pi. 13, f. 20, pi. 15, f. 7, pi. 16, f. 7; S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 
1953: pi. II, f. 1, 2, 6, 7. 

29. EUREMA (PYRISITIA) DINA DINA /. CITRINA (Poey) 

Terias citrina Poey, 1853; Holland, 1916: 498. 

Eurema citrina: Gundlach, 1881: 87. 

Eurema dina f. 9 citrina: Klots, 1929: 105, 118, 119, 139, 144, 160. 
Eurema dina dina: Bates, 1935: 130. (Part.) 

Terias ( Pyrisitia ) dina citrina: d’Almeida, 1936b: 194. 

Terias ( Pyrisitia ) dina dina , var. i: d’Almeida, 1936b: 218; id., 1938: 
232. 

Terias dina var. citrina: d’Almeida, 1944d: 79. 

Eurema ( Pyrisitia ) dina citrina: S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65. 

Eurema ( Pyrisitia ) dina dina f. citrina: S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 
1953: 13. 

This is the winter form of E. dina dina. 

Illustrations. — Klots, 1929: pi. Ill, f. 80; d’Almeida, 1936b: pi. 12, 
f. 5; S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: pi. II, f. 3, 4, 8, 9. 

30. eurema (pyrisitia) laras ( Herrich-Schaf f er) 

Terias larce Herrich-Schaffer, 1862: 120 

Eurema larce: Gundlach, 1881: 88; Bates, 1936: 226; Bruner, Scara- 
muzza & Otero, 1945: 175; Munroe, 1947: 4; id., 1950: 175. 
Eurema ( Pyrisitia ) larce : S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: 14. 
Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: pi. Ill, f. 1, 2, 7, 8. 

31. EUREMA (pyrisitia) laras f. ricardi s. l. Torre & Alayo 
Eurema {Pyrisitia) larce f. ricardi S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: 15. 
Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, pi. Ill, f. 3, 4, 9, 10. 


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[Vol. LXI1 


This is the summer form of E. lane, which was described by Dr. S. 
L. de la Torre and P. Alayo in 1953. (See Bull. Orte. Dpto. Ext. y 
Rel. Cult., No. 27) 

32. eurema (pyrisitia) neda (Latreille) 

Pieris neda Latreille, 1819. 

Eurema nise perimede: Klots, 1929: 105, 119, 140, 147, 162; id.. 
1948: 51. 

Eurema nise : Bates, 1935: 129; Bruner, 1947: 25. 

Eerias ( Pyrisitia ) neda: d’Almeida, 1936b: 196, 239; id., 1938: 234; 
id., 1944d: 82. 

Eurema { Pyrisitia :) neda : S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: 16. 
Illustrations.— Klots, 1929: pi. IV, f. 93, 94; d’Almeida, 1936b: pi. 
2, f. 1, (genital), pi. 4, f. 2, (genital) pi. 9, f. 4, (genital), pi. 13, 
f. 15, 16, pi. 16, f. 8; S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: pi HI, f. 
5, 6, 11, 12. 

33. * eurema (pyrisitia) nise (Cramer) 

Papilio nise Cramer, 1775: 31. 

Eurema venusta : Klots, 1929: 141. 

Eerias nise: d’Almeida, 1936: 244; id., 1938: 234; id., 1944d: 82. 
Eurema venusta venusta: Dillon, 1947: 100. 

Eurema nise: Munroe, 1950: 180. 

Eurema { Pyrisitia ) nise: S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: 16. 
Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: pi. II, f. 5, 10, 

Mr. J. Cabrera collected two specimens of this species in Pinar del 
Rio province (1910), which are in Chas. T. Ramsden’s Museum 
of the University of Oriente, in Santiago de Cuba. This new record 
was reported by Dr. Salvador L. de la Torre and Pastor Alayo in 1953. 

34. eurema (pyrisitia) lisa euterpe (Menetries) 

Colias euterpe Menetries, 1832. 

Eurema lisa: Gundlach, 1881: 89; Bates, 1935: 130; Dethier, 1940: 21. 
Eerias euterpe: Holland, 1916: 499. 

Etirema lisa euterpe: Klots, 1929: 105, 116, 138, 145, 160; Avinoff 
& Shoumatoff, 1946: 271. 

Eerias {Pyrisitia) euterpe: d’Almeida, 1936b: 193, 251; id., 1938: 
234; id., 1944d: 83. 

Eurema {Pyrisitia) lisa euterpe: Comstock, 1944: 523; Beatty, 1944: 


Mar., 1954] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


15 


157; J. A. Ramos, 1946: 53; S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: 17. 
D’Almeida does not divide this species into subspecies, consider- 
ing the species of Cuba and Haiti similar to those of the mainland. 

Comstock, however, finds sufficient differences between the two 
to justify its separation into subspecies. 

D’Almeida (1936b: 256, 257) called pauperata to a variety of his 
Terias euterpe, characterized by being smaller and lighter; which 
inhabits Cuba, (See pi. 12, f. 3). 

Illustrations. — Bates, 1935: f. 7, (profile of head); S. L. de la Torre, 
1946: pi. 10, f. 1-3, (scales); Klots, 1929: pi. HI, f. 78; d’Almeida, 
1936b: pi. 6, f. 4. (genital), pi. 12, f. 3, (var. pauperata) , f. 10, 
pi. 14, f. 10, pi. 16, f. 10; Comstock, 1944: pi. 9, f. 24; Klots, 
1928: pi. 12, (genital), f. 17, (venation); S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 
1953: pi. IV, f. 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9. 

35. EUREMA (PYRISITIA) MESSALINA MESSALINA (Fabricius) 
Papilio messalina Fabricius, 1787. 

Eurema messalina: Gundlach, 1881: 98; Klots, 1929: 103, 114, 115, 
116, 131, 147, 155, 156; id., 1948: 51; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 
1946: 269. 

Eurema messalina messalina: Bates, 1935: 126; Bruner, Scaramuzza 
& Otero, 1945: 66. 

Terias ( Pyrisitia ) messalina messalina: d’ Almeida, 1936b: 198, 262; 
id., 1938: 235; id., 1944d: 85. 

Eurema {Pyrisitia) messalina messalina: S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 
1953: 18. 

Illustrations.— Klots, 1929: pi. II, f. 41, 42; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 
pi. 10, f. 11, 12, (scales); d’Almeida, 1936b: pi. 8, f. 11, (genital), 
pi. 12, f. 2, pi. 13, f. 7, pi. 18, f. 4; S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 
1953, pi. IV, f. 6, 12, (winter form). 

36. EUREMA (PYRISITIA) MESSALINA MESSALINA f. GNATHENE 
( Boisduval ) 

Terias gnathene Boisduval, 1836. 

Eurema messalina: Gundlach, 1881: 98 (in part). 

Eurema messalina messalina : Bates, 1935: 126 (in part). 

Terias {Pyrisitia) messalina messalina var. f: d’Almeida, 1936b: 264. 
Eurema {Pyrisitia) messalina messalina f. gnathene: S. L. de la 


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[Vol. LXII 


Torre & Alayo, 1953: 19. 

Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: pi. IV, f. 4, 5, 10, 11. 
This is the summer form of E. messalina messalina. 

37. EUREMA (eurema) lucina lucina (Poey) 

Terias lucina Poey, 1853; Holland, 1916: 499. 

Eurema lucina: Gundlach, 1881: 95; Bates, 1935: 124; Bruner, Sca- 
ramuzza & Otero, 1945: 177. 

Eurema lucina f. lucina: Klots, 1929: 102, 113, 123, 146, 150. 

Terias ( Eurema ) lucina lucina: d Almeida, 1936b: 205, 226; id., 
1944d: 85. 

Eurema (Eurema) lucina lucina : S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: 19. 
Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre, 1946: pi. 10, f. 8, (scales); Klots, 
1929: pi. I, f. 1; id.; 1928: pi. II, f. 4, (genital); dAlmeida, 1936b: 
pi. 12, f. 1; pi. 16, f. 14; S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: pi. IV, 
f. 1, 2, 6, 7. 

38. EUREMA (EUREMA) LUCINA LUCINA /. FORNSI (Poey) 

Terias fornsi Poey, 1854. 

Eurema fornsi: Gundlach, 1881: 96. 

Eurema lucina form fornsi: Klots, 1929: 102, 113, 123, 145, 150. 
Eurema priddyi forbesi: Klots, 1929: 102, 115, 123, 124, 145, 150. 
Terias (Eurema) lucina fornsi: dAlmeida, 1936b: 205, 267; id., 
1944d: 85. 

Eurema (Eurema) lucina lucina f. fornsi: S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 
1953: 20. 

Ilustrations. — Klots, 1929: pi. I, f. 2, (form fornsi ), f. 4, 5, (form 
priddyi forbesi); dAlmeida, 1936b: pi. 8, f. 14, (genital); pi. 12, 
f. 4; pi. 18, f. 6; S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: pi. IV, f. 3, 4, 8, 9: 
This is the winter form of E. lucina lucina. 

39. eurema (eurema) conjungens ( Herrich-Schaf f er) 

Terias conjungens Herrich-Schaf fer, 1864. 

Eurema conjungens: Gundlach, 1881: 97. 

Eurema (Eurema) conjungens-. S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: 20. 
Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: pi. V, f. 5. 

Mr. P. Alayo has one specimen of this species collected in Oriente 
province. 


Mar., 1954] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


17 


40. EUREMA (EUREMA) DAIRA PALMIRA (Poey) 

Terias palmira Poey, 1851. 

Terias albina Poey, 1851. 

Eurema palmira: Gundlach, 1881: 92; Klots, 1948: 52 and 112, 
(errata). 

Eurema albina: Gundlach 1881: 94. 

Eurema palmyra palmyra: Klots, 1929: 102, 113, 126, 147, 151. 
Eurema palymra: Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 270. 

Eurema daira palmira: Bates, (in part), 1935: 125; id., 1939: 2; 

d’Almeida, 1944d: 86; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 9, 66. 
Terias daira palmyra: Hall, 1936: 275. 

Terias (Eurema) jucunda palmira: d’Almeida, 1936b: 208, 273; id., 
1938: 235; id, 1944d; 85. 

Eurema ( Eurema ) palmira palmira: Comstock, 1944: 519: J. A. Ramos, 
1946: 53. 

Eurema ( Eurema ) daira palmira : S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: 21. 
Illustrations.— Klots, 1929: pi. I, f. 11; d’Almeida, 1936b: pi. 15, f. 
10, 11; Comstock, 1944: pi. 9, f. 26; S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 
1953: pi. VI, f. 1, 2, 5, 6. 

41. EUREMA (EUREMA) DAIRA PALMIRA f. EBRIOLA (Poey) 
Terias ebriola Poey, 1851. 

Eurema jucunda: Gundlach, 1881: 94, (not Boisduval & Leconte). 
Eurema daira ebriola: Klots, 1929: 103, 113, 126, 144, 152. 

Eurema daira palmira: Bates, 1935: 125, (in part). 

Terias (Eurema) daira ebriola: d’Almeida, 1936b: 211, 214, 280; id, 
1944d: 86. 

Eurema (Eurema) daira ebriola: Comstock, 1944: 520; Beatty, 1944: 
157; S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65. 

Eurema ebriola: Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 271; Klots, 1948: 52 
Eurema (Eurema) daira palmira f. ebriola: S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 
1953: 21. 

Illustrations. — Klots, 1929: pi. I, f. 19, 20; d’ Almeida, 1936b: pi. 7, 
f. 2, (genital), pi. 8, f. 7, 13, (genital), pi. 14, f. 7, pi. 15, f. 3; 
Comstock, 1944: pi. 9, f. 25: Klots, 1928: pi. II, f. 5, (genital); 
S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: pi. VI, f, 3, 4, 7, 8. This is 
the winter form of E. daira palmira. 


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[Vol. LXII 


42. EUREMA (EUREMA) ELATHEA ELATHEA (Cramer) 

Papilio elathea Cramer, 1777. 

Eurema elathea: Gundlach, 1881: 91; Bates, 1935: 126; Avinoff & 
Shoumatoff, 1946: 271; Klots, 1948: 52; Munroe, 1951: 55. 
Terias elathea: Holland, 1916: 499; Hall, 1936: 275. 

Eurema elathea f. elathea: Klots, 1929: 103, 111, 128, 152. 

Eurema (Terias) elathea: Hoffmann, 1933: 226. 

Terias (Eurema) elathea elathea: d’Almeida, 1936b: 211, 213, 285, 
299; id., 1938: 235; id, 1944d: 87; Berger, 1939: 190. 

Terias (Eurema) lye d’Almeida, 1936b: 212, 284; id, 1944d: 86. 
Eurema (Eurema) elathea: Comstock, 1944: 521; Beatty, 1944: 157. 
Eurema (Eurema) elathea elathea: S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: 22. 

D’Almeida in his "Segunda nota suplementar a "Revisao das Terias 
Americanas”, ( 1944d: 86), admits that his Terias lye does not seem 
to be a good species, placing it as a synonym of Eurema elathea and 
not of E. daira palmira as done by Bates (1939: 2). 

Illustrations. — Klots, 1929: pi. 1, f. 21, 22; d’Almeida, 1936b: pi. 11, 
f. 1, pi. 13, f. 6, pi. 15, f. 1, (T. lye); Comstock, 1944: pi. 9, f. 23; 
text fig. 22, (venation); S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: pi. VII, 
f. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8. 

43. EUREMA (EUREMA) ELATHEA ELATHEA /. CUBANA (Herrich- 
Schaffer) 

Terias cub ana Herrich-Schaffer, 1864. 

Eurema cub ana: Gundlach, 1881: 90. 

Eurema palmyra palmyra: Klots (in part), 1929: 102, 126. 

Eurema daira palmira: Bates, 1935: 125, (in part). 

Terias elathea var. c-male and var. n-female; d’Almeida, 1936b: 288, 
289. 

Eurema (Eurema) palmira palmira: Comstock (in part), 1944: 519. 
Eurema (Eurema) elathea cubana: S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65. 
Eurema (Eurema) elathea elathea f. cubana: S. L. de la Torre & 
Alayo, 1953: 23. 

William P. Comstock places to Terias cubana in the synonym of 
his E. (Eurema) palmira palmira; d’Almeida places it in the synonym 
of Terias elathea. We think that Terias cubana is a seasonal form 
of this species. 


Mar., 1954] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


19 


Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: pi. VII, f. 4, 5, 9, 10. 

44. EUREMA (EUREMA) AMELIA (Poey) 

Terias amelia Poey, 1853; Holland, 1916: 499. 

Eurema amelia: Gundlach, 1881: 98; Klots, 1929: 104, 110, 136, 143, 
154; Bates, 1935: 128. 

Terias (Eurema) amelia: d Almeida, 1936b: 204, 307; id., 1944d: 88. 
Eurema ( Eurema ) amelia: S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: 24. 
Illustrations. — Klots, 1929: pi. II, f. 33; d’Almeida, 1936b: pi. 8, 
f. 16, (genital), pi. 14, f. 22; Klots, 1928: pi. II, f. 2, (genital); 
S. L. de la Torre & Alayo, 1953: pi V, f. 10. 

45. eurema (eurema) boisduvaliana (Felder & Felder) 
Terias boisduvaliana Felder & Felder, 1865; d’Almeida, 1936: 41; id., 

1944d: 77. 

Eurema boisduvaliana: Klots, 1929: 104, 107, 108, 133, 143, 157; 

id., 1948: 51; Bates, 1935: 127; Brown 1944: 109; Bruner, 1947: 25. 
Terias (Eurema) boisduvaliana: d’Almeida, 1936b: 201, 202, 307, 332. 
Eurema (Eurema) boisduvaliana: Hoffmann, 1940c: 658; S. L. de 
la Torre & Alayo, 1953: 25. 

Illustrations. — Klots, 1929: pi. II, f. 51, 52; S. L. de la Torre & 
Alayo, 1953: pi. VIII, f. 3, 4, 7, 8. 

Genus Phoebis Hiibner 

Phoebis Hiibner, 1819. 

Callidryas Boisduval & Leconte, 1829. 

Metura Butler, 1873; preoccupied in the family Psychidce. 

Aphrissa Butler, 1873. 

Rhabdodryas Godman & Salvin, 1889. 

Parura Kirby, 1896, (for Metura). 

Prestonia Schaus, 1920. 

Genotype: Papilio argante Fabricius, 1775 (=Papilio cipris Cramer, 
1777). 

46. PHCEBIS ( phcebis) senn/e SENN7E (Linnaeus) 

Papilio sennce Linnaeus, 1758. 

Catopsilia eubule: Gundlach, 1881: 115; Holland, 1916: 496; Hall, 
1936: 275. 


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[Vol. LXII 


Phoebis eubule sennce: Brown, 1929: 8; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946; 
272. 

Phoebis eubule sennce f. $ sennalba Brown, 1929: 8. 

Phoebis sennce sennce: Bates, 1935: 133; Field, 1938b: 185; d’Almeida, 
1940; 70; id., 1944b: 2; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 31-33; 
S. L. de la Torre, 1946b: 109, 111, 120; Munroe, 1951: 56. 
Phoebis eubule sennce?: Schweizer, 1941: 9. 

Phoebis ( Phoebis ) sennce sennce: Comstock, 1944: 505; Beatty, 1944: 
157; J. A. Ramos, 1946: 53. 

Illustrations. — Brown 1929: f. 8-10, (genital); Comstock, 1944: pi. 
8, f. 6; d’Almeida, 1940: pi. 1, f. 3, (genital), pi. 3, f. 3, 5, pi. 4, 
f. 5-7, pi. 6, f. 2, 10, 12, pi. 9, f. 1, pi. 11, f. 6, (larva), 8, 10, (pupa). 

47. PHCEBIS (PHCEBIS) PHILEA THALESTRIS (Illiger) 

Papilio Danaus thalestris Illiger, 1801. 

Catopsilia thalestris: Gundlach, 1881: 107; id., 1891: 449. 

Phoebis philea thalestris: Brown, 1929: 11; Bates, 1935: 134; d’Almeida, 
1940: 117; id., 1944b: 10; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 32. 
William P. Comstock (1944: 510) considers Phoebis philea as a 
distinct species of Phoebis thalestris, and says that both species "occur 
together in Cuba”. 

Illustrations. — Brown, 1929: f. 14-16, (genital); d’Almeida, 1940: 
pi. 3, f. 8, pi. 5, f. 6, pi. 8, f. 4, pi. 9, f. 5, Comstock, 1944: 
pi. 10, f. 14, (Phoebis philea (Johansson)). 

48. PHCEBIS (PHCEBIS) Avellaneda (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Callidryas avellaneda Herrich-Schaffer, 1864. 

Catopsilia avellaneda: Gundlach, 1881: 109. 

Phoebis avellaneda: Brown, 1929: 11; Bates, 1935: 134; d’Almeida, 
1940: 120; id., 1944b: 10. 

Illustrations. — Brown, 1929: f. 17-19, (genital); d’Almeida, 1940: 
pi. 1, f. 9, (genital), pi. 2, f. 7, (genital), pi. 5, f. 1, pi. 7, f. 2, 
pi. 8, f. 1, pi. 10, f. 1; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: pi. 10, f. 25, (scales). 

49. PHCEBIS (PHCEBIS) ARGANTE MINUSCULA (Butler) 

Callidryas minus cula Butler, 1869. 

Catopsilia argante: Gundlach, 1881: 110. 

Phoebis argante rorata: Brown, 1929: 13; Bates, 1935: 135. 


Mar., 1954] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


21 


Phoebis ( P hoe bis ) argante f. $ clarki: Hoffmann, 1940c: 657 
Phoebis argante argante: d’Almeida, 1940: 89, 103; id., 1944b: 6. 
Phoebis ( Phoebis ) argante minuscula: Comstock, 1944: 508; S. L. de 
la Torre, 1952: 61. 

The subspecies rorata is of the Hispaniola and possibly it can be 
found in Cuba, according to Comstock. 

Illustrations. — Brown, 1929: f. 23-25, (genital); d’Almeida, 1940: pi. 
1, f. 4, (genital), pi. 2, f. 1, (venation), f. 8-10, (legs), f. 13, 
(genital), f. 14, (antenna), f. 15, (palp), pi. 3, f. 2, (f. albante); 
f. 6, 7, pi. 4, f. 1, 4, pi. 5, f. 3, pi. 6, f. 3, 4, 6, 8, 11, pi. 
7, f. 3, pi. 11, f. 5, (larva), f. 7, 9, (pupa); S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 
pi. 10, f. 31-35, (scales). 

50. PHOEBIS ( PHCEBIS) AGARITHE ANTILLIA Brown 

Phoebis agarithe antiilia Brown, 1929: 15; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 
1946: 273; Dillon, 1947: 98; L. Vazquez, 1948b: 472. 

Catopsilia agarithe: Gundlach, 1881: 111. 

Catopsilia agarithe fornax: Holland, 1916: 497. 

Phoebis agarithe agarithe: Bates, 1935: 135. 

Phoebis agarithe antillea: d’Almeida, 1940: 107. 

Phoebis ( Phoebis ) agarithe antiilia: Comstock, 1944: 509; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1952: 65. 

Illustrations. — Brown, 1929: f. 20-22, (genital); Comstock, 1944: pi. 
10, f. 9; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: pi. 10, f. 26-28, (scales). 

51. phcebis ( aphrissa) statira cubana d’Almeida 
Aphrissa statira cubana d’Almeida, 1939b: 432. 

Catopsilia statira'. Gundlach, 1881: 118; id., 1891: 449. 

Catopsilia neleis: Holland, 1916: 497. 

Phoebis statira jada: Bates, 1935: 136. 

Phoebis statira cubana: Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 273. 

Phoebis (Aphrissa) statira cubana: Comstock, 1944: 513; Munroe, 
1947: 2; S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 183. 

According to d’Almeida, jada is merely a simple form of statira 
statira, which inhabits the mainland. 

Illustrations. — Brown, 1929: f. 5-7, (genital); d’Almeida, 1939b: pi. 
6, f. 6; Comstock, 1944: pi. 10, f. 11; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: pi. 
10, f. 29, 30, (scales) 


22 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


52. phcebis ( aphrissa) neleis (Boisduval) 

Callidryas neleis Boisduval, 1836 
Catopsilia neleis: Gundlach, 1881: 117. 

Catopsilia edit ha?: Holland, 1916: 498. 

Phoebis neleis: Bates, 1935: 137; Munroe, 1947: 2. 

Aphrissa neleis neleis: d’Almeida, 1939b: 433. 

Phoebis ( Aphrissa ) neleis: Comstock, 1944: 513; S. L. de la Torre, 
1949c: 183. 

We separate statira from neleis because the genitals of those species 
offer great differences. 

Illustrations. — d’Almeida, 1939b: pi. 5, f. 19, 20, (genital), pi 6, 
f. 3-5. 

53. PHCEBIS (APHRISSA) ORBIS ORBIS (Poey) 

Callidryas orbis Poey, 1832. 

Catopsilia orbis: Gundlach, 1881: 113. 

Catopsillia dry a: Holland, 1916: 497. 

Phoebis orbis: Bates, 1935: 138. 

Aphrissa orbis: d’Almeida, 1939b: 438. 

Phoebis ( Aphrissa ) orbis orbis: Munroe, 1947: 1; S. L. de la Torre, 
1949c: 183, 184. 

Illustrations. — d’Almeida, 1939b: pi. 5, f. 12, 15, 17, (genital), pl.7, 
f. 1, 2, pi. 8, f. 4, 8; Poey, 1832: 5 figs, not numbered. 


Genus Anteos Hiibner 

Anteos Hiibner, 1819. 

Amynthia Swainson, 183 1. 

Genotype: Papilio mcerula Fabricius, 1775. 

The genotype of Gonepteryx (*) is Papilio rhamni Linnaeus, 1758; 
the only species cited of that genus. 


1 Gonepteryx Leach, 1815. 

Gonoptera Billberg, 1820. 

Rhodocera Boisduval & Leconte, 1833. 
Goniapteryx Westwood, 1840. 
Gonioptera Wallengren, 1853. 


Mar., 1954 ] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


23 


54. ANTEOS M/ERULA M/ERULA (Fabfidus) 

Papilio mcerula Fabricius, 1775. 

Gonepteryx mcerula: Gundlach, 1881: 119. 

Anteos mcerula mcerula: Bates, 1935: 139; Comstock, 1944: 502; 

Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 32. 

Anteos mcerula: Field, 1938b: 183; d’Almeida, 1938b: 575; id., 1945: 
230; Hoffmann, 1940c: 656; Brown, 1944: 103; Avinoff & Shoumat- 
off, 1946: 274. 

Illustrations. — d’Almeida, 1938b: pi. 1, f. 1, (venation), f. 9, (genital), 
pi. 3, f. 1, 2; Comstock, 1944: pi. 8, f. 7. 

55. anteos clorinde (Godart) 

Colias clorinde Godart, 1823. 

Anteos clorinde nivifera: Bates, 1935: 139; Dethier, 1940: 17; Coms- 
tock, 1944: 503. 

Anteos clorinde : Field, 1938b: 183; d’Almeida, 1938b: 572; id., 1945: 
229; Hoffmann 1940c: 656; Brown, 1944: 102; S. L. de la Torre, 
1952: 63. 

Gonepteryx clorinde: Holland, 1942: 290 

Anteos clorinde clorinde: Schweizer, 1941: 10; Comstock, 1944: 503- 
Illustrations. — d’Almeida, 1938b: pi. 1, f. 2-4, (legs), f. 7, 8, (genital), 
f. 10, (palp), f. 11, (antenna), f. 12, (genital), pi. 2, f. 1; Holland, 
1942: pi. LXXI, f. 11; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: pi. 10, f. 23, 24, 
(scales). 


Genus Kricogonia Reakirt 

Kricogonia Reakirt, 1863. 

Genotype: Colias lyside Latreille, 1819. 

56. KRICOGONIA LYSIDE (Latreille) 

Colias lyside Latreille (not Godart), 1819. (See Brown, 1941: 132). 
Kricogonia lyside: Gundlach, 1881: 120; Bates, 1935: 141; Field, 
1938b: 187; Hoffmann, 1940c: 658; Brown, 1944: 106; Comstock, 
1944: 517; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 272. 

Kricogonia lyside form S terissa: Field, 1938b: 187. 

Kricogonia lyside ab. unicolor: Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 272. 


24 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


Illustrations.— Holland, 1942: pi. XXXIV, f. 20, 21; Comstock, 1944: 
text figs. 20, 21, (venations), pi. 10, f. 8. 

57. kricogonia cabrerai Ramsden 

Kricogonia cabrerai Ramsden, 1920: 259; id., 1922: 211; Bates, 1935: 
141. 

William P. Comstock supposes that Kricogonia cabrerai Ramsden 
can be a subspecies of Kricogonia castalia (Fabricius). See Insects of 
Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, 1944: 515). 

Subfamily Coliadince 
Genus Zerene Hiibner 

Zerene Hiibner, 1819. 

Me gono stoma Reakirt, 1863. 

Me gano stoma Kirby, 1871. 

Genotype: Papilio cesonia Stoll, 1790. 

58. ZERENE CESONIA CESONIA (Stoll) 

Papilio cesonia Stoll. 1790. 

Meganostoma cesonia: Gundlach, 1881: 105; Hoffmann, 1936: 261. 
Zerene ccesonia: Showalter, 1927: 109; Fazzini, 1934: 42; J. H. Com- 
stock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 90; Hoffmann, 1940c: 656; Holland, 
1942: 292; Brown, 1944: 102; Garth, 1950: 13; Vazquez, 1953: 257. 
Zerene ccesonia ccesonia: Clark, 1932: 251. 

Zerene cesonia cesonia: Bates, 1935: 141. 

Colias (Zerene) ccesonia: Field, 1938b: 182. 

Illustrations. — Showalter, 1927: pi. IV, f. 9; Clark, 1932: pi. 28, f. 5; 
Fazzini, 1934: p. 42, fig. not numbered; J. H. Comstock & A. B. 
Comstock, 1936: pi. XVII, f. 5, 6; Holland, 1942: pi. XXXVI, f. 3, 4. 

Genus Nathalis Boisduval 

Nathalis Boisduval, 1836. 

Genotype ‘.Nathalis iole Boisduval, 1836. 

59. NATHALIS IOLE Boisduval 

Nathalis iole Boisduval, 1836; Hoffman, 1933: 227; id., 1940c: 659; 
Bates 1935: 142; J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 86; 


Mar., 1954] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


25 


Dethier, 1940: 19; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1941: 309; id., 1946: 271; 
Holland, 1942: 283; Brown, 1944: 114; Garth, 1950: 14; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1951b: 89. 

Nathalis jole : Gundlach, 1881: 99; Hoffmann, 1936: 261. 

Nathalis iole f. iole: Field, 1938b: 193. 

Illustrations. — J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: pi. XV, f. 4, 6; 
Holland, 1942: pi. XXXII, f. 21, 22; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: pi. 10, 
f. 13-15, (scales); id, 1951b: pi. XLIV, f. 1. 

60. nathalis iole /. alayoi S. L. de la Torre 
Nathalis iole f. alayoi S. L. de la Torre, 1951b: 89. 

This form was described by the writer in 1951 (See Memorias de 
la Sociedad Cubana de Hist. Nat, vol. XX, pp. 89-92). 

Illustrations. — S. L. de la Torre, 1951b: pi. XLIV, f. 2. 

Subfamily Dismorphiince 

Genus Dismorphia Hiibner 

Dismorphia Hiibner, 1816. 

Leptalis Dalman, 1823. 

Hemerocharis Boisduval, 1836. 

Genotype: Papilio laia Cramer, 1779. 

61. DISMORPHIA cubana ( Herrich-Schaf fer) 

Leptalis cubana Herrich-Schaf fer), 1862 

Dismorphia cubana: Gundlach, 1881: 81; Bates, 1935: 143. 
Illustrations. — Bates, 1935: f. 8, (venation); S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 
pi. 10, f. 18, 19, (scales). 


(TO BE CONTINUED) 


26 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXI1 


GIBBIUM PSYLLOIDES CZEMPINSKI IN KENTUCKY 

A note published in this Journal (Vol. 61 ( 2) : 92,1953) by Harry 
B. Weiss reported the collection of this species in Trenton, N.J. 
on carpets. Weiss calls attention to the small number of references 
to this beetle in the literature of American economic entomology 
and thinks it desirable to have additional locality records in the lit- 
erature. His comments prompted the writer to publish this note. 

In the insect collections of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment 
Station are specimens of this species with definite Kentucky locality 
records as follows: Lexington, December 23, 1940, from feed sample, 
1 specimen, James Rose- collector. Middlesborough, May, 1942, nu- 
merous specimens, Anderson Wood- collector. Mr. Wood collected 
a number of his specimens crawling in a bath tub and on a tile wall 
near the tub. They were suspected of breeding in the tub drain 
but this was not definitely established. Specimens were also found 
crawling on woolen materials in a nearby clothes closet. There was 
no proof of their feeding. Live specimens sent to the Experiment 
Station readily ate timothy seed and particles of dried insect speci- 
mens. Tompkinsville, July 29, 1946, 7 specimens, taken in a dwel- 
ling. Maysville, November 20, 1953, 3 specimens, taken in the 
attic of a dwelling. In these instances the beetles attracted attention 
by their presence and not because of damage done. — Lee H. 
Townsend, College of Agriculture and Home Economics, University 
of Kentucky, Lexington. 


Mar., 1954] 


Battista : Metabolism 


27 


CHANGES IN THE FAT CONTENT OF THE JAPANESE 
BEETLE ( POPILLI A JAPONICA NEWMAN) 

DURING METAMORPHOSIS. 

By Guido W. Battista 
Department of Biology, Fordham University 1 

Lipid metabolism has been the subject of much investigation for 
many years. In the past, studies have been confined chiefly to the 
vertebrates, although some work has been done on various forms 
of the invertebrates. Wilber and Bayors (1947) made a study of 
several marine annelids and reported a wide variation in total lipids 
and postulated an apparent ratio of these lipids to each other. They 
indicated a direct relationship between the concentration of choles- 
terol and that of phospholipids. They stated that cholesterol may 
be a tissue constituent in the annelids, as reported for the verte- 
brates by Bloor (1943). 

Some work has been done on the fractionation of lipids in insects. 
Bergmann (1934) reported on the chrysalis oil of the silkworm, 
Bombyx mori. His figures show that 33 per cent of the unsaponifi- 
able fraction is made up of sterols, of which 85 per cent is cholesterol. 
However, the unsaponifiable fraction is only 1.5 per cent of the total 
lipids. In the grasshopper, Melanoplus atlanis, according to Giral 
(1946), the free fatty acids make up 74.4 per cent of the total lipids, 
and the unsaturated predominate over the saturated fatty acids. Finkel, 
( 1948) observed that the fat content for the five day old larvae of the 
mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, was 7.79 per cent of the wet weight, 
whereas in 200 day old larvae, this value increased to 17.4 per cent. 
The phospholipids for this same period were found to decline from 
2.06 to 0.81 per cent of the wet weight. The explanation for this 
relationship may be, as pointed out by Levenbook (1951), that 
energy is better stored in the fatty acids of the relatively stable 
triglyceride than the more soluble phospholipids. Levenbook (1951) 

1 Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy at Fordham University. 

The author wishes to express sincerest gratitude for the stimulation, in- 
terest and critical guidance of Dr. Daniel Ludwig. 


28 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


observed in the tracheal cells of the horse bot fly Gastrophilus 
intestinalis larva, a great amount of phospholipid at the beginning 
of the third instar. During the metamorphosis of the blowfly, 
Calliphora erythrocephala, Levenbook (1953) reported no major 
changes in lipid phosphorus. 

The role of lipids in intermediary metabolism during insect meta- 
morphosis has been sadly neglected. Frew (1929) found no change 
in the fat content during the first part of the pupal stage of the 
blowfly (species not given) although a decrease was observed in 
the latter stages. During the life cycle of the tent caterpillar, 
Malacosoma americana, Rudolfs (1926) found that the percentage 
of ether-soluble materials increased during development, and at an 
accelerated rate, during the first part of metamorphosis. This increase 
was followed by a gradual decrease during the latter part of this 
period. Evans (1932) observed that at 17°C a rapid decrease oc- 
curred in the fatty acids of the blowfly, Lucilia sericata, up to the 
eighth day after the larva has stopped feeding, when it decreased 
more slowly until about the tenth day. At this point he found a 
definite increase in the fatty acids and later another peak in this 
synthesis at the fourteenth day. He believed that this latter peak 
was associated with the onset of histogenesis. Becker (1934) showed 
a gradual decrease in the fat content during metamorphosis of the 
mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, although the fats of specific organs, 
which persist into the imago, remained constant. Using the same 
species, Evans (1934) observed that very little fat is consumed dur- 
ing metamorphosis, but the beginning and end of this period are 
marked by its utilization. In 1943 Pepper and Hastings, working 
on the sugar beet webworm, Loxostege sticticolis, found no definite 
changes in the ether-extractable materials although a 40 per cent 
increase was noted in the saturation of the unsaturated fatty acids. 
Ludwig and Rothstein (1949), working on the Japanese beetle, 
Popillia japonica, reported a sharp drop in the ether-soluble neutral 
fat on the fifth and sixth days of pupal life. They also reported 
that from this point to the emergence of the adult, this fraction of 
the lipid content gradually decreased in amount. 

This review has shown that the information concerning the lipid 
content of the insects during metamorphosis is very meager. Most 


Mar., 1954] 


Battista : Metabolism 


29 


of the work has been confined to the four major stages of the 
life cycle regardless of age or extent of development in the particular 
stage. Further investigation seems necessary to better understand 
the role and fate of the lipids during the intermediary metabolism 
in the insect. In the present investigation, the author has attempted 
to demonstrate daily changes of some of these lipids during meta- 
morphosis of the Japanese beetle. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Japanese beetle larvae were collected in the field from November, 
1952, through April, 1953. Second- and third-instar larvae were 
brought into the laboratory, each larva being placed in a one-ounce 
metal salve box containing moistened soil taken from the site of 
collection. The larvae were fed wheat, a few grains being added to 
each box as needed. They were kept in incubators, at a constant 
temperature of 25 °C., until they reached the desired stage of develop- 
ment. In the early months of collection the larvae were in diapause, 
a resting stage which usually lasts about 50 days at 25 °C. During 
this period of the life cycle the larvae feed very little and the boxes 
were examined weekly. When the diapause was ended, a more 
frequent check on the larvae was made due to an increase in activity 
and feeding. 

Observations were made twice each day on the insects in the late 
pre-pupal stage to obtain the proper age of pupae. Hence the age 
of a pupa may be in twelve hour error. When the desired stage of 
development had been reached, the insects were weighed and killed 
by placing them individually in small vials containing a mixture of 
three parts of absolute alcohol and one part absolute ether (Bloor 
1943). Aluminum foil was used to cap the vials to assure that no 
alcohol or ether soluble materials could be removed from the plastic 
caps used to close the vials. The vials containing the insects were 
then carefully marked and stored under refrigeration until the time 
of analysis. The stages in the life cycle chosen for this report in- 
cluded the following: diapause larvae, postdiapause larvae, early 

prepupae, late prepupae, newly molted pupae, pupae for each day of 
the ten day pupal period, and newly emerged adults. Separate rec- 


30 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. LXII 

ords were kept on the analysis for male and female adults. In this 
present investigation, all the determinations made were obtained 
with the use of the Beckman DU spectrophotometer. Calibration 
curves were constructed, and from them daily checks could be made 
both on the instrument used and the technique employed. The 
fatty acid determinations were made using the method of Bloor 
(1916a) as modified by Snell and Snell (1937). Measurements 
of cholesterol were based on the method of Bloor (1916b). The 
lipid phosphorus determinations were made according to Young- 


TABLE 1. 

Variations in the Lipids of the Japanese Beetle 
During Metamorphosis 


Values Expressed in Per Cent Wet Weight 


Stage of 
Development 

Fatty Acid 

Cholesterol 

Lipid 

Phosphorus 

Lecithin 

Third-instar larva* . . 
Third-instar larva .... 

1.54 

2.82 

0.0372 

0.0175 

0.4375 

Early prepupa 

3.29 

0.0451 

0.0213 

0.5325 

Late prepupa 

3.39 

0.0347 

0.0250 

0.6250 

Pupa: 





Just molted 

2.67 

0.0445 

0.0251 

0.6275 

1-day 

2.81 

0.0375 

0.0269 

0.6725 

2-day 

3.68 

0.0552 

0.0296 

0.7400 

3 -day 

2.18 

0.0444 

0.0288 

0.7200 

4-day 

3.72 

0.0460 

0.0288 

0.7200 

5 -day 

2.11 

0.0408 

0.0309 

0.7725 

6-day 

2.67 

0.0532 

0.0316 

0.7900 

7-day 

3.12 

0.0536 

0.0293 

0.7325 

8-day 

2.70 

0.0424 

0.0293 

0.7325 

9-day 

2.77 

0.0614 

0.0341 

0.8525 

Adult, just molted: 





Female 

2.49 

0.0584 

0.0481 

1.2025 

Male 

2.01 

0.0710 

0.0479 

1.1975 


Diapause larvae 


Mar., 1954] 


Battista: Metabolism 


31 



Figure 1. Changes in the fatty acid content during metamorphosis. (Values 
expressed as per cent of the original wet weight.) 

burg and Youngburg (1930). In most cases the above procedures 
had to be changed slightly to obtain color reactions which would 
fall in the safe margin of the spectrophotometer scale. 

To minimize possible random variations, it was decided to group 
the averages for successive stages. The groupings used were, diapause 
larva?, postdiapause larva?, early prepupa?, late prepupa?-newly molted 
pupae, 1-2 day pupa?, 3-4 day pupa?, 5-6 day pupa?, 7-8 day 
pupae, 9 day pupae, and adults which were recorded separately ac- 
cording to their sex. Since Ludwig and Rothstein (1949) showed 
a decrease in the free fats during the fifth and sixth days of the 
pupal stage at 25°C., results of these days were grouped together 
to determine whether a comparable decrease in the fatty acids occurs 
at this stage. 

RESULTS 

The results of the analysis on the fatty acids are given in Figure 1 
and Table I. They show that in diapause larva? the fatty acid con- 


32 New York Entomological Society [Vol. LXII 

tent is low, 1.54 per cent of the wet weight. Fatty acids increase 
to 2.82 per cent during the postdiapause of the larval stage. During 
the early prepupal stage, there is a sharp increase to 3.29 per cent 
of the wet weight. Relatively little change is seen in the fatty acid 
content during the prepupal and early pupal stages, however, a sharp 
drop occurs during the fifth and sixth days. The value then rises but 
not to its former level showing a utilization of fatty acids during metam- 
orphosis. The male adult shows a lower fatty acid content than does 
the female. This difference is probably associated with the storage 
of lipids in the developing eggs. 



Figure 2. Changes in the cholesterol content during metamorphosis. (Values 
expressed in per cent of the original wet weight.) 


The cholesterol content during metamorphosis is shown in Figure 
2 and Table I. In the transition from the larva to the pupa, there is 
an irregular increase which continues until the eighth day of the 
pupal period when a very sharp increase is noted during the last 
day of pupal life. In this fraction the adult male shows a higher 
concentration than does the female. 


Mar., 1954] Battista: Metabolism 33 



Figure 3. Changes yin the lipid phosphorus content during metamorphosis. 
(Values expressed in per cent of the original wet weight.) 

Figure 3 and Table 1 contain the values obtained for the lipid 
phosphorus concentrations, which were determined to increase very 
rapidly during the metamorphosis of the larva to the late prepupa. 
An irregular but progressive increase is observed during the pupal 
period. The emergence of the adult is accompanied by a sharp rise 
in the content of this fraction. The values for the adult male and 
female are approximately the same. 

DISCUSSION 

The marked decrease in the fatty acid content observed on the 
fifth and sixth days of the pupal stage agrees with the work of 
Ludwig and Rothstein (1949). They, too, found a utilization of 
fat between the fifth and sixth days. Ludwig and Rothstein (1949) 


34 New York Entomological Society [Vol. LXII 

also showed an irregular but rapid decrease in the glycogen content 
during the first four days of pupal life in the Japanese beetle, an 
increase on the fifth day, and a gradual decrease throughout the 
remainder of the pupal period. This decrease during the first four 
days and increase on the fifth day of pupal life coincides with the 
reciprocal findings for the fatty acid content in this present investi- 
gation. It then becomes evident, from this utilization of glycogen and 
simultaneous mobilization of the fatty acids during the early days of 
pupal life, that the main source of energy during this period comes 
from glycogen and not from fat stores. The increase in glycogen at 
the fifth day appears to be at the expense of the fatty acids which 
are observed to drop sharply at this stage, thus indicating a replenish- 
ment of the sacrificed glycogen by the fat mobilized. This suggestion 
agrees with that of Ludwig and Rothstein who believed that the 
glycogen is formed from lipids. Couvreur (1895) also suggested 
that, since the increase in glycogen coincides with a decrease in fat, 
the glycogen may be formed from the fat. 

Although there is no apparent synthesis of fatty acid during the 
last day of the pupal stage, it is possible that the fatty acid forma- 
tion is still being continued but only in amounts necessary for the 
vital repair of the adult tissues. That this observation is not limited 
to the Japanese beetle may be observed in the work of Evans (1932) 
who worked with the sheep blow fly, Lucilia sericata. This investi- 
gator found that the total fatty acid content decreased during the 
early stages of pupation then increased at the time when he believed 
histogenesis begins. The total fatty acid content then decreased pro- 
gressively as the organism approached adult life. 

The decrease in cholesterol associated with the change from early 
prepupa to early pupa may be correlated with histolysis which is 
known to occur at this time (Anderson, 1948). This decrease is 
followed by a synthesis of cholesterol throughout the pupal period. 
Since cholesterol is known to be a tissue constituent and not an 
immediate energy source, it is not inconceivable that this synthesis 
represents the progressive formation of imaginal tissues. That 
cholesterol synthesis can occur during periods of mild starvation was 
shown by Terroine (1914) who worked with canine tissue. Many 


Mar., 1954] 


Battista : Metabolism 


35 


other investigators obtained similar results working with a variety 
of other laboratory animals (Bloor, 1943). During the pupal stage 
of the Japanese beetle, no food is taken in and no waste material is 
voided except C0 2 and possibly water, hence this stage in the life 
cycle can be considered a period of starvation. Although fluctua- 
tions in the cholesterol content were observed, the general trend is 
upward during metamorphosis. 

The results obtained in the lipid phosphorus studies show a pro- 
gressive rise in this fraction during metamorphosis. It can be noted 
that during the larval stage, which is a period of feeding, the lipid 
phosphorus content shows a marked increase indicating that the fat 
stores are being built up. This fact is further strengthened by the 
observation that the fatty acids and free fats are also being stored 
at this time. During the relatively inactive pupal period, there is 
an increase in the lipid phosphorus content but at a less rapid rate. 
This slower increase may be due to the fact that food intake has 
ceased thereby decreasing the amount of fat being transported to 
the depots. It is of interest to note that the lipid phosphorus con- 
tent is increased moderately at about the fifth and sixth days of 
pupal life. This increase may be correlated with a simultaneous 
decrease in the fatty acid content, indicating that part of the available 
fatty acids are being incorporated in the formation of phospholipids 
which act as carriers of fats to and from the depots. In this particular 
instance the increase in the phospholipids may be indicative of fat 
utilization, supplying energy directly for the histogenesis of imaginal 
tissues, or indirectly, through the synthesis of glycogen, which is 
known to increase at this time. This consideration is further sub- 
stantiated by the fact that toward the end of the pupal stage, an 
additional increase in the lipid phosphorus content occurs, thus in- 
dicating that fat stores are being utilized to provide energy needed 
for the development and differentiation of new adult tissues. 

SUMMARY 

Determinations were made on the fatty acid, cholesterol, and 
lipid phosphorus content of the Japanese beetles at various stages of 
the life cycle. 


36 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


The fatty acid content was seen to increase during the first stages 
of metamorphosis, decrease sharply on the fifth and sixth days of 
pupal life and then gradually build up on the seventh day of pupal 
life and to diminish slightly toward the emergence of the adult. 

The cholesterol content was seen to increase gradually during the 
entire life cycle. The synthesis was distinct and progressive during 
the pupal period. 

An increase in the lipid phosphorus content was evident during 
metamorphosis. It is known that phospholipids act as carriers to 
and from the depots and hence an increase in the phospholipids is 
indicative of fat mobilization or utilization during metamorphosis. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Anderson, J. M. 1948. Changes in the distribution of nitrogen in the 
Japanese beetle ( Popillia japonica Newman) during metamorphosis. 
Physiol. Zool., 21: 237-252. 

BECKER, M. 1934. Wandlungen des Fettes wahrend der Metamorphose. 
Biochem. Zeitsch. 272: 227-234. 

BERGMANN, W. 1934. Fats and sterols in Bombyx mori. Jour, of Biol. 
Chem. 107: 527-532. 

BLOOR, W. R. 191 6a. The determination of cholesterol in blood. Jour, of 
Biol. Chem. 24: 227-231. 

. 1916b. The distribution of the lipids (fat) in human blood. 

Jour, of Biol. Chem. 25: 577-599. 

. 1943. Biochemistry of the fatty acids and their compounds, the 

lipids. Reinhold. New York. 

COUVREUR, E. 1895. Sur la transformation de la graisse en glycogene chez 
le ver a soie pendant la metamorphose. Compt. rend, de la Soc. 
biol. 47: 796-798. 

EVANS, A. C. 1932. Some aspects of chemical changes during insect meta- 
morphosis. Jour, of Exper. Biol. 9: 314-322. 

. 1934. On the chemical changes associated with metamorphosis in 

a beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. Jour, of Exper. Biol. 11: 397-401. 
FlNKEL, A. J. 1948. The lipid composition of Tenebrio molitor larva?. 
Physiol. Zool. 21: 111-133. 

FREW, J. G. H. 1929. Studies in the metabolism of insect metamorphosis, 
Brit. Jour, of Exper. Biol. 6: 205-218. 


Mar., 1954] 


Battista : Metabolism 


37 


GlRAL, F. 1946. Fats of insects. V. Sphenarium purpurascens Charpentier, 
Jour, of Biol. Chem. 162: 61-63. 

Ludwig, D., and F. Rothstein. 1949. Changes in the carbohydrate and fat 
content of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, during 
metamorphosis. Physiol. Zool. 22: 308-317. 

LEVENBOOK, L. 1951. The variation in fat and glycogen content of the bot 
fly, Gastrophilus intestinalis, larva tracheal organ during development. 
Jour, of Exper. Biol. 28: 173-180. 

. 1953. The variation in phosphorus compounds during metamor- 
phosis of the blow fly, Calliphora erythrocephala Meig. Jour, of 
Cellular and Comp. Physiol. 41: 313-334. 

Pepper, J. H., and E. Hastings. 1943. Biochemical studies on the sugar 
beet web-worm, Loxostege sticticolis L., with special reference to the 
fatty acids and their relation to diapause and sterility. Mont. Agr. 
Exp. Sta. Bull. 413: 1-36. 

Rudolfs, W. 1926. Studies on chemical changes during the life cycle of 
the tent caterpillar. Jour, of the New York Ent. Soc. 40: 481-488. 

Snell, F. D. and C. T. Snell. 1937. Colorimetric methods of analysis. 
Van Nostrand. New York. 

Terroine, E. F. 1914. Nouvelles recherches sur l’influence de l’inanition 
et de la suralimentation sur la teneur des tissus en substances grasses 
et en cholesterine. Jour, de Physiol, et de Path. gen. 16: 408-418. 

Wilber, C. G., and W. M. Bayors. 1947. A comparative study of the 
lipids in some marine annelids. Biol. Bull. 93: 99-101. 

Youngburg, G. E., and M. V. Youngburg. 1930. A system of blood 
phosphorus analysis. Jour, of Lab. and Clin. Med. 16: 159-166. 


38 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


JOSEPH COOPER S PAPERS ON INSECTS 

During the early days many observations upon injurious insects 
were made by farmers. One of these observers in New Jersey was 
Joseph Cooper who had a farm at Cooper’s Point, Gloucester County, 
N. J. A keen observer, an experimenter with various farm crops, a 
practitioner of plant selection, a member of the Philadelphia Society 
for the Promotion of Agriculture, Mr. Cooper’s agricultural papers 
appeared in the publications of the "Philadelphia Society for the Pro- 
motion of Agriculture”, the "Burlington Society for the Promotion 
of Agriculture and Domestic Manufactures” (N.J.), "The Burlington 
Advertiser” (N.J.), "The Rural Visitor” (Burlington, N.J.), "Bicker- 
staff’s Boston Almanack, or the Federal Calendar for 1876”, etc. One 
of his entomological papers was upon the peach borer. This was 
entitled "On the nature of the worm so prejudicial to the peach tree 
for some years past and a method for preventing the damage in 
future, in a letter ... to Mr. Clifford.” This was read July 19, and 
is referred to in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society, vol. 22, Appendix, p. 65, 1771 as ordered to be published 
in the "Pennsylvania Gazette” and "Pennsylvania Journal”, both 
weekly newspapers. 

Another insect paper by Mr. Cooper appeared, more than two 
years after being written, in the "Papers of the Massachusetts Society 
for Promoting Agriculture” (1799, pp. 26-28). This was a "Letter 
from Mr. Joseph Cooper to William Russell, Esq., on the Hessian 
Fly and the Early White Wheat”, written from Cooper’s Point, New 
Jersey, December 30, 1796. Mr. Cooper mentions his observations 
on the injury to wheat in his neighborhood by the Hessian fly and 
recommended late sowing and the planting of "white wheat.” 

— H. B. Weiss. 


Mar., 1954] 


Boyle : Erotylid^ 


39 


CONCERNING THE STATUS OF ISCHYRUS GRAPHICUS 

LACORDAIRE, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF FOUR NEW 
EROTYLID SPECIES FROM WESTERN NORTH AMERICA 
(COLEOPTERA: EROTYLIDAi) 

By W. Wayne Boyle 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Ischyrus quadripunctatus quadripunctatus (Olivier) new com- 
bination 

Erotylus quadripunctatus Olivier, 1791, Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 

Ins. 6: 437. 

Ischyrus quadripunctatus (Olivier) Lacordaire, 1842, Monogra- 
phic des Erotyliens, p. 127. 

Ischyrus quadripunctatus var. A. Lacordaire, loc. cit. 

Ischyrus quadripunctatus var. alabamce Schaeffer, 1931, Bull. 

Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 26: 175. 

Ischyrus quadripunctatus a. antedivisa Mader, 1938, Ent. Blatter 
34: 19. 

The variability in color pattern of this eastern Nearctic subspecies 
is reflected in the synonymy above. The nominate form of Olivier 
has the black basal elytral fascia entire, the prosternum and ptero- 
thorax black, and the abdomen broadly black medially with the 
lateral fifths red. A variant form has the basal elytral fascia inter- 
rupted in the humeral areas by the reddish yellow ground color, 
leaving a short, elongate black spot lying laterad of each humeral 
callus but not attaining the lateral margin, and a large, quadrate 
black spot medially. 

The color of the body below is sporadically variable. Occasional 
specimens from widely separated localities and belonging to either 
of the above forms or to their intermediates show a more or less 
extensive reduction of black underneath. 

Lacordaire placed the nominate form in his genus Ischyrus as an 
originally included species. At the same time, he described the 
variant form with the basal elytral fascia interrupted as variety A. 


40 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


Schaeffer described as variety alabamce aberrant specimens of the 
nominate form with the body below largely red. 

Mader rightly synonymized variety alabamce Schaeffer with quad- 
ripunctatus Olivier and gave the name antedivisa to Lacordaire’s 
variety A. 

Examination of some 300 specimens from over the entire range 
of this complex (roughly North America east of the 100th meridian) 
reveals the following pattern of variation: Specimens taken from 

the Northeast north of approximately the 37th parallel approach 
90 percent constancy in having the basal elytral fascia interrupted 
and are thus referable to variety antedivisa Mader. From localities 
south of the 37th parallel in the Atlantic States, however, specimens 
are about equally divided between those having the fascia inter- 
rupted and those having the fascia entire and with all degrees of 
intergradation generously represented. Of the 43 specimens I have 
examined from peninsular Florida approximately 80 percent have 
the basal elytral fascia entire, and so belong to quadripunctatus 
Olivier, sensu stricto. 

In view of the immensity of the intergradation zone the north- 
south variation pattern appears to be essentially clinal in nature. 
Moreover, the clinal pattern disappears west of about the 83th 
meridian in the huge Mississippi drainage basin; specimens from 
this region are like those from the Atlantic intergrade zone in show- 
ing scant geographical correlation with color variation. This entire 
eastern North American population, therefore, is apparently at most 
in the stage of incipient (or vestigial) subspeciation, with foci of 
homogeneity in Florida and in the region embracing New York, 
Pennsylvania, and adjacent southern Quebec and Ontario. 

Crotch (1873, Cistula Ent. 1: 144.) subsequently designated 
Erotylus quadripunctatus Olivier type of the genus Ischyrus Lacordaire. 

Range: Eastern North America from Florida to southern Quebec 
and Ontario, New England excluded, west to approximately the 
100th meridian, west of which it is not known to occur. The north- 
ern boundaries of the Texas Counties of Webb, Duval, Jim Wells, 
and Nueces and the Rio Grande River to the northwest form a 


Mar., 1954] 


Boyle : Erotylid^e 


41 


tentative line delimiting this subspecies from the one following. 

lschyrus quadripunctatus graphicus Lacordaire new combination 

Ischytus graphicus Lacordaire, 1842, Monographic des Erotyliens, 
p. 125. 

The nominate populations of Erotylus {—lschyrus) quadripunct- 
atus Olivier from eastern North America and lschyrus graphicus 
Lacordaire from Mexico are strikingly similar in both structure 
and color pattern. They differ, however, in the following respects: 
quadripunctatus has the head completely black, the pronotal apex 
immaculate, the prosternum entirely black and weakly compresso- 
carinate medio-apically, the pterothorax below completely black, and 
the abdomen broadly black medially and red only on the lateral 
fifths; graphicus has the disc of the head red, the pronotum with 
two small triangular black spots near the middle of the apical border, 
the prosternum apically red and strongly compresso-carinate medio- 
apically (produced into a small pitcher-like lip), and the abdominal 
black confined to the posterior borders of the four basal sternites 
but extending forward medially on each segment. Both forms ex- 
hibit variation in the black basal elytral fascia, this being sometimes 
entire and sometimes interrupted laterally so that a black spot is 
left in each humeral region but not touching the lateral elytral 
margin. 

The similarities of the two forms have been noted by others. 
G. R. Crotch, who worked very capably on the world Erotylidas dur- 
ing the latter half of the nineteenth century, repeatedly referred to 
graphicus as a possible race of quadripunctatus ; yet he never synony- 
mized the names. In his "Descriptions of Erotylidae from Santo 
Domingo” (1873, Cistula Ent. 1: 144.) Crotch says of graphicus: 
"These, as well as the Mexican exponents of this species, appear to 
be a southern form of 7. quadripunctatus with the head more or 
less rufous.” Three years later (t. c, p. 427.) he again says of 
graphicus: "Closely allied to 7. 4-punctatus, and may perhaps prove 
to be a red-headed southern form of it.” 

Material now at hand corroborates Crotch’s observation. Speci- 
mens from Kingsville, Kleberg County, Texas, and from Weslaco, 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


Hidalgo County, Texas, exhibit intergradation between the two forms. 
These have the disc of the head red, the pronotal apex immaculate, 
the prosternum apically rufescent, and the abdomen with somewhat 
less black than that of quadripunctatus. A specimen from Rancho 
Presa Nueva, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, has the disc of the head red but 
is like quadripunctatus, otherwise. In addition to these, I have 
thirteen typical graphicus specimens — one from British Honduras 
and twelve from Costa Rica. 

The two subspecies display an interesting size relationship. Tak- 
ing the two forms together as a cline, specimens show a gradual in- 
crease in size from Central America northward to Quebec and On- 
tario (ostensibly in accordance with Bergmann’s Rule). Bearing an 
inverse correlation to size is the strength of the prosternal carination; 
the smaller specimens from any given locality always have the 
prosternal apex more strongly carinate than the larger specimens. 

The size range in terms of body length for the sixteen specimens 
of graphicus is 5.52-7.25 mm. (mean: 6.36). For sixteen speci- 
mens of quadripunctatus selected at random the range of length is 
5.93-8.14 mm. (mean: 7.30). Paradoxically, two graphicus specimens 
from San Jose, Costa Rica, are the largest of the sixteen, while the 
other ten Costa Rican specimens (labelled simply "Costa Rica”) are 
much smaller. If not attributable to nutritional differences, this 
anomaly may perhaps be explained by Bergmann’s Rule, in accord- 
ance with which one would expect to find larger specimens of a 
given group at higher elevations or latitudes where temperatures 
are lower. If the two large specimens were taken in or near the 
city of San Jose, they were collected at an elevation of nearly 4000 
feet; if taken not in the city but elsewhere in the province of San 
Jose, they may have come from a higher elevation. The three 
specimens from Texas and Nuevo Leon (which I assign to graphicus) 
are only slightly smaller than the two San Jose specimens. The 
data, however, are too few and the specimens too poorly distributed 
geographically to warrant strong conclusions regarding a size grad- 
ient in graphicus. 

Lacordaire (1842, Monographic des Erotyliens, pp. 125-128.) also 
recognized the similarity of the two forms, as is evidenced by his 


Mar., 1954] 


Boyle : Erotylid^ 


43 


numbering graphicus 45 and quadripunctatus 48 in his serial ar- 
rangement designed to indicate similarities as much as possible. It 
is unfortunate, however, that he selected the carination of the 
prosternum as the basis for dividing the genus into subsections or 
species groups, for by this artificial division graphicus and quadri- 
punctatus were placed in different subsections and considered 
different species. 

The color of the disc of the head appears to be the most stable 
and geographically constant of the diagnostic characters separating 
the two populations. Thus graphicus may be recognized by the red 
spot on the head. Gorham (1887, Biol. Centr.-Amer. Insecta. 
Coleoptera. Vol. VII, pi. 2, fig. 17.) presents a rather good colored 
figure of graphicus. The two black denticles near the middle of 
the pronotal apex are too small to show clearly, however. 

Measurements, in millimeters, of the 16 specimens available are 
as follows (the range is followed by the arithmetic mean in paren- 
theses): length, 5.52-7.25 (6.36); width, 2.35-3.24 (2.89); width 
of pronotal base, 2.07-2.90 (2.51); median pronotal length, 1.17- 
1.61 (1.46); width at extremities of pronotal apical angles, 1.24-1.68 
(1.50); width of head at eyes, 1.10-1.54 (1.37); interocular width 
of vertex, 0.58-0.85 (0.72); vertical diameter of eye, 0.49-0.62 
(0.55). 

Range: Extreme southern Texas south through eastern Mexico 

into Central America and possibly into northern South America. 
The northern boundary of this subspecies is not sharply determinable, 
but the intergrade zone does not appear to be wide. According 
to the available evidence, the northern borders of the Texas Counties 
of Webb, Duval, Jim Wells, and Nueces, along with the Rio Grande 
River northwestward form an approximately accurate demarcation. 

Ischyrus chiasticus, n. sp. 

This form appears to be a possible subspecies of Ischyrus quadri- 
punctatus (Olivier), yet both in color pattern and in geographical 
range, so far as is known, it constitutes a distinct population. It 
is known from the mountains of southern Arizona and from the 


44 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


Mexican State of Sinaloa ( one specimen ) ; thus it apparently ranges 
from southern Arizona into Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occiden- 
tal for an unknown distance. Its closest relative, I. quadripunctatus 
graphicus Lacordaire, is found from extreme southern Texas south 
into Mexico (presumably along the Sierra Madre Oriental) and on 
into Central America. If intergrading populations of these two forms 
are eventually found, they will almost certainly occur in southern 
Mexico where the two cordilleras become confluent. The prairies 
and deserts of northern Mexico, western Texas, and southern New 
Mexico support few trees upon which grows the fungous food of 
these beetles. 

DIAGNOSIS: Closely related to I. quadripunctatus graphicus Lacordaire but 
distinguishable from it and all other North American forms by a large, 
black, X-shaped spot occupying the basal third of the elytra (including the 
scutellum and basal margin of pronotum). 

It seems best to describe this species in terms of a comparison of the 
type with the specimens of I. q. graphicus at my disposal and with I. q. 
quadripunctatus, the most common North American form. 

DESCRIPTION OF TYPE: Resembles graphicus in gross color pattern of 

reddish yellow and black, and more specifically as follows: The disc of the 
head is red; the pronotum bears two small, black triangular spots medio- 
apically, four circular black spots in a transverse row across the disc, and 
a narrow black basal border; the elytra have black submedian and basal 
fasciae; and the abdominal sternites are largely reddish yellow. 

The differences, however, are numerous and striking. In size, chiasticus 
is considerably larger, the length and width of the type being 7.45 and 3.45 
mm. respectively as compared with maximal measurements of 7.25 and 
3.24 mm. of the sixteen graphicus specimens. (Note, however, that some 
overlap exists in the ranges of all measurements of the two groups of 
specimens. ) 

In color pattern chiasticus differs from both q. graphicus and q. quadri- 
punctatus thus: The pronotal apex is narrowly bordered with black throughout 
its interocular extent; the basal elytral fascia is ruptured into three black 
spots — a large median one which is concave laterally and posteriorly, and a 
small comma-shaped spot filling the humeral angle of each elytron; thus, 
taken together, the three spots appear like the Greek letter chi or a fat 'X’ 
enclosed in single quotation marks (whence the trivial name); the submedian 
elytral fascia is wider and more weakly undulate and extends more broadly 
along the suture to the apex; the narrow, black peripheral border of the 
elytra behind the submedian fascia suddenly increases to twice its width at 


Mar., 1954] 


Boyle : Erotylid^ 


45 


a point halfway or more to the apex; the black medio-apical vitta on each 
elytron is absent; the elytral epipleura are nigrescent before the submedian 
fascia; and the prosternum, mesosternum, and lateral thirds of metasternum 
are red, not black. 

MEASUREMENTS OF TYPE (in mm.) : length, 7.45; width, 3.45; width 
of pronotal base, 2.97; width at extremities of pronotal apical angles, 1.77; 
pronotal median length, 1.73; width of head at eyes, 1.61; interocular width 
of vertex, 0.87; vertical diameter of eye, 0.62. 

type: male, collected by E. S. Ross, July 1936 [California Academy 
of Sciences]. 

type LOCALITY: Patagonia, Santa Cruz County, Arizona. 

PARATYPES, 26, as follows: 5, Patagonia, Ariz., July 1936 (E. S. 
Ross); 1, Patagonia, Ariz., Aug. 2, 1924 (E. P. Van Duzee); 3, 
Nogales, Ariz., Sept. 8, 1906; 1, Pepper Sauce Canyon, Santa Cata- 
lina Mts., Ariz., Aug. 17, 1924 (J. O. Martin); 1, Paradise, Chiri- 
cahua Mts., Ariz., 5000-6000 ft., Aug. 22, 1927 (J. A. ICusche); 
2, Washington Mts. [Mt. Washington?], near Nogales, Ariz., Sept. 
7, 1927 (J. A. Kusche); 1, Elkhorn Ranch, east side, north end 
Baboquivari Mts., Ariz., July 28, 1952 (H. B. Leech and J. W. 
Green); 1, Brown’s Canyon, Baboquivari Mts., Ariz., July 29, 1952 
(H. B. Leech and J. W. Green); 4, the same, July 30, 1952; 1, 
Venedio [El Venadillo?], Sinaloa, Mexico [all in the Calif. Acad. 
Sci. Collection]; 5, Baboquivari Mts., Ariz., 1927 (O. C. Poling) 
[Cornell Univ.]; 1, Carr Canyon, Huachuca Mts., Ariz., June 6, 
1930 [Univ. of Calif.]. 

In addition to the paratypes there are two specimens in the 
Fall Collection at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 
College, from the Baboquivari Mts., Ariz., one dated June 15-30, 
1923, the other Sept. 15-30, 1923. 

variation: The 27 specimens before me are quite uniform in 
color pattern and display no notable variations except perhaps in 
size. Measurement, in mm., of all specimens reveals the following 
variation ( range followed by arithmetic mean in parentheses ) : 
length, 6.69-8.56 (7.5 6); width, 2.90-3.80 (3.37); width of pronotal 
base, 2.62-3.24 (2.96); median pronotal length, 1.54-1.89 (1.72); 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXI1 


width at extremities of pronotal apical angles, 1.56-1.84 (1.75); 
width of head at eyes, 1.40-1.68 (1.56); interocular width of vertex, 
0.76-0.92 (0.86); vertical diameter of eye, 0.58-0.67 (0.61). No 
secondary sexual characters are evident. This appears true even of 
measurements; consequently both sexes are measured in one lot. 

Ischyrus aleator, n. sp. 

This unusual form becomes the fourth species of Ischyrus known 
to occur in America north of Mexico since Casey rightly restricted 
the genus by removing Pseudischyrus in 1916. A single male 
specimen is included in material kindly sent me by Mr. Hugh B. 
Leech from the collection of the late Dr. E. C. Van Dyke of the 
California Academy of Sciences. 

DIAGNOSIS: Bearing scant similarity to any described form, it may be 

recognized by the following characteristics: Each elytron bears at the base 
between the scutellum and humeral callus an oval, flat, declivent area 
which lies in the plane of the pronotum and is skirted laterally by the 
base of a dark median elytral vitta. The strange coloration consists of a 
tawny ground color ornamented by three fusco-piceous elytral vittae and a 
similar dark framework on the median half of the pronotum surrounding a 
large tawny spot shaped like the emblem of the club suit in a deck of 
playing cards. The trivial name (L., gambler) alludes to the latter char- 
acteristic. 

DESCRIPTION OF TYPE: COLOR: tawny or light brownish yellow, the 

legs and thorax below a bit darker, the following fusco-piceous: antennal 

club, epistoma, the periphery of a large trefoil-shaped spot of the ground 
color occupying median third of pronotum, a common elytral vitta along the 
suture including the scutellum and narrowing to the apex, a wider lateral 
vitta along middle of each elytron largely limited to fifth and sixth intervals 
and not attaining elytral apex, the lateral elytral borders, and the elytral 
epipleura. 

SHAPE: relatively depressed for an Ischyrus, length 2.3 times the width, 

elytral sides remarkably parallel, the body semicircularly rounded anteriorly, 
parabolically rounded in apical elytral three-eighths, surface of entire body 
and appendages with a minutely reticulate microsculpture. 

HEAD: inserted in pronotum to middle of eyes; vertex moderately punc- 
tate, the punctures approximately equal to coarse ocular facets in diameter 
but smaller medio-basally; epistoma faintly margined along the strongly 
anteriorly convergent sides, apex slightly concave, disc twice as densely punc- 
tate as vertex with punctures half as large; antennae as long as width of 


Mar., 1954] 


Boyle : Erotylid^ 


47 


pronotum at apical angles, the club dark, three-segmented, lax, its length 
2.25 times width, segment nine equilateral-triangular, ten sublunate and 
wider than nine or eleven, eleven circular and one-third as wide as vertical 
diameter of eye, the stem tawny, more sparsely pubescent, segment three as 
long as four and five together; palpi a bit lighter in color than surrounding 
sclerites, terminal segment of maxillary palpus truncate-oval, its width equal 
to length of third antennal segment; mentum triangular, its basal width 
half again as great as median length which is equal to that of terminal 
segment of maxillary palpus, its disc with a small raised triangle basally 
which bears four or five setigerous punctures along each side. 

PRONOTUM: weakly convex, strongly transverse, widest sub-basally, basal 

width almost twice median length; sides sharply margined, subparallel 
basally and strongly, arcuately convergent to the obtuse, slightly produced 
apical angles; apex shallowly concave and finely margined behind eyes, 
immarginate and transverse between eyes; base truncate, immarginate, with 
a moderately produced, evenly rounded lobe limited to median two-fifths; 
basal impressions moderately strong, bearing a few basal punctures larger 
and shallower than those on disc; discal punctures weak on median third, 
suddenly stronger and similar to those of vertex on lateral thirds, densest 
along lateral margins. 

SCUTELLUM: subcordate, twice as wide as long, the base faintly, evenly 

concave. 

ELYTRA: length about 1.75 times width; base immarginate, flattened on 

each side between scutellum and humeral callus; sides widest and perfectly 
parallel for one-half their length shortly behind base, parabolically rounded 
in apical three-eighths; each elytron bearing seven unimpressed striae, the 
punctures of which are small, separated by two to three times their diameter, 
obsolescent apically; intervals moderately punctulate; setae, as on head and 
pronotum, scarcely detectable. 

THORAX BELOW: prothoracic venter scarcely punctulate, smooth save for 

a few short longitudinal furrows on prosternal process; prosternum faintly 
compressed, apically truncate, the process subquadrate, basally truncate, 
bounded laterally by weak ridges bent abruptly mesad beside anterior coxal 
edges; mesosternum subquadrate, smooth, weakly obtuse-angular behind; 
mesopleural sclerites lighter in color like abdomen, the mesepisternum only 
half as large as mesepimeron; metasternum with small, sparse punctures 
antero-laterally which become much weaker and denser medially and posterior- 
ly, the setae extremely tenuous but long; metepisternum vaguely lighter in 
color; metasternal coxal lines short, obsolescent. 

ABDOMEN: punctulate like middle of metasternum, the punctules denser 

medially and apically, setae of similar length but distinctly stronger than 
those of metasternum; four basal sternites with posterior borders narrowly 
darker in color; abdominal coxal lines raised, V-shaped, obsolescent. 


48 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXli 


MEASUREMENTS OF TYPE (in mm.) : length, 5.80; width, 2.55; width of 
pronotal base, 2.30; median pronotal length, 1.20; width at extremities of 
pronotal apical angles, 1.43; width of head at eyes, 1.29; interocular width 
of vertex, 0.71; vertical diameter of eye, 0.51; width of terminal segment 
of maxillary palpus, 0.23. 

TYPE: male, taken by J. A. Kusche on June 24, 1927 [Van Dyke 

Collection, California Academy of Sciences]. 

TYPE LOCALITY: Cave Creek (7000 ft.), Chiricahua Mts., Cochise 
County, Arizona. 

PARATYPES: none. 

VARIATION: This type of color pattern normally lends itself to 

some variation; thus the median, trefoil-shaped pronotal spot may 
be larger or smaller or assume a different shape. Secondary sexual 
characters are probably not present. 

Mycotretus nigromanicatus, n. sp. 

A large New World genus, Mycotretus is rich in species through- 
out tropical America but has not previously been reported north 
of Mexico (excluding certain species erroneously assigned to it). 
The mountains of southern Arizona are apparently the northern ex- 
tremity of the range of a number of Neotropical erotylids, e.g. 
Hcematochiton elateroides Gorham, Scce other carbonarius Gorham, 
probably the present form, and perhaps others. 

DIAGNOSIS: The closest relative of this species cannot be determined at 

the present time. The unusual five-jointed antennal club and unique color 
pattern — a bright reddish yellow body with black scutellum and appendages — 
clearly distinguish it from all published descriptions. It differs structurally 
from all erotylids north of Mexico except Cypherotylus californicus (Lacor- 
daire) by having the pronotum entirely, finely margined. [The latter is 
a much larger black form with dirty-yellowish elytra (in life light purplish) 
bearing numerous black spots.] The trivial name (L., having long black 
sleeves) is suggested by the black appendages. 

DESCRIPTION OF TYPE: COLOR: bright reddish yellow, the following 

black or piceous: eyes, antennae, scutellum, and legs exclusive of coxae 
and tarsi, the palpi and tarsi fusco-testaceous; the body nitidous, essentially 
glabrous. 


Mar., 1954] 


Boyle : Erotylidze 


49 


SHAPE: elliptical, somewhat depressed; length 2.1 times width; widest 

point of body about one-third the elytral length behind base; sides evenly 
arcuate, slightly indented at elytral-pronotal base; ends of body equally, 
moderately parabolically rounded in anterior and posterior fifths. 

HEAD: ocular striae scarcely arched upward above eyes, extending over 

antennal bases; vertex moderately densely punctate, the punctures small and 
very shallowly impressed, suddenly deeper and sparser in a staggered row 
across the base; epistoma transversely hexagonal, immarginate, with the 
oblique latero-basal sutures piceous and unimpressed, the apex faintly angu- 
larly concave, the discal punctures denser but scarcely smaller than on ver- 
tex; eyes finely facetted, one-fifth wider than long; antennas about one- 
sixth longer than pronotal width at apical angles, moderately robust; the 
club totally carbonarius, five-segmented, its length 2.5 times width, its 
segments more strongly punctate-asperate and densely pubescent than those 
of stem; segment seven triangular, one-third wider than the longitudinally 
obovate sixth; ten widest; eleven transversely elliptical, one-third wider than 
long, its width equal to that of nine and to length of eye; stem segments 
piceous, minutely alutaceous; segment three one-ninth shorter than four 
and five together; terminal segment of maxillary palpus transversely arcuate, 
its apex truncate and brushless, its width twice its length and one-fifth 
greater than length of eye; mentum transversely subrectangular, moderately 
large, with a dark amber margin except basally, one-third wider than long, 
its width one-tenth greater than length of terminal segment of maxillary 
palpus; gense moderately punctate-pubescent behind, each bearing a deep, 
transversely arcuate indentation mesad of the hind inner angle of eye; 
postmandibular lobes (flanges of head capsule between eye and oral cavity) 
short, stout, sub-erect, scarcely half as long as eye, their anterior and lateral 
edges continuous in arcs which strongly converge anteriorly. 

PRONOTUM: weakly convex, transversely sub-trapezoidal, entirely finely 

margined, faintly widest one-eighth before base, the basal width 1.67 times 
median length; sides evenly arcuate, moderately convergent to the obtuse, 
somewhat rounded, weakly produced apical angles, apex transverse between 
apical angles and with a darker, semi-translucent border; base equal in 
width to elytral base, the basal lobe moderately produced; basal impres- 
sions extremely weak but detectable, each bearing an uneven basal row of six 
or seven large punctures much larger than those of disc; punctuation similar 
to that of vertex, the punctures slightly stronger just beyond the middle of 
each side, becoming smaller and denser along extreme sides and a bit 
smaller and sparser medially; angle pores (large punctures at pronotal 
angles) small, simple, lying in vertical planes. 

SCUTELLUM: black, one-half wider than long, base transverse; sides 

short, subparallel; postero-lateral edges straight, forming a sharp, slightly ob- 
tuse angle apically. 


50 New York Entomological Society [Vol. LXII 

ELYTRA: approximately one-half longer than wide; bases margined, the 

submarginal striole interrupted by several irregularly spaced punctures; widest 
point one-third from base; sides rather evenly, weakly arcuate, the common 
apex parabolically rounded in the ultimate two-fifths; each elytron bearing 
seven unimpressed striae plus a weak and basally incomplete eighth; strial 
punctures moderate, much stronger than those of pronotal disc, mostly sep- 
arated by a little more than their diameters; intervals rather densely punc- 
tulate, the punctules closer together than strial punctures; setae hardly 
detectable. 

THORAX BELOW : prothoracic venter smooth, scarcely punctulate; pros- 

ternum apically truncate, weakly compressed, the process with four or five 
small punctures, limited laterally by straight ridges which extend along 
inner edges of coxae and diverge a bit posteriorly to the shallowly concave 
base; mesosternum with median disc subquadrate, scarcely wider than long, 
smooth; mesopleural sclerites exhibiting strong, minutely reticulate micro- 
sculpture; metathorax smooth, with very sparse, minute punctules and setae; 
metasternal coxal lines long, extending two-thirds the distance to metasternal 
lateral margins. 

LEGS: piceous-black excepting coxae and tarsi (of the forelegs only the 

coxae and left trochanter are present); the coxae narrowly separated, the 
middle ones separated by a distance equal to width of middle femora, the 
front and hind pairs by two-thirds as much. 

ABDOMEN: almost glabrous and smooth but sparsely, minutely punc- 

tulate-pubescent; basal sternite with a small median patch of denser punc- 
tules and setae; the punctules becoming a little stronger and denser apically, 
especially on apical half of ultimate sternite; abdominal coxal lines weak but 
distinct, forming straight-line continuations of inner edges of hind coxae and 
extending obliquely backward more than halfway across basal sternite. 

MEASUREMENTS OF TYPE (in mm.): length, 4.83; width, 2.30; width 

of pronotal base, 2.00; median pronotal length 1.20; width at extremities 
of pronotal apical angles, 1.27; width of head at eyes, 1.20; interocular 
width of vertex, 0.85; horizontal diameter of eye, 0.30; width of terminal 
segment of maxillary palpus, 0.36. 

type: male, collected by Witmer Stone, July 19, 1919 [Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Type no. 10701]. 

TYPE LOCALITY: Pinery Canyon (6000 ft.), Chiricahua Mts., 

Cochise County, Arizona. 

PARATYPES: none. 

Variation: The small patch of denser punctures and seta? on 


Mar., 1954] 


Boyle : Erotylid/E 


51 


the middle of the basal abdominal sternite may be a secondary sexual 
character of the male — such a phenomenon occurs in Cypherotylus 
calif ornicus ( Lacordaire ) . 

Dacne cyclochilus, n. sp. 

The late Dr. E. A. Schwarz of the U. S. National Museum recog- 
nized this form as an undescribed species; several specimens in 
different collections have been found bearing his manuscript name. 
It is, indeed, the most distinctive of the four unchallenged New World 
species, all of which occur in the United States. 

DIAGNOSIS: closely related to picea Leconte from which it differs in 

several respects — in the elytral punctuation tending toward linear arrange- 
ment, in the more attenuate bodily form, and especially in the nature of 
the epistoma. The transversely elliptical epistoma, with its sides deflected, 
and the transverse, entire suture separating it from the frontal region between 
the antennal insertions serve to distinguish this species at once from the 
other American members of the genus. 

DESCRIPTION OF TYPE: COLOR: dark reddish brown, somewhat piceous 

along the suture and elytral sides and on pterothorax below; moderately 
nitidous. 

SHAPE: elongate-elliptical, narrow, rather depressed for a Dacne; length 

2.33 times width, with widest point of body one-third the elytral length 
behind base; sides gently, evenly arcuate; the body semicircularly rounded in 
anterior twelfth, more tapering or parabolically rounded in posterior fourth. 

HEAD: ocular striae extending over antennal insertions; entire upper sur- 
face with a minutely reticulate microsculpture (the same present and equally 
strong on body below, less distinct on pronotum and elytra); vertex sparsely 
punctate, the punctures small, somewhat denser laterally; epistoma trans- 
versely elliptical (whence the trivial name: Gk., round lip), twice as wide 
as long, separated from frontal region by an entire, very fine but distinct 
suture, the sides strongly declivent, immarginate, somewhat rounded; episto- 
mal punctures denser, not smaller than those of vertex, the setae more 
distinct; antennae about one-tenth longer than width of pronotum at apical 
angles, moderately robust, the club four-segmented, not very compact, its 
length twice the width; segment eight obconical or triangular and one-fifth 
wider than seven, hence belonging to club even though only half as wide 
as nine; segment eleven transversely elliptical, its width 0.85 the length of 
eye; stem with a few short yellow setas; segment three one-fifth shorter than 
four and five together, five to seven moniliform, subequal in size; mentum 
strongly transverse, its width four times median length and equal to width 
of terminal antennal segment, its apex suddenly acuminate medially. 


52 New York Entomological Society [Vol. LXII 

PRONOTUM: weakly convex, relatively depressed as in picea, transversely 

subrectangular, widest basally; basal width 1.58 times median length; sides 
straight and weakly convergent anteriorly in basal four-fifths, arcuately more 
strongly convergent in apical fifth; lateral marginal beads in lateral view 
scarcely increasing in thickness anteriorly (not strongly so as in picea); 
apical angles acute, not strongly produced, not quite equalled by the weakly 
convex and bilobed, immarginate apex when the four pronotal angles are in 
equal focus (resembling picea in this respect and differing from calif ornica 
(Horn) and quadrimaculata (Say) in both of which the apex considerably 
surpasses the apical angles); base slightly narrower than elytral base, entirely, 
finely margined; basal lobe narrower and somewhat more strongly produced 
than apex; basal impressions absent; punctuation moderate, the punctures 
shallow, flat-bottomed but sharply incised, their diameters equal to about 
half the basal width of third antennal segment, mostly separated by once 
to twice their diameters, becoming slightly larger and considerably denser 
laterally; pubescence weak, the setas only slightly exceeding the punctures. 

SCUTELLUM : one-fourth wider than long, the sides moderately con- 

vergent anteriorly, apex arcuately rounded, disc rather densely punctulate. 

ELYTRA: three-fourths longer than wide, widest one-third from base; 

sides equally, somewhat arcuately convergent anteriorly and posteriorly for 
one-third elytral length from widest point, the common apex sharply, para- 
bolically rounded in the remaining third; elytral bases distinctly margined, 
the submarginal striole interrupted by several irregularly spaced punctures; 
elytral punctures small, their diameters about one-half those of pronotal 
punctures, likewise flat-bottomed and sharply incised, definitely tending to 
form straight rows, becoming obsolescent apically; strial and interval 
punctures forming alternating rows, the former a bit larger and partly 

underlain by piceous spots, setae small, silvery, and decumbent but exceeding 
the punctures by perhaps half the diameter thereof; reflected light shows 

the first and second striae to be faintly impressed and the disc to bei 
rugulose with fine transverse cracks between punctures. 

THORAX BELOW: pronotal epipleura coarsely punctate, the epimeral area 

longitudinally rugose; prosternum likewise coarsely punctate with the punc- 
tures partially confluent in the episternal areas, evenly convex, the apex 
truncate, the process sparsely punctulate, limited laterally by low, arcuate 
ridges which do not extend cephalad of the coxae to form prosternal lines, 
strongly widening basally, the base weakly arcuately concave; setae short, 

not exceeding punctures; mesosternum with median disc narrowest poster- 
iorly, the width here about half again the median length, anteriorly 

weakly convex, moderately punctulate, the lateral wings more coarsely punc- 
tate-asperate; mesopleural sclerites scarcely punctate, strongly corrugated in 
microsculpture; metasternum coarsely punctate laterally, the punctures be- 
coming smaller medially and obsolescent posteriorly, densest antero-medially; 


Mar, 1954] 


Boyle : Erotylid^ 


53 


the setae distinct, exceeding punctures by as much as two to three times their 
diameters; metasternal coxal lines entirely absent; metepisterna coarsely punc- 
tate, the punctures partially confluent, the setae shorter than on metasternum. 

LEGS: of typical conformation for the genus but, like those of picea, less 

robust than in californica and quadrimaculata, the ratio of length to width 
of hind femora being nearer 3 : 1 than 2:1 as in the latter two species. 

ABDOMEN: rather densely punctate, the punctures stronger latero-basally, 

becoming smaller medially and apically and much denser apically; setae cor- 
respondingly dense, their size uniform and similar to that of metasternal 
setae; abdominal coxal lines extremely short, raised, acuminate. 

MEASUREMENTS OF TYPE (in mm.) : length, 2.90; width, 1.24; width 

of pronotal base, 1.01; median pronotal length, 0.64; width at extremities 
of pronotal apical angles, 0.74; width of head at eyes, 0.67; interocular width 
of vertex, 0.48; horizontal diameter of eye, 0.18. 

TYPE: female, taken by Hubbard and Schwarz on June 28 [U. S. 

National Museum Type no. 61978]. The female genital tube in this 
genus appears to show diagnostic specific characters, hence the se- 
lection of a female type. 

TYPE LOCALITY: Alta, Salt Lake County, Utah. 

paratypes, 174, as follows: 74, Alta, Utah, June 28 (Hubbard 
and Schwartz) [U. S. Nat. Mus.]; the following 16 also from Alta, 
Utah: 6 [Brooklyn Museum Collection, U. S. Nat. Mus.]; 4 [U. S. 
Nat. Mus.]; 4 [Hamilton Collection, Carnegie Mus.]; 1 [A. Fenyes 
Collection, Calif. Acad. Sci.] ; 1 [R. Hopping Collection, Calif. Acad. 
Sci.]; 6, Brightons, Utah, July 18 (Hubbard and Schwarz) [U. S. 
Nat. Mus.]; 1, Logan Canyon, Utah, June 30, 1948 (S. L. Wood) 
[Utah State Agric. College]; 6, Salt Lake City, Utah, July 21 [H. 
Klages Collection, Carnegie Mus.]; 61, Utah, July 19 [U. S. Nat. 
Mus.J; 4, Mt. Shasta, Calif., 8000 ft., July 1914 [Blaisdell Collection, 
Calif. Acad. Sci.]; 6, Mt. Shasta, Calif., July 15, 1941 (W. B. Cook) 
[Calif. Acad. Sci.]. 

VARIATION: The entire transverse suture at the epistomal base 

is difficult to see in some specimens; careful orientation of the 
specimen to the light, however, always admits of its detection. The 
length ranges from 2.48 to 3.31 mm., and the color varies from 
yellow in the tenerals to piceous in the older specimens. No sec- 
ondary sexual characters have been found. 


54 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


"TULANE STUDIES IN ZOOLOGY”, A NEW PERIODICAL 

The above is the title of a new journal, devoted primarily to the 
zoology of the Gulf of Mexico and bordering region, and published 
by Tulane University of Louisiana, New Orleans, under the editor- 
ship of George Henry Penn. According to the announcement it 
was started to encourage the publication of papers on the zoology 
of the Gulf Coastal area. Each number will contain an individual 
paper and will be issued separately. Contributors need not be mem- 
bers of the Tulane University faculty. Volume 1, Number 1, dated 
June 1, 1953, (8 pages), contains a paper entitled "On a New Genus 
and Species of Mysid from Southern Louisiana, (Crustacea).” Other 
papers accepted for future publication in Volume 1, range from 8 
to 24 pages each and deal with lizards, salamanders and crawfishes. 
As nothing is said to the contrary it is assumed that entomological 
papers will be accepted if they deal with species of the Gulf Coastal 
area and are accepted by the editor and his editorial committe. Al- 
though separate numbers of this publication may be purchased by 
individuals, subscriptions are not accepted and it will be distributed 
almost entirely in exchange for other biological publications.— H.B.W. 


Mar., 1954] 


Brown: Ants 


55 


THE NEOTROPICAL SPECIES OF THE ANT GENUS 
STRUMIGENYS FR. SMITH: GROUP OF 
SALIENS MAYR 

By William L. Brown, Jr. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 

This is part of a continuing revision of the New World species 
of the dacetine ant genus Strumigenys Fr. Smith. Previous parts 
may be found in this Journal (Vol. 61, pp. 53-59 and 101-110. 
1953); these contain explanations of the abbreviations for measure- 
ments and indices used in all sections. Other sections are under 
press or being prepared; the final section will include a key to 
the workers of all species of the genus of the Western Hemisphere. 

The present section deals with two species surely belonging to 
the mandibularis series: S. saliens Mayr and S. borgmeieri n. sp., 
and a third, S. trinidadensis Wheeler, that may be regarded as a 
connecting form between the mandibularis series and the group of 
species related to S. hindenburgi Forel. For the present, the three 
species saliens, borgmeieri, and trinidadensis may be considered to 
make up the saliens group. S. saliens itself appears to be inter- 
mediate in many respects between two mandibularis series groups: 
the group of smithii Forel and the group of cordovensis Mayr. 

Strumigenys saliens Mayr 

Strumigenys saliens Mayr, 1887, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 37: 574, 
worker, female (original description). ? Emery, 1890, Bull. Soc. 
Ent. Ital. 22: pi. 7, fig. 1, worker. ( Nec Wheeler, 1916, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool. 60: 326; 1922, Amer. Mus. Novit. 45: 12; 
Trinidad records based on a damaged example of S. trinidadensis 
in MCZ). 

Strumigenys saliens var. procera Emery, 1894, Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital. 
26: 215, pi. 1, fig. 9, female. NEW SYNONYMY. 

Strumigenys saliens var. angusticeps Forel, 1912, Mem. Soc. Ent. Belg. 


56 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LX1I 


19: 198, worker. NEW SYNONYMY. 

WORKER: TL 3. 5-4.1, HL 0.81-0.95, ML 0.50-0.60, WL 0.82-0.97 mm.; 

Cl 69-77, MI 60-65. Measurements made on 4 cotype workers of S'. 
saliens, 3 cotype workers of var. angusticeps, and 31 other workers. At 
least 12 nest series from southeastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina are 
represented. 

In most general characters, this species is intermediate between the 
smithii and cordovensis groups of the mandibularis series. Emery’s figure 
of 1890 illustrates satisfactorily the head shape and mandibular dentition 
as seen in the saliens types, but this figure exaggerates the relative length 
of the mandibles to a marked degree. Normal variation in this species 
is moderate, chiefly involving the size and spacing of the two slender preapical 
teeth; the distal of these two teeth usually near the apical fifth of ML, 
its length ^4 of less that of the dorsal tooth of apical fork; proximal pre- 
apical tooth as long as or shorter than the distal. The preapical teeth are 
separated by a distance equalling their lengths or slightly more. The normal 
dentitional variation includes forms like that of the female described as var. 
procera by Emery, and there seems to be no good reason to retain a 
separate name for Emery’s variant at this time. (The types of Forel’s var. 
angusticeps match the saliens types very closely in all characters, and it 
seems that Forel drew non-existent distinctions.) 

The apical fork of the mandible has the dorsal tooth slender, 0.10 to 
0.13 mm. long, slightly longer than its ventral mate. An intercalary tooth 
present, large and spiniform, ca. 34 the length of the dorsal tooth. 

General plan of alitrunk as in cordovensis and smithii, but the propodeal 
declivity steeper and more sharply angled against the gently but distinctly 
convex propodeal dorsum. Upper and lower propodeal teeth on a single side 
remote, slender, acute, somewhat elevated, joined at their extreme bases only 
by a very low, concave, cariniform lamella; upper pair of teeth longer than 
lowers and usually about half as long as the distance between the centers of 
their bases, seen from above. 

Petiolar peduncle slender, about as long as its node. Seen from above, free 
portion of node (including anterior slope) more or less approximately as long 
as broad. Midventral spongiform band rather uniform in depth, fairly well 
developed. Node distinct, with a sloping but convex anterior face, evenly 
rounded above and with only the posterodorsal and posterolateral surfaces 
covered by the spongiform band. Postpetiolar node transversely ovate, ca. 1.4 
times as broad as long (average); disc decidedly convex, densely punctulate, 
opaque, with a few feeble rugulae, its spongiform appendages well developed, 
but less so than in smithii. 

Gastric costulae few, weak, widely spaced and never extending more than 
1/5 the length of the first tergite; usually much shorter, and in some series 


Mar., 1954] 


Brown: Ants 


57 


reduced to indistinct vestiges. Body largely densely reticulo-punctulate, opaque; 
gaster and lower mesopleura smooth and shining. Pilosity much as in smithii. 
Color rather uniform medium ferrugineous, appendages lighter; internidal 
variation slight. 

FEMALE: a specimen from the type series, now in the British Museum, 
was kindly measured by Mr. G E. J. Nixon; I have also measured 4 additional 
specimens from Brazilian localities. Examples from Nova Petropolis most 
resemble Emery’s figure of var. procera. 

TL 4. 2-4. 5, HL 0.88-0.93, ML 0.50-0.53, WL 0.99-1.02 mm.; Cl 73-82, 
MI 57-61; forewing L 3 mm. or slightly more. Eyes very large and convex. 
Mesonotum evenly and densely punctulate, with a feeble median sulcus and a 
few long, posteriorly-inclined hairs. Nearly all of mesopleura smooth and 
shining. Petiolar node broader than long and flattened obliquely from in 
front and above, as in the smithii worker, but a little less extreme. Color 
much as in worker. Forewing venation: Rs+M and M distal to this lacking, 
as are also cu-a and m-cu. Rs weak; rest of venation fairly well preserved. 
Posterior wing with four hamuli. Male unknown to me. 

Material studied: BRAZIL: Santa Caterina : Blumenau (Hetschko), 
s aliens cotypes [syntypes] [Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien; British 
Museum (Natural History); D. Zoologia, Sao Paulo; MCZ; USNM]. 
Blumenau (F. Muller). Nova Teutonia (F. Plaumann). Hamonia 
(Leuderwaldt) . Parana: Rio Negro (Reichensperger) , two series. 
Rio Grande do Sul: Nova Petropolis (P. Buck). Rio de Janeiro (State 
and District): Rio (Goldi), cotypes of var. angusticeps [syntypes] 
[Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Geneva; MCZ]. Pico Tijuca; Corcovado 
(H.S. Lopes). The type of var. procera [not studied; in Museo Civico 
di Storia Naturale, Genova] came from Novo Friburgo (collector un- 
known). ARGENTINA: Misiones: Loreto (A. Ogloblin). 

So far, S. saliens has been collected only in southeastern Brazil and 
the Parana Basin. It nests in (and beneath the bark of) rotten logs, 
according to the scanty collecting data available. S. saliens is readily 
distinguished from allied species by means of its fairly large size, pro- 
portions of head and mandibles, its distinctive propodeal armament 
with reduced infradental lamellae, and the shape and sculpture of its 
postpetiolar disc. 

Strumigenys borgmeieri, n. sp. 

WORKER: With the general characters of the smithii, saliens and cordovensis 


58 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


groups of the mandibularis series, but differing from all in its much narrower 
head, tapered mandibles with apically crowded preapical dentition, different 
form of petiolar and postpetiolar nodes and spongiform appendages, different 
pilosity pattern and in its generally very slender body build. 

TL 3.3, HL 0.74, ML 0.52, WL 0.77 mm.; Cl 65, MI 67. Head evenly con- 
vex above, narrow, occipital lobes narrowly rounded behind and only gently 
convex laterally; posterior excision semicircular, deep. Eyes moderately large, 
convex, laterally oriented. Clypeus triangular, with gently arcuate anterior 
border; tumulus low and round, placed just anterior to the center of the 
clypeal disc. Antennal scape 0.51 mm. long, very slightly curved, very gently 
incrassate away from the base, the thickest point between the midlength and 
apex. Funiculus 0.81 mm. long, apical segment (V) 0.37 mm. long, seg- 
ment IV 0.20 mm. long, segment II longer than III, II + III about equal 
to the length of I (0.12 mm.). 

Mandibles straight and slender, inner borders parallel when closed; ex- 
ternal borders drawn in slightly at their insertions, thickest just distad of the 
insertions, and from this point the shafts are evenly tapered to their apices. 
Elements of dentition of the same number and general relationships as in saliens 
and the other mandibularis series species, all teeth slender and spiniform. 
Dorsal and ventral teeth of apical fork approximately equal (ca. 0.06 mm.), 
intercalary tooth closest to the ventral tooth and about 2/3 its length. Distal 
preapical tooth about 4/5 the length of the dorsal apical and separated from 
it by a distance very slightly greater than the length of the latter (0.06-0.07 
mm.). The entire apical and preapical armament is crowded into scarely more 
than the apical fifth of the exposed mandibular length. The proximal pre- 
apical tooth slightly shorter than the distal preapical and separated from 
the latter by about its own length (0.04-0.05 mm.). Oblique seta? of inner 
mandibular borders, found in the other mandibularis series species, are also 
well developed in borgmeieri. Labral lobes very small, tuberculiform. 

Alitrunk much as in smithii, but much more slender and with a less pro- 
nounced metanotal groove and constriction; dorsum of propodeum only very 
feebly convex. Seen from above, anterior pronotal margin distinct and carinate, 
entire, evenly and rather narrowly rounded; humeral angles undeveloped, their 
piligerous tubercles inconspicuous. Median dorsal pronotal carina and pro- 
mesonotal suture obsolete. Propodeal lamella? small, translucent, forming upper 
and lower short, apically rounded teeth, the lowers slightly the larger; lamella 
connecting upper tooth with lower tooth moderately excised. 

Petiole with a distinct, dorsally rounded node and a tapered peduncle sub- 
equal to it in length. The node is long-oval seen from above; maximum 
width about 0.15 mm. A thin, even longitudinal band and two tiny trans- 
parent rounded lobes one on each side of the band posteriorly complete the 
ventral petiolar spongiform vestiture; the node is free above and laterally, 
with only a very narrow, raised, collar-like flange of thin, stiff translucent 


Mar., 1954] 


Brown: Ants 


59 


material around the posterodorsal border which widens slightly on each side 
behind to form thin posterolateral lobes. Postpetiole muffin-shaped, basically 
much as in saliens; the disc strongly convex, subcircular in outline seen from 
above, slightly broader than long, continuously marginate along the sides and 
behind. A thin, transparent lamelliform band running around below the 
posterior border of the disc, confluent ventrolaterally on each side with a large, 
dependent, subacute, vesicular leaflike lobe of thin, transparent lamellar 
material. First gastric sternite anteriorly with a low half-ring of spongiform 
tissue. A very narrow, thin, arching lamelliform band along the anterior 
discal border. 

Body finely and densely reticulo-punctulate, opaque; funiculi, much of legs, 
mandibles, and postpetiolar disc with feebler sculpture, subopaque. Gaster 
smooth and shining, basally with about 15 distinct and well spaced costulas 
extending about 1/6 the length of the basal gastric tergite. 

Body proper clothed abundantly with fairly short but conspicuous, strongly 
spatulate hairs, disposed as follows: dorsum of head including clypeus covered, 
the hairs subreclinately curved anteriorly. 7-8 slender ones directed apically 
along the anterior border of each scape. Promesonotum with hairs like those 
of the head, but not so conspicuous, and curved medially. A row, curved pos- 
teriorly, along each side of the propodeal dorsum. Posterior surfaces of both 
nodes each with a conspicuous patch, suberect and posteriorly curved. Dorsum 
of gaster, except for an anterior partially nude area, with a conpicuous, spaced 
clothing of slender, appressed spatulate hairs, their apices directed posteriad. 
In addition to the ground pilosity, there are three pairs of longer, erect clavate 
hairs, flattened apically, one pair on the vertex and one pair each on the 
humeri and at the anterior fifth of the center of gastric segment I. Most 
surfaces of mandibles, legs, antennae, and underside of head with a dense 
vestiture of short, narrowly spatulate or simple hairs, mostly subappressed or 
appressed. Apex and venter of gaster with a few long, erect subflagellate hairs. 

Color medium ferrugineous, slightly on the yellowish side, the head very 
slightly darker than alitrunk; gaster medium red-brown, slightly darker than 
rest of body. 

Holotype a unique worker in the collection of Father Thomaz 
Borgmeier, Jacarepagua, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, collected at Tapera, 
Pernambuco, Brazil (Pickel). Nothing is known concerning the 
biology of this very distinct species. 

Strumigenys trinidadensis Wheeler 

Strumigenys trinidadensis Wheeler, 1922, Amer. Mus. Novit. 45: 12, 
worker (original description). 


60 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


Strumigenys saliens, Wheeler, 1916 and 1922, nec Mayr; see under 
S. saliens synonymy above. 

Worker: TL 3 .4-3.8, HL 0.78-0.83, ML 0.52-0.56, WL 0.80-0.88 mm.; 
Cl 78-82, MI 66-69. Measurements are from 12 specimens representing six 
localities and at least that many nests. Quantitative internidal variation virtual- 
ly absent. A check inspection of a larger series from the same nests showed 
no variation in absolute measurements beyond the cited extremes. The holo- 
type, though damaged, is a representative specimen toward the upper end of 
the size range. 

This species is intermediate in general charactistics between the mandibularis 
series and the hindenburgi-emeryi series. The head is somewhat depressed, with 
prominent occipital lobes and a large occipital excision. The eyes are large 
and convex and directed predominantly laterad. Mandibles nearly straight, but 
with convex outer borders, narrowed just at insertions, thickest just apicad of 
insertions, and tapered from there to apex. A single reduced intercalary tooth 
present as a reclinate spur on the inner side of the ventral tooth of the apical 
fork. Preapical teeth two, small and widely spaced; distal preapical tooth near 
the apical quarter of the ML, proximal a bit apicad of mid-ML. Distal preapical 
tooth uually about 1/3 or less the length of the dorsal apical tooth, proximal 
even shorter, but both teeth fully distinct even at low magnifications, and both 
acute. Scapes long, slender, very nearly straight, slightly incrassate near base 
and gently tapering toward apex. 

Humeri angulate and tuberculate; promesonotal suture marked by a distinct 
semicircular carina; median promesonotal carina strong. Region centering on 
metanotal groove deeply impressed. Propodeal teeth long, slender, acute, in- 
clined, the upper pair as long as or slightly longer than the distance between 
the centers of their bases and only slightly longer than the lower pair. Lamella 
between upper and lower teeth of a single side reduced to a low, concave 
carina, much as in saliens. Petiolar peduncle long, slender, as long as or slightly 
longer than node; node long, low, rounded above, its free part longer than 
broad. Of petiolar appendages, the ventral band is reduced to a narrow sliver; 
posterodorsal collar fairly well developed, its lateral portions with heavily 
sclerotized central pads. Postpetiole slightly broader than long; disc convex; 
spongiform appendages fairly well developed, the lateral pads with sclerotized 
darker portions in the centers. 

Head, alitrunk and both nodes densely reticulo-punctulate and opaque, the 
dorsal surfaces mostly with weak overlying rugulation. Basal segment of gaster 
entirely and very densely and finely longitudinally striolate, silky-opaque. Apical 
segments and venter of gaster smooth and shining, with minute, spaced piliger- 
ous punctulae. 

Ground pilosity of head, including border pilosity of clypeus and scapes, con- 
sisting of small and inconspicuous, more or less reclinate, narrow-spatulate 


Mar., 1954] 


Brown: Ants 


61 


hairs. A pair of longer erect spatulate hairs in front of occipital excision. 
Paired long flagellate hairs found : one pair on lateral occipital borders, one 
pair on humeri, one pair bilaterally on mesonotum. Numerous long flagellate 
hairs erect on both nodes, becoming very abundant and crowded on the gas- 
ter, venter as well as dorsum. Color uniform ferrugineous yellow. 

Male (a specimen taken with workers at Tumupasa, Bolivia) : TL 3.0, 
HL 0.55, WL 0.94, forewing L 2.6, greatest eye diameter 0.29 mm.; Cl 112 
(HW including eyes is 0.62 mm.). Straightline exposed length of a single 
mandible about 0.11 mm. Eyes very large, bulging, distant from mandibular 
insertions by about the mandibular length. Mesothorax bulky, dorsum flat, 
notaulices distinct anteriorly only; parapsidal furrows distinct. Scutum with 
longitudinal rugulation superimposed on reticulate ground sculpture. Upper 
propodeal teeth represented by subrectanglar projections subtended by gently 
concave lamelliform carinae. 

Petiole claviform, node low and poorly differentiated from its peduncle, the 
dorsal surface of which slopes evenly and gradually up to the nodal summit. 
Postpetiole broader than long, disc convex. Both nodes with small but dense 
paired subspongiform pads in the posterolateral and posteroventral positions. 

Gaster feebly and indefinitely striate at extreme base; otherwise, like the 
nodes and most of the thoracic pleura, smooth and shining. Pilosity general 
and fairly abundant, of moderate- and medium-length fine, curved simple 
hairs, reclinate to inclined erect, not conspicuous. Wings densely covered with 
brownish microtrichia. 

Veins of forewing with Rs+M obsolete, Mf3.4 obsolescent, Rs very weak 
and indefinite. Hamuli of hindwing 5. 

Yellowish ferrugineous except for head and median section of scutum, 
which are blackish-brown. 

The mandibles, as in other species, are much reduced; nevertheless, the 
acute apices are barely capable of being opposed at their extreme tips. The 
inner borders are nearly straight, outer borders convex, blades tapered to very 
acute apices. Genitalia of a second specimen from the same (Tumupasa) series 
have been dissected, and a figure of the volsella will be presented in another 
part of this revision. The genitalia are in the usual strumigenite pattern, and 
were fully retracted in the present cabinet specimens. 

The holotype of S. trinidadensis [MCZ] is a damaged specimen 
from Port of Spain, Trinidad (R. Thaxter). Another damaged speci- 
men with the same data as the holotype is also in the MCZ; this is 
the specimen Wheeler thought to be S. saliens. 


62 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIi 


Other material studied: Trinidad: Mt. Tucuche (P.J. Darlington). 
Brazil: Recife (Lima-Castro) . Tapera, Pernambuco (Pickel). Bolivia: 
Cachuela Esperanza, Rio Beni (W. M. Mann). Tumupasa (Mann). 

The range of this species, formerly thought to be confined to Trini- 
dad, is now shown to be very extensive on the South American main- 
land. Probably collecting in central Brazil will show it to be a com- 
mon species in many localities. We have no information regarding its 
nesting habits or ecological preferences within its known range. 

With its densely striolate gastric dorsum and dense, long, fine, 
erect, flagellate gastric pilosity, this species resembles a few other 
New World forms: bindenburgi Forel, marginiventris Santschi and 
lanuginosa Wheeler, but it differs from all of these in details of man- 
dibular form and dentition, propodeal armament and other features. 
S. bindenburgi has the same dental formula in general, but in this 
species the mandibles are inserted much closer together and the pro- 
ximal preapical tooth is reduced to a very small denticle; furthermore, 
bindenburgi has a broad lamellate margin along each dorsal scrobe 
border, lacking in trinidadensis. The mandibles of trinidadensis are 
basically those of the mandibularis series, although the relatively re- 
duced status of the proximal preapical tooth may cause some confusion 
when the species has to be contrasted with forms having this tooth 
really drastically reduced and denticuliform. 


Mar., 1954] 


Schneirla : Social Insects 


63 


INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR THE STUDY OF 
SOCIAL INSECTS 

The number of scientists interested in the investigation of prob- 
lems concerning the social insects, and the variety of interests among 
these individuals, have increased sufficiently to create a demand for 
an international organization to coordinate their efforts and facili- 
tate the study of such problems. 

After a preliminary meeting at the 1951 International Congress 
of Entomology in Amsterdam, the organization of national branches 
proceeded in France, Germany, Italy, the United States, and other 
countries. The International Union through which these branches 
are now associated has its office in Paris, 105 Boulevard Raspail, 
at the laboratory of Dr. Pierre-P. Grasse, who is President of the 
international organization. 

The principal objective of the International Union is to encourage 
the scientific study of problems concerning the social insects includ- 
ing all phases of their biology, ecology, taxonomy, and behavior, and 
to facilitate the exchange of evidence and ideas in this general field 
through conferences and appropriate publications. The organization 
will thus foster communication within a large and heterogeneous 
international body of scientists interested in the social insects and 
related forms. Previously, articles published on subjects cognate to 
the social insects have been scattered through a considerable number 
of highly diversified journals, and integration has been corresponding- 
ly limited among the interested investigators and students themselves. 

An introductory BULLETIN of three numbers was published in 
France during 1953 and issued to members through the Paris office. 
Beginning in 1954 an illustrated journal of 320 pages entitled "In- 
sectes Sociaux” will be published by Masson and issued in an annual 
volume of quarterly numbers. Subscriptions to this journal may be 
arranged through Stechert-Hafner, 31 East 10 Street, New York. 

Two international symposia on the social insects have been spon- 
sored by this organization and a third one is to be held in conjunc- 
tion with the next International Congress of Entomology. The North 


64 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


American branch sponsored symposia at the meetings of the Ento- 
mological Society of America in Philadelphia in 1952 and in Los 
Angeles in 1953, and further ones will be held. Comparable con- 
ferences are organized periodically by the other national branches. 

Those who are seriously interested in the scientific study of prob- 
lems pertaining to the social insects may apply to the Secretary of 
the North American branch, Dr. Robert E. Gregg, Department of 
Zoology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, for membership 
application blanks. Members of the organization, in consideration 
of a modest annual dues payment, receive the ''Notes and News” 
section of the journal. 

The North American branch invites the interest of prospective 
members in Canada, Central America, Mexico and rhe United 
States. — T. C. Schneirla, Chairman, North American branch, 
I. U. S. S. I. 


The 


The 

New York Entomological Society 


The meetings of the Society are held on the first and third Tuesday of each month 
(except June, July, August and September) at 8 P. M., in the AMERICAN MUSEUM OF 
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Annual dues for Active Members, $4.00; including subscription to the Journal, $6.00. 

Members of the Society will please remit their annual dues, payable in January, to 
the treasurer. 


i’ 'Y ri 1 j 4 y L 

Officers for the Year 1954 

President, DR. LUCY W. CLAUSEN American Museum of Natural History 

Vice-President , DR. ROMAN VISHNIAC 219 W. 81st St., N. Y. 24, N. Y. 

Secretary, DR. LOUIS S. MARKS 74 Main St., Tuckahoe, N. Y. 

Assistant Secretary, DR. FREDERICK H. RINDGE 

American Museum of Natural History 

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Editor Emeritus, DR. HARRY B. WEISS Highland Park, N. J. 

Editor, FRANK A. SORACI Allentown, N. J. 

Associate Editor, HERBERT F. SCHWARZ .... American Museum of Natural History 


E. W. Teale 
E. Irving Huntington 

TRUSTEES 

Dr. Alexander B. Klots 

‘ 1 

Dr. Mont A. Cazier 
Dr. James Forbes 

Frank A. Soraci 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 
E. W. Teale 
Herbert F. Schwarz 

Dr. James Mullen 

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PROGRAM COMMITTEE 

Dr. Roman Vishniac 

Dr. James Mullen 

FIELD COMMITTEE 

Dr. T. C. Schneirla 

DELEGATE TO THE N. Y. ACADEMY OF 
Herbert F. Schwarz 

SCIENCES 


■jp 


y : ' A ' . 

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voi. lxii 


No. 2 


JUNE, 1954 

Journal 

of the 

New York Entomological Society 

Devoted to Entomology in General 


Editor Emeritus HARRY B. WEISS 



FRANK A. SORACI HERBERT F. SCHWARZ 

E. W. TEALE JAMES MULLEN 


Subscription $5.00 per Year 


CONTENTS 


The Spider Genera Episinus and Spintharus from North 


America, Central America and the West Indies 
(Araneae: Theridiidae) 

By Herbert W. Levi 65 

Notes on the Bumble-Bee (Bombus fervidus Fabricius) 
and Its Chromosomes 

By Roy M. Whelden 91 

New Arrangements for Journal . . . 98 

A New Arachisothrips from Argentina 

By J. Douglas Hood 99 

Insects for Sale in New York City before 1800 104 

Exhibits of Insects in New York City before 1800 . 104 


Redescription of Discothyrea testacea Roger, A Little- 


Known North American Ant, with Notes on the 
Genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 

By Marion R. Smith and Merle W. Wing 105 

An Annotated List of the Butterflies and Skippers of 
Cuba (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) 

By Salvador Luis de la Torre y Callejas 113 


NOTICE: Volume LXII, Number 1, of the Journal 
of the New York Entomological Society was 
Published on October 29, 1954. 


Published Quarterly for the Society 
By United Printing Services, Inc. 

263 Chapel St., New Haven, Conn. 

Subscriptions should be sent to the Treasurer, J. Huberman, American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York 24, N. Y. 

Entered as second class matter July 7, 1925, at the post office at New Haven, 
Conn., under the Act of August 24, 1912. 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in the Act of Feb- 
ruary 28, 1925, embodied in Paragraph (d-2) Section 34.40 P. L. & R. of 1948. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

New York Entomological Society 


Vol. LXII June, 1954 No. 2 


THE SPIDER GENERA EPISINUS AND SPINTHARUS 
FROM NORTH AMERICA, CENTRAL AMERICA 
AND THE WEST INDIES (ARANEAS: THERIDIIDAE) 

By Herbert W. Levi 

University of Wisconsin, Extension Center, Wausau, Wisconsin 

The cooperation and help of a number of individuals have made 
possible the revision of these two genera of combfooted spiders. Dr. 
W. J. Gertsch, Curator of Spiders of the American Museum of 
Natural History, generously loaned the large collection of Episinus 
and Spintharus under his care, and offered many greatly appreciated 
suggestions and other aids. Additional specimens were loaned by 
the late Miss E. B. Bryant and Dr. P. J. Darlington of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Dr. R. V. Chamberlin of the University 
of Utah, Dr. H. Dietrich of Cornell University, and Dr. B. J. Kaston 
of the Connecticut Teachers College in New Britain. For the gift 
of specimens from Dr. H. Wiehle of Dessau, Germany, I am deeply 
grateful. I also owe many thanks to Mrs. C. Crocker who helped 
in providing library material and to my wife who helped in all 
parts of the work. 

All measurements given are the maximum (excluding spines) for 
the respective parts. The drawings are of the left palpi. All types 
are deposited in the American Museum of Natural History. 

Episinus Latreille 

Episinus Latreille, 1809, Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum 4: 371. 
Genotype: Episinus truncatus Latreille. 



10 m9 


66 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


Janulus Thorell, 1881, Ann. Mus. Genova 17: 163. Genotype: Janulus 
bicornis Thorell, 1881. New synonymy. 

? Episinopsis Simon, 1894, Hist. Nat. Araignees 1: 522. Genotype: 
Episinopsis rhomboidalis Simon, 1894. (Probably should be 
united with Episinus; however, the type could not be consulted.) 

Janula Strand, 1932, Folia zool. hydrobiol. 4: 139. (To replace 
Janulus which has been used by Lowe, 1852, for a mollusk.) 
New synonymy. 

Medium sized to small theridiid spiders. Carapace longer than wide. 
Height of carapace about one-third to one-half its width. Thoracic region 
usually slightly higher than eye region, or of equal height. Species of larger 
size have a deep, wide, median longitudinal depression in thoracic region. 
Frequently in species of smaller size there is a characteristic pair of tubercles 
between anterior and posterior median eyes (figs. 40, 42, 43). Anterior 
eye row straight, . slightly recurved or procurved as seen from in front, 
posterior row straight or slightly recurved as seen from above. Median 
eyes closer to laterals than to each other. Lateral eyes touching or slightly 
separated from each other. Anterior medians subequal or slightly larger 

than others. Lenses of eyes in several species modified into tubercles with 
only the apex transparent (fig. 42). Chelicerse small. Sternum slightly 
longer than wide, truncate between posterior coxae. First legs longest, 

third shortest. Retrolateral tubercles on patellae usually present. A tarsal 
comb present on fourth legs. Abdomen longer than wide or sometimes wider 
than long to subtriangular, wider near spinnerets and sometimes with a 
pair of large lateral extensions near the posterior end (figs. 32-38). Colulus 
very small, sometimes not visible. Some specimens of E. cognatus have 
decorative spindle shaped setae (fig. 41) on abdomen and E. gratiosus has 
these on both the abdomen and legs. Some specimens of other species have 
a small median dorsal nipple-like tubercle on the abdomen (figs. 35, 38), 
or a small thorn-like process on each lateral extension (fig. 38). 

Epigynum with more or less distinct openings in a depression. One pair 
of seminal receptacles present. Palpus (figs. 1-14) with a median apophysis 
(M in figs.), which is a separate sclerite dorsal in position, sausage shaped, 
and holding the bulb in the cymbium (Y). Radix (R) of various shapes 
and conductor (C) a characteristic, very large, and very complex group of 
sclerites apparently held together by haematodocha. The conductor may hold 
the tip of the embolus (E). The embolic division resembles that of other 
theridiids related to Theridion. The male genitalia of Episinus appear simi- 
lar to those of Thwaitesia. The genera can readily be distinguished, however, 
by the shapes of their abdomens. Thwaitesia has a high median dorsal 
extension but no lateral ones. 


June, 1954] 


Levi : Spiders 


67 


Wiehle, (1937), describes the two European species as hanging 
with outstretched legs, T etragnatha- like, underneath horizontal threads 
in low shrubs. Episinus amoenus according to Archer, (1946), preys 
on ants, and lives on evergreen shrubs or in leaf litter next to logs 
in rich forests. 

In a study of the web of Episinus angulatus (Blackwall), Holm, 
(1938), found that immature spiders in captivity construct a simple 
web to catch insects. The spiders sit between two threads (figs. 44, 
45). The lower portions of the two threads below the spider are 
of viscid silk and break easily. Any insect caught by the strands 
breaks the thread and is pulled up and eaten by the spider. When 
disturbed, the spiders stretched their legs parallel to the body, and 
on further disturbance would fall to the ground. The egg sac, 
which is usually found under loose stones and moss is white, spherical 
to pear shaped, 6-7 mm. in diameter, and has a stalk of coarse threads. 
The 27-47 light red eggs are contained by a covering of tight threads 
and the outside is made of many coarse threads. The female leaves 
the egg sac after it is made. 

Members of the genus Episinus have been described from most 
parts of the world, however, none is known from Canada and only 
two species occur in the United States. Episinus amoenus , which 
resembles the European species of Episinus, is found in the south- 
eastern states, and E. cognatus, which is closer to several rare species 
found in Mexico, Central America and the West Indies, is found 
in Texas, Mexico and Central America. 

Species described as Episinus which do not belong to it are: 
Episinus minusculus, Gertsch, 1936, Amer. Mus. Novitates 842: 9 
(fig.9 6), which belongs to a new genus described elsewhere. 

Episinopsis simplicifrons Simon, 1897, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 
p. 860, from St. Vincent Island is not known to me. It probably 
belongs to Episinus. 

Episinus truncatus Latreille 
Figures 1-3, 15, 16 

Episinus truncatus Latreille, 1809, Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum 
4: 371. -Wiehle, 1937, Theridiidas in Die Tierwelt Deutsch- 
lands 33: 128 (figs. 4-9 S $ ). 


68 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


Distribution: Europe, Russia and North Africa (Wiehle, 1937). The 
American records referring to this species are probably all E. 
amoenus Banks. 

Episinus amoenus Banks 
Figures 4, 17, 18, 32, 39. 

Episinus amoenus Banks, 1911, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 
63: 445 (figs, 13, 15 d 2 ). -Roewer, 1942, Katalog der 
Araneae 1: 450. -Comstock, 1940, The Spider Book, rev. edit, 
p. 357 (figs. 335-336 $). -Muma, 1944 Amer. Mus. Novitates 
1257: 7. -Muma, 1945, Bull. Univ. Maryland Agric. Exp. Sta. 
A38: 26. -Archer, 1946, Pap. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist. 22: 32. 

Episinus truncatus, Keyserling, 1884, Die Spinnen Amerikas 2(1): 
209. -Marx, 1889, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 12: 524. -Marx, 1891, 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 2: 156. -Banks, 1910, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. 72: 24. -Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
29: 176. -Comstock, 1912, The Spider Book, p. 342, (figs. 335- 
336 $ ). -Bishop and Crosby, 1926, Jour. Elisha Mitchell Scient. 
Soc. 41: 177. -Chamberlin and Ivie, 1944, Bull. Univ. Utah, 
Biol. Ser. 8: 80. (not E. truncatus Latreille). 

MALE: Carapace brown with radiating dusky marks, and a dusky border. 
Eye region black. Chelicerae and clypeus dusky. Sternum dusky brown, 
lighter in the center. Legs yellow brown with dusky and brown marks. 
Abdomen white with dusky grey to black markings. 

Carapace highest between third and fourth coxae. The high area has a 
Y shaped depression, anterior to which is a longitudinal thoracic line. 
Clypeus concave, deeply undercutting eye region (fig. 39). Anterior eye 
row straight, posterior row recurved. Tubercles between eyes absent, but 
area slightly raised. Anterior median eyes separated by two-thirds their 
diameter, almost touching laterals. Posterior median eyes separated by one 
diameter, one diameter from laterals. Lateral eyes separated by less than 
one-fifth their diameter. Anterior median eyes slightly larger than others 
which are about subequal. Height of clypeus equals diameter of anterior 
median eyes. Sternum longer than wide, (1.3: 1), posterior coxae sep- 
arated by less than one-quarter their diameter. Abdomen two and one-half 
times longer than wide. Palpus illustrated by figure 4. 

Total length of a male from Maryland 3.0 mm. Carapace 1.24 long, 
1.04 wide, 0.39 high. First femur, 330; patella and tibia, 3.60; meta- 


June, 1954] 


Levi : Spiders 


69 


tarsus, 3.45; tarsus, 1.10. Second patella and tibia, 1.73. Third patella 
and tibia, 1.15. Fourth patella and tibia, 2.45. 

Female: The color and structure is similar to that of the male except 

for the abdomen which is quite variable in shape. The tubercles may be 
long and pointed in immature individuals or short and round in mature 
females (figs. 32, 39). The epigynum is a depression with the posterior 
rim and openings of the ducts sclerotized, (fig. 17). The internal genitalia 
are lightly sclerotized, the lumen of the coiled connecting ducts is difficult 
to see (fig. 18). 

Total length 3-0-4. 5 mm. A female from Florida, total length 4.3; cara- 
pace, 1.60 long, 1.30 wide, 0.65 high. First femur, 3-20; patella and tibia, 
3.20; metatarsus, 3.18; tarsus, 0.98. Second patella and tibia, 2.01. Third 
patella and tibia, 1.30. Fourth patella and tibia, 2.89. 

Episinus amoenus, found in the southeastern states, appears to be 
closely related to E. angulatus ( Blackwall ) , and other European species. 
Details of the genitalia differentiate it from them. 

Type locality: Male and female cotypes from north fork, Swan- 
nanoa River, Black Mountain, North Carolina, collected in May from 
rhododendron bushes: probably in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. 

Records: MARYLAND: Dorchester Co.: Sharptown, June 15, 

1942, sweeping low bushes, $ (M. H. Muma). Prince Georges Co.: 
College Park, $ (Muma 1944). DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Oct., 
2 juv. (W. H. Fox); Aug., $ (W. H. Fox); Washington, juv. 

(N. Banks); Rock Creek, Potomac Hills (Marx 1891). VIRGINIA: 
Highland Co.: Monterey, July 30, 1943 in mixed forest, 2 (R. 

Craft). NORTH CAROLINA: Durham Co.: Durham, June 11, 
1953, $ (L. and H. Levi). Grant Co.: Raleigh, Aug. 1912, 

2 , juv. (C. S. Brimley). Buncombe Co.: Black Mountain, $ (N. 

Banks); Montreat, Oct. 16, 1923, juv. TENNESSEE: "Montvale 
Springs”, March 18, 1929, 2 juv. (W. M. Barrows). GEORGIA: 
Neel Gap (P. W. Fattig), Dougherty Co.: Albany, July 18, 1938, 
$ (H. K. Wallace). Hall Co.: five miles north of Gainesville, 

April 26, 1943, juv. (Chamberlin and Ivie 1944). Rabun Co.: 
Clayton to Tallulah Falls, April 28, 1943, juv. (Chamberlin and Ivie 
1944). ALABAMA: Cherokee Co.: May’s Gulf, Oct. 13, 1949, 
juv. (J. H. Robinson). Baldwin Co.: Hog Creek, 1940, juv. (Archer 


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1946); Black Warrior National Forest, June 1939, $ (Archer 1946). 
Clarke Co.: Three miles north of Grove Hill, juv., (Archer 1946). 
Coosa Co.: Hatchet Creek, June 1940, $ (Archer 1946). Tuscaloosa 
Co.: Alberta City, June 5, 1941, $ (Archer 1946). FLORIDA: 
Alachua Co.: west of Gainesville, April 18, 1938, 2 (W. J. Gertsch). 
Dade Co.: Royal Palm State Park, Feb. 26, 1936, $ . 

Episinus bruneoviridis (Mello-Leitao) new combination 

Figures 13, 19, 20, 34. 

Faiditus bruneoviridis Mello-Leitao, 1948, An. Acad. Brasileira Cienc. 
20:156 (figs. 4, 5 $ ). 

MALE: Carapace yellowish with cephalic area dusky, a median dusky 

line and dusky border. Eyes with black rings and some red pigment. 

Sternum yellow. Legs yellow with dusky spots. 

Carapace typical with slight tubercles between anterior and posterior 
median eyes. A deep wide longitudinal depression in thoracic region. 
Anterior eye row slightly procurved, posterior row recurved. Anterior med- 
ian eyes separated by two-thirds their diameter, almost touching laterals. 
Posterior median eyes separated by one diameter, by two-thirds from laterals. 
Laterals almost touching. Anterior lateral and posterior eyes 0.6 diameter 
of anterior medians, which are the largest. Height of clypeus equals almost 
two diameters of anterior median eyes. Sternum longer than wide (1.3:1). 
Small tubercule on retrolateral face of patella. Palpal femora fairly long. 
The palpus is illustrated by figure 13. 

Carapace 0.81 mm. long, 0.71 wide. First femur, 1.55; patella and tibia, 
1.82; metatarsus, 1.70; tarsus, 0.38. Second patella and tibia, 1.04. Third 
patella and tibia, 0.65. Fourth patella and tibia, 1.50. 

FEMALE: Coloration similar to that of male. Legs with irregular light 

dusky patches, more distinct on venter of segments. Abdomen with a dorsal 
white folium, sides black to dusky-grey, venter light grey (fig. 34). 

Tubercles of eye region apparently of variable height. Eyes slightly 
farther apart than those of male. Height of clypeus one and one-half di- 
ameters of anterior median eyes. First and fourth legs subequal in length. 
Abdomen egg shaped, widest near spinnerets, and sometimes coming to a 
point above carapace. One specimen had a small nipple-shaped protuber- 
ance on dorsum at highest point of abdomen. Epigynum quite variable in 
regard to proportions. It is illustrated by figure 19. The openings are 
apparently slitlike, on the anterior margin of a sclerotized area. They lead 
into lightly sclerotized connecting canals of large diameter (fig. 20). 


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Levi : Spiders 


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Total length of females from 2.4-2. 9 mm. Total length of a female from 
Panama 2.5, carapace 1.04 long, 0.85 wide. First femur, 1.70; patella and 
tibia, 1.71; metatarsus, 1.70; tarsus, 0.65. Second patella and tibia, 1.03. 
Third patella and tibia, 0.78. Fourth patella and tibia, 1.70. 

Type locality: Cane Grove, British Guiana. 

Records: CANAL ZONE: Barro Colorado Isl., several records. 

TRINIDAD: Navy base, south west, April 1945, 9 (R. Ingle). 

Episinus gratiosus Bryant 
Figure 23 

Episinus gratiosus Bryant, 1940. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 86: 313 
(fig. 65 $ ). -Bryant, 1948, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 100: 382. 

This species is not known to me. Both the abdomen and legs, 
according to the author, have spindle shaped spines. The epigynum 
'with a transverse oval opening at the anterior end, followed by a 
convex area, showing a pair of dark oval sacs beneath the skin”. 

(% 23). 

The female holotype is from Oriente, Pico Turquino, (1500 feet) 
in Cuba, in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and an additional 
specimen was found in the hills near Port-au-Prince, (2000 feet) in 
Haiti (Bryant 1948). 

Episinus cognatus O. P.-Cambridge 
Figures 8-10, 21, 22, 33, 41. 

Episinus cognatus O. P.-Cambridge, 1893, Biologia Centrali- Ameri- 
cana, Araneidea 1: 109 (pi. 15, fig. 2 $ ).-F. O. P.-Cambridge, 
1902, Biologia Centrali-Americana, Araneidea 2: 398 (pi. 37, fig. 
26, 27 $ $ ).-Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 29: 
175. -Banks, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 69: 87 (figs. 23, 45, 
49, 53, 76 S $ ).-Roewer, 1942, Katalog der Araneae 1: 449. 

Episinus putus O. P.-Cambridge, 1894, Biologia Centrali-Americana, 
Araneidea 1: 132 (pi. 18, fig. 7 $ ).-F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1902, 
Biologia Centrali-Americana, Araneidea 2: 397 (pi. 37, fig. 25 $ ).- 
Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 29: 176.-Roewer, 
1942, Katalog der Araneae 1: 450. New synonymy. 


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Episinus bigibbosus O. P.-Cambridge, 1896, Biologia Centrali- Ameri- 
cana, Araneidea 1: 167, 208 (pi. 20, fig. 8 $ ; pi. 26, fig. 6 $ ). 

MALE: Carapace yellowish, with an indistinct median dusky line and an 
indistinct dusky border. Region around eyes reddish. Sternum yellow, 
dusky on sides. Legs yellow with indistinct dusky patches. Abdomen white 
with grey and black spots, venter grey with a white line on each side (fig. 33). 

Carapace with many fine hairs. A deep longitudinal thoracic depression 
present. No noticeable tubercles in eye region. Both eye rows recurved. 
Bases of anterior median eyes separated by one diameter, one-fourth of their 
diameter from bases of laterals. Bases of posterior median eyes separated 
by their diameter, two-thirds their diameter from bases of laterals. Bases 
of lateral eyes almost touching. It appears that only the apical portions of 
the lenses are clear, the bases having pigmentation. Anterior median eyes 
larger than others. Clypeus convex, height a little more than diameter of 
anterior median eye. Sternum one and one-half times longer than wide. 
All palpal segments very long. Abdomen two and one-half to three times 
as long as wide. Palpus illustrated by figures 8-10. 

Total length of male 3. 9-4. 3 mm. Total length of a male from Hidalgo, 
4.3; carapace 1.41 long, 1.22 wide. Palpal femur, 1.95. First femur, 3.74; 
patella and tibia, 3.95; metatarsus, 4.67; tarsus, 1.18. Second patella and 
tibia, 2.22. Third patella and tibia, 1.44. Fourth patella and tibia, 3.01. 

FEMALE: Coloration similar to that of male. Structure of carapace and 

eyes like that of male except for posterior median eyes which are separated 
by two diameters and two diameters from laterals. Anterior median eyes 
larger than others. The palpal segments are of normal length. The shape 
of the abdomen is illustrated by figure 33. Several specimens have half a 
dozen large spindle-shaped setae (fig. 41) on the sides of the abdominal 
tubercles. The openings of the epigynum (fig. 21) are at the posterior end 
of the depression. The internal genitalia are much less sclerotized than in 
the preceding species, (fig. 22). 

Total length of female 4. 5-6.0 mm. A female from Hidalgo measured 5.3 
total length, carapace 1.60 long, 1.36 wide. First femur, 3.54; patella and 
tibia, 3.74; metatarsus, 4.30; tarsus, 0.94. Second patella and tibia, 2.16. 
Third patella and tibia, 1.44. Fourth patella and tibia, 3.10. 

F. O. P.-Cambridge mentions as the only difference between E. 
putus and E. cognatus, that the sclerites of the tip of the bulb are curved 
in one species and not in the other. However, only a slight twisting 
of the palp will produce in its sclerites the differences upon which 
Cambridge based his two species. For that reason, the species are here 
synonymized. Episinus cognatus is known from Texas to Panama. 


June, 1954] 


Levi : Spiders 


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Type localities: The male holotypes of both E. cognatus and E. 
putus are from Teapa in Tabasco, collected by H. H. Smith. The 
female holotype of E. bigibbosus came from Bugaba in Panama and 
was collected by Champion. All types, according to F. O. P.-Cam- 
bridge, are in the collection of Godman and Salvin. 

Records: TEXAS: Hidalgo Co.: Edinburg, Aug. 25, 1935, 2 

(S. Mulaik); s. of Pharr, April 5, 1936, S (S. Mulaik). TAM- 
AULIPAS: 3 miles s. of Villa Juarez, April 17, 1938, $ (A. M. and 

L. I. Davis); SAN LUIS POTOSI: 5 miles n. of Tamazunchale, July 2, 
juv. (A. M. and L. I. Davis); Tamazunchale, May 20, 1952, S (W. J. 
Gertsch); 4 miles n. of Ciudad de Valles, Nov. 26, 1938, 2 ( A. M. and 
L. I. Davis). HIDALGO: Chapulhuacan, May 20, 1952, $ 2 (W. J. 
Gertsch). VERACRUZ: Cordoba, May 15, 1946, juv. (J. C. and 

D. L. Pallister); Tlacotalpan, July 19, 1946, 2 (H. Wagner). 

OAXACA: Palomares, July 1909, $ (A. Petrunkevitch) ; Soyal- 

tepec, Aug. 2, 1946, 2 (H. Wagner). CHIAPAS: Finca Santa 

Marta nr. Huehuetan, Aug. 1, 1950, $ (C. and M. Goodnight); 

Ocosingo Valley, Finco El Real, July 1-7, 1950, juv. (C. and M. 
Goodnight and L. Stannard). GUATEMALA: Moca, June 1947, 
2 (C. and P. Vaurie); San Jeronimo, July 27, 1947, 2 (C. and P. 
Vaurie). CANAL ZONE: Barro Colorado Isl, Feb. 10, 1936, 2 
(W. J. Gertsch). 

Episinus panamensis, new species 
Figures 14, 35. 

MALE: Carapace yellowish with a black border and four pairs of 

dusky patches on sides. Eye region dusky red. Sternum yellowish. Legs 
yellowish with dusky rings on distal ends of femora and tibiae; patellae and 
proximal ends of metatarsi dusky. There are several additional dusky patches 
on the femora. Dorsum of abdomen whitish with dusky patches (fig. 35), 
venter whitish. 

Structure of carapace typical with a pair of tubercles in eye region. 
Anterior eye row straight, posterior row recurved. Anterior medians sepa- 
rated by one-fourth their diameter, almost touching bases of laterals. Pos- 
terior median eyes separated from each other by two diameters of transparent 
lenses and by one diameter from laterals. Laterals separated by two-thirds 
their diameter. Transparent portions of anterior median eyes twice the size 
of those of other eyes. Clypeus concave, one and one-half diameters of 
anterior median eyes. Basal portions of anterior lateral and all posterior 
eye lenses opaque. Sternum as wide as long, posterior coxae separated by 


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[Vol. LXII 


more than their diameter. Retrolateral surface of each patella with a tubercle. 
Abdomen with a central dorsal nipple-like protuberance (fig. 35). Palpal 
segments long, palpus illustrated by figure 14. 

Total length of male holotype 1.7 mm.; carapace 0.65 long, 0.66 wide. 
First femur, 1.69; patella and tibia, 1.75; metatarsus, 1.74; tarsus, 0.59. 
Second patella and tibia, 0.88. Third patella and tibia, 0.62. Fourth patella 
and tibia, 1.30. 

Type locality: Male holotype from Barro Colorado Island, Canal 

Zone, May 8, 1946 (T. C. Schneirla). 

Episinus erythrophthalmus (Simon), new combination 
Figures 24, 25, 36. 

Janulus erythrophthalmus Simon, 1894, Proc. Zool. Soc., London, 
1894, p. 525. -Simon, 1894, Histoire Naturelle des Araignees 1: 
514 (fig. 524, 525).-Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. 29: 180. 

Janula erythrophthalma, Roewer, 1942, Katalog der Araneae 1: 456. 

FEMALE: Carapace yellowish-white, darker on sides and in eye region. 

Eyes all light colored except anterior medians which are dark. Sternum 
slightly dusky, legs yellow white. Abdomen, dorsum yellowish-white, sides 
and posterior portions pink, venter yellowish-pink; white pigment spots on 
sides of spinnerets, on outsides of these a dusky patch. 

A pair of tubercles present between anterior and posterior median eyes. 

Eyes on slight tubercles. Both eye rows recurved. Anterior median eyes 
separated by two-thirds their diameter, by one-fourth from laterals. Base 

of posterior median eyes separated by one diameter and touching laterals. 
Anterior median eyes slightly larger than others. Height of clypeus equals 
about one diameter of anterior median eyes. Abdomen slightly longer than 
wide (fig. 36). Ducts of seminal receptacles opening on sides of a depres- 
sion; outside and anterior to openings on each side is a sclerite (fig. 24). 

Measurements of a female from Trinidad, total length 2.2 mm.; carapace, 
0.76 long, 0.65 wide. First femur, 1.55; patella and tibia, 1.62; metatarsus, 
1.50. Second patella and tibia, 0.91. Third patella and tibia, 0.65. 

Type locality: St. Vincent Island in the Lesser Antilles. 

Records: TRINIDAD: Navy Base, Oct. 1944, $ (R. Ingle). 

VENEZUELA: (Simon 1894). 

Episinus juarezi, new species 
Figures 5, 6, 30, 31, 42, 43. 

MALE: Carapace yellow white with a dark border and dark maculations 

on the sides. Eyes reddish, except anterior medians which are dark. Legs 


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white with distal portions of femora, patellae, distal portions of tibiae and 
proximal portions of metatarsi dusky to black. Abdomen, dorsum with ir- 
regular black and small white, pink and yellow spots. Venter dark yellow 
except for a white area surrounded by black under each lateral extension. 

A pair of tubercles present in eye region. Eyes on distinct tubercles (fig. 
42, 43), tubercles sometimes transparent and may originally have been part 
of the lens. If tubercle transparent, the iridescent floor visible. Both eye 
rows recurved. Anterior median eyes separated by one diameter, by one-third 
diameter from laterals. Transparent lenses of posterior median eyes separated 
by one and three-quarters from each other and by one diameter from laterals. 
Lateral eyes separated by two-thirds their diameter. Posterior median eyes 
and lateral eyes half the diameter of anterior medians. Height of clypeus 
equals one and one-half diameters of the anterior median eyes. Abdomen 
wider than long with a small median dorsal tubercle. The palpus is illus- 
trated by figures 5 and 6. 

Total length of male holotype 1.6 mm.; carapace 0.69 long, 0.62 wide. 
First femur, 1.14; patella and tibia, 1.24; metatarsus, 1.05; tarsus, 0.47. 
Second patella and tibia, 0.72. Third patella and tibia, 0.49. Fourth 
patella and tibia, 0.85. 

FEMALE: The coloration is like that of the male except that none of the 

females examined had dusky patches on legs. Coloration of abdomen highly 
variable, sometimes all red to various patterns of black, red, and yellowish, 

Eyes slightly closer together than those of male, but on similar tubercles. 
Size of eyes like those of male. Height of clypeus equal to diameter of 
anterior median eyes, height of chelicerae equals about two and one-third 
diameters of anterior median eyes. Abdomen wider than long, a median 
tubercle sometimes present. Epigynum with an anterior and a very small 
posterior lip. Ducts open on sides (fig. 30, 31). 

Total length of females 1. 9-2.2 mm. Female allotype total length 2.2; 
carapace, 0.78 long, 0.72 wide. First femur, 1.33; patella and tibia, 1.43; 
metatarsus, 1.30; tarsus, 0.57. Second patella and tibia, 0.81. Third patella 
and tibia, 0.63. Fourth patella and tibia, 1.04. 

Type locality: Male holotype and one male paratype from thir- 

teen miles south of Villa Juarez, Tamaulipas, April 17, 1938 (A. M. 
and L. I. Davis). 

Records: SAN LUIS POTOSI: 5 mi. n. of Tamazunchale, July 

2, $ (A. M. and L. I. Davis); Tamazunchale, July 18-20, 1946, $ 
allotype (J. C. and D. L. Pallister). OAXACA: Palomares, July 

1909, 9 paratype (A. Petrunkevitch). 


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Episinus chiapensis, new species 
Figure 7. 

MALE: Carapace yellow-white with a narrow black border that widens 

caudad. Eyes reddish. Sternum, legs yellow-white. Anterior of dorsum of 
abdomen with white pigment spots to a line between lateral abdominal 
extension, posterior portion black, sides dusky and venter yellowish-white. 

Eye tubercles smaller than in preceding species. Anterior eye row straight. 
Anterior median eyes separated by one-half their diameter, by one-eighth 
from laterals. Posterior median eyes separated by two-thirds their diameter, 
by one-half from laterals. Laterals separated by one-fourth their diameter. 
Posterior median eyes and lateral eyes two-thirds the diameter of anterior 
medians. Height of clypeus equals one diameter of anterior median eyes. 
Abdomen similar to that of E. juarezi. This species differs from E. juarezi 
in that it has longer legs, no eye tubercles, smaller tubercles between the 
eyes, and in that the conductor of the palpus is of a slightly different shape 
(fig. 7). 

Total length 1.4 mm.; carapace, 0.65 long, 0.57 wide. First femur, 1.27; 
patella and tibia, 1.39; metatarsus, 1.20; tarsus, 0.57. Second patella and 
tibia, 0.78. Third patella and tibia, 0.57. Fourth patella and tibia, 1.04. 

Type locality: Male holotype from Las Ruinas de Palenque, Chia- 

pas, July 1948 (C. and M. Goodnight). 

Records: CHIAPAS: Las Ruinas de Palenque, July 12, 1949, one 
juvenile collected while sweeping (C. Goodnight). 

Episinus colima, new species 
Figures 11, 40. 

MALE: Carapace yellowish-white with a fine dusky margin; sternum and legs 
yellow- white, patellae dusky. (Abdomen missing). 

The two tubercles of the carapace very pronounced ( fig. 40) . Anterior 
eye row straight. Anterior median eyes separated by one diameter, almost 
touching laterals. Posterior median eyes separated by two-thirds diameter 
and touching laterals. Lateral eyes almost touching. Diameter of posterior 
median eyes 0.9 diameter of anterior medians; laterals 0.7 diameter of 
anterior medians. Height of clypeus equals a little less than a diameter of 
anterior median eye. Second legs longer than fourth. The abdomen of 
the type has been lost. This species differs from E. nadleri in details in the 
shape of the conductor of the palpus (fig. 11). 

Carapace 0.52 mm. long, 0.47 wide. First femur, 0.76; patella and tibia, 
0.91; metatarsus, 0.55; tarsus, 0.43. Second patella and tibia, 0.58. Third 
patella and tibia, 0.44. Fourth patella and tibia, 0.53. 

Type locality: Male holotype from Las Humedades, Armeria, in 

Colima, January 19, 1943 (F. Bonet). 


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Episinus dominicus, new species 
Figures 26, 27, 38. 

FEMALE: Carapace light yellowish with irregular dusky maculations. Eyes, 

excepting dark anterior medians, are light. Sternum and legs, light yellow- 
white. Abdomen, all yellow-white with irregular dusky markings covering 
the whole dorsum. Thorns on lateral extension of abdomen brown. A small 
brown spot on each side of pedicel and two indistinct brown spots above 
spinnerets. 

Tubercles between anterior and posterior median eyes large. Anterior eye 
row straight. Anterior median eyes separated by one diameter, less than 
one-eighth diameter from laterals. Posterior median eyes separated by one 
diameter, touching laterals. Lateral eyes touching each other. Diameter of 
posterior median eyes 0.8 diameter of anterior medians, lateral eyes 0.7 
diameter of anterior medians. Height of clypeus equals diameter of anterior 
median eyes. Chelicerae two and one-half diameters of anterior median eyes. 
Abdomen hairy, with a median nipple-like tubercle, a similar tubercle on 
each lateral extension and another between each lateral tubercle and the 
median one, (fig. 38). Epigynum differs from that of E. nadleri in that 
it lacks an anterior lip (fig. 26). 

Total length 1.8 mm.; carapace 0.69 long, 0.65 wide. First femur, 1.14; 
patella and tibia, 1.25; metatarsus, 0.99; tarsus, 0.51. Second patella and 
tibia, 0.79. Third patella and tibia, 0.62. Fourth patella and tibia, 0.96. 

Type locality: Female holotype from Valle de Polo, (2000-3000 

feet), Dominican Republic, Aug. 1935 (H. B. Hassler). 

Episinus nadleri, new species 
Figures 12, 28, 29, 37. 

MALE: Carapace yellow white, eye region reddish. A pair of lateral red- 

dish-brown bands, fused in front, run posterior and are pointed behind (fig. 
37). Legs yellow white with a dark mark near distal end of femora. Dorsum 
of abdomen white with some dusky markings anterior and on sides. Venter 
yellowish white, white on venter of lateral extensions. 

Carapace fairly high. Tubercles between eyes large. Anterior eye row 
slightly procurved. Anterior median eyes separated by two-thirds diameter, 
almost touching laterals. Bases of posterior medians separated by one di- 
ameter, by one-third diameter from laterals. Diameter of bases of posterior 
median eyes 0.8 diameter of anterior medians, laterals 0.6 of anterior medians. 
Height of clypeus equals about diameter of anterior median eyes, chelicerse 
two diameters of anterior median eyes. Second and fourth legs subequal in 
length. A small median protuberance on abdomen and a small dorsal thorn 
on each lateral extension of abdomen. This species differs from others in 
the shape of the palpal sclerites (fig. 12). 


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Total length 1.4 mm.; carapace 0.63 long, 0.55 wide, 0.33 high. First 
femur, 0.80; patella and tibia, 0.91; metatarsus, 0.75; tarsus, 0.41. Second 
patella and tibia, 0.62. Third patella and tibia, 0.43. Fourth patella and 
tibia, 0.65. 

FEMALE: Coloration much like that of male, but quite variable. Cara- 

pace sometimes all dark red. Dorsum of abdomen with a grey pattern 
(fig. 37) with some reddish around the edges. Venter with two black 
bands, as wide as their intermediate area which is yellow white with some 
reddish pigment, sides white. 

Structure much like that of male except for anterior eyes which are slightly 
farther apart but about the same size as those of male. Abdomen lacking 
thorns on lateral extensions. Epigynum a slight circular depression, in the 
center of which is a lip (fig. 28). The ducts open into the posterior 
margin of the depression. 

Total length of the females 1.6-2. 4 mm. Holotype, total length 2.4; 
carapace 0.75 long, 0.65 wide, 0.22 high. First femur, 1.04; patella and 
tibia, 1.04; metatarsus, 0.90; tarsus, 0.49. Second patella and tibia, 0.65. 
Third patella and tibia, 0.52. Fourth patella and tibia, 0.81. 

Type locality: Female holotype from South Bimini, Bahama Is- 

lands, Dec. 12-18, 1952 (A. M. Nadler). 

Records: BAHAMA ISLANDS: South Bimini, Aug. 2-9, 1951, 

2 paratype (C. and P. Vaurie); Dec. 5-9 8 allotype (A. M. Nadler); 
March 22-28, 1953, 9 paratype (A. M. Nadler). North Bimini, 
Dec. 4, 1952, juv. (A. M. Nadler). 

Spintharus Hentz 

Spintharus Hentz, 1850, Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 6: 284. Geno- 
type: Spintharus flavidus Hentz. 

Medium sized theridiid spiders. Carapace low and almost circular in 
outline, highest between posterior median eyes. Thoracic region hardly 
raised with a slight median circular depression. Clypeus concave. Eyes 
small and subequal or anterior medians slightly smaller. Anterior eye row 
straight to slightly recurved as seen from in front, posterior row procurved 
as seen from above. Lateral eyes touching. Anterior eyes closer to laterals 
than to each other. Posterior eyes much closer to laterals than to each 
other. Chelicerae small. Posterior coxae separated by their width. Legs 
long. First or fourth legs longest, third shortest. Comb present on fourth 
tarsi. Spinnerets on posterior tip of abdomen. Colulus very small, usually 
with the two setae on its tip barely visible. Epigynum an oval pit, one pair 


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of seminal receptacles present. Embolic division (E in fig. 48) of palpus 
has shape typical of that of theridiids close to Theridion. The length of 
the embolus is supported by the conductor (C) which is attached to the 
tegulum (T) by haematodocha. Only a seam in Spintharus flavidus appears 
to separate the median apophysis (M) from the tegulum. The median 
apophysis fastens the bulb in the alveolus of the cymbium (Y). A radix 
(R) is present. 

Spintharus flavidus is common under the lower surface of leaves 
of bushes. It builds a delicate, nearly invisible web, and each foot is 
supported by a thread. (Comstock, 1940). The only known species 
of Spintharus are from America. ( S . argenteus Dyal, 1935, Bull. 

Dept. Zool., Panjab Univ. 1: 159 (figs. 80-85 S $ ) is probably 
not a Spintharus.) 

Species described as Spintharus which do not belong to this genus: 
Spintharus minutus Petrunkevitch, 1926, Trans. Connecticut, Acad. 
Sci. 28: 51 (fig. 11 9) from the Virgin Islands. Bryant, (1942, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 89: 343) synonymized Theridion dexteri 
Petrunkevitch, 1930, Trans. Connecticut Acad. Sci. 30: 200 (fig. 
45-50 $ $ ) from Puerto Rico with this species. 

Spintharus flavidus Hentz 
Figures 46, 48-50, 52, 53. 

Spintharus flavidus Hentz, 1850, Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 6: 284 
(pi. 10, fig. 8 $ ). -Hentz, 1875, Spiders of the United States, p. 
156, (pi. 17, fig. 8 $ ).-Emerton, 1882, Trans. Connecticut Acad. 
Sci. 6: 28 (pi. 5, fig. 7 $ ).-Keyserling, 1884, Die Spinnen Ameri- 
kas 2(1): 176 (pi. 8, fig. 107 S $ ).-Marx, 1889, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. 12: 523.-Marx, 1892, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 2: 156.- 
Simon, 1894, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1894, p. 521. -Simon, 1894, 
Histoire Naturelle des Araignees 1: 513 (fig. 519).-Banks, 1896, 
Jour. New York Ent. Soc. 4: 228.-Banks, 1898, Proc. California 
Acad. Sci., 3rd ser. 1: 279.-Emerton, 1902, The Common Spiders 
of the United States, p. 127 (fig. 302 $ ).-F. O. P.-Cambridge, 
1902, Biologia Centralia-Americana, Araneidea 2: 398 (pi. 37, fig. 
28, 29 $ $ ).-Banks, 1904, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 56: 
126.-Bryant, 1908, Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 7: ll.-Banks, 
1910, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 72: 24.-Banks, 1911, Proc. Acad. Nat. 


80 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. LXII 


Sci. Philadelphia 63: 446.-Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. 29: 187. -Comstock, 1912, The Spider Book, p. 341 
(fig. 332-334 8 $). -Barrows, 1918, Ohio Jour. Sci. 18: 304.- 

Petrunkevitch, 1925, Trans. Connecticut Acad. Sci. 27: 67.-Bishop 
and Crosby, 1926, Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 41: I80.-Crosby 
and Bishop, 1928, Mem. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. 101: 1040.- 
Banks, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 69: 86.-Petrunkevitch, 1930, 
Trans. Connecticut Acad. Sci. 30: 178.-Banks, Newport and Bird, 
1932, Univ. Oklahoma Biol. Surv. 4: 22.-Kaston, 1938, Bull. Con- 
necticut Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 60: 186.-Comstock, 1940, The 

Spider Book, rev. edit., p. 356, (fig. 332-334 8 $ ). -Bryant, 1940, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 86: 309.- Roewer, 1942, Katalog der 
Araneae 1: 444.-Muma, 1943, Common Spiders of Maryland, p. 
63 (pk 12, fig. 18, 19 8 $ ).-Muma, 1945, Bull. Univ. Maryland, 
Agric. Exp. Sta. A3 8: 2 7. -Archer, 1946, Pap. Alabama Mus. Nat. 
Hist. 22: 29--Bryant, 1948, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 100: 380.- 
Kaston, 1948, Bull. Connecticut Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv., 70: 90 
(fig. 87 $).- Archer, 1950, Pap. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist. 30: 25 
(pi. 3, fig. 1,2 8 ).-Kaston, 1953, How to Know the Spiders, p. 
158 (fig. 398 $). 

Spintharus elongatus Keyserling, 1884, Die Spinnen Amerikas, 2(1): 
178 (pi. 8, fig. 108 $ ). 

Spintharus lineatus O. P.-Cambridge, 1896, Biologia Centrali- Ameri- 
cana, Araneidea 1: 190 (pi. 23, fig 11 8 ). 

Spintharus af finis O. P.-Cambridge, 1896, Biologia Centrali- Ameri- 
cana, Araneidea 1: 190 (pi. 24, fig. 2 8 ). 

MALE: Coloration of carapace yellowish white, sometimes with a dusky 

border Sternum, legs, yellowish white. Distal ends of femora, tibiae and 
metatarsi frequently yellow, dusky, black or red. Abdomen with fine dusky 
or black longitudinal lines on each side and indications of two dusky or red 
crossbands. 

Anterior median eyes separated by 0.8 their diameter, one-third their di- 
ameter from laterals. Posterior median eyes separated by two and one-half 
diameters, by one-half diameter from laterals. Eyes subequal in size. Height 
of clypeus three diameters of anterior median eyes, chelicerae slightly longer. 
First legs usually longer than fourth. Two fine spines present on dorsal 
surface of patella, and one in center of tibia. Sides of abdomen almost 


June, 1954] 


Levi : Spiders 


81 


parallel, or slightly wider anterior, three times as long as wide. The palpus 
(fig. 48, 49) differs from that of S. gracilis Keyserling (Die Spinnen 
Amerikas 2(2): 244, pi. 20, fig. 298 $ $) in the shape of the conductor 
and also in that the embolus of specimens of S. gracilis from Brazil exam- 
ined describes a very much wider loop than that of S. flavidus. The shape 
of the palp of S. gracilis is rounder. 

Total length of males 2.2-3. 1 mm. A specimen from Alabama measured 
2.7 total length; carapace 0.93 long, 0.87 wide, 0.36 high. First femur, 
2.60; patella and tibia, 2.54; metatarsus, 2.88; tarsus, 0.56. Second patella 
and tibia, 1.30. Third patella and tibia, 0.81. Fourth patella and tibia, 2.08. 

FEMALE: Coloration like that of male except for abdomen (fig. 46, 50) 

which is white or yellow with black or red marks, but quite variable in 
color judging by the preserved specimens. 

Anterior median eyes slightly smaller than others in a ratio (1: 1.2) and 
separated from each other by one and one-quarter diameters and by one-half 
diameter from laterals. Posterior median eyes separated by two to three 
diameters, two-thirds diameter from laterals. Height of clypeus three and 
one-half diameters of anterior median eyes, chelicerae four diameters. Fourth 
or first legs the longest. Abdomen widest near anterior end. Tracheal 
spiracle some distance (about the length of an anterior spinneret) from 
spinnerets. The internal female genitalia are very difficult to study. The 
canal enters the seminal receptacles laterad. Whether the coils posterior 
to the seminal receptacles are supports or part of the duct is not certain, 
although they are believed to be part of the duct. There is considerable 
variation as to the position of these coils in different specimens. Epigynum 
is illustrated by figure 52. 

Total length of females 3. 0-5.4 mm. A specimen from Alabama meas- 
ured 3-60 total length; carapace 1.10 long, 1.07 wide, 0.44 high. First femur, 
2.20; patella and tibia, 2.14; metatarsus, 2.31; tarsus, 0.56. Second patella 
and tibia, 1.17. Third patella and tibia, 0.75. Fourth femur, 2.45; patella 
and tibia, 2.20; metatarsus, 2.70; tarsus, 0.69. 

This is an extremely variable species. In some specimens from 
Central America the eye region is elevated and the eyes are closer 
together. The coloration and shape of the abdomen is quite vari- 
able. One specimen from Veracruz has tubercles on the anterior end 
of the abdomen. The embolic division of the palpus varies in shape 
in different males particularly as to curvature and length of embolus. 
The connecting ducts of the female genitalia likewise are quite 
variable. It is assumed, however, that a specimen on hand from 
Trinidad is a distinct species. 


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Type localities: Spintharus flavidus was described by Hentz as 

coming from Alabama. Keyserling described S. elongatus from 
Tambillo, Peru. S. lineatus O. P.-Cambridge was found in Chichochoc, 
Guatemala and S. affinis in Coban, Guatemala. 

Distribution: Eastern United States, Mexico, Central America and 
probably South America. 

Records: MASSACHUSETTS: Middlesex Co.: Malden (Bryant 

1908). Suffolk Co.: Boston (Bryant 1908). CONNECTICUT: New 
Haven Co.: Meriden (Bryant 1908): New Haven (Kaston 1948). 
NEW YORK: Tompkins Co.: Ithaca (Crosby and Bishop 1928). 
Long Island (Banks 1896). NEW JERSEY: Bergen Co.: Alpine. 
MARYLAND: Anne Arundel Co.: Annapolis (Muma 194$). 

Charles Co.: (Muma 1945). Garrett Co.: Salt Rock Creek (Muma 
194$). Howard Co.: Scaggsville (Muma 1943). Prince Georges 
Co.: Fort Washington (Muma 1943); Suitland (B. Malkin). Som- 

erset Co.: Princess Anne, (Muma 1943). Washington Co.: Town Hill 
(Muma 1943). DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: (Marx 1892; Muma 

1945). VIRGINIA: Rockbridge Co.: Greenlee. Brunswick Co.: Al- 
berta (Bishop and Crosby 1926). WEST VIRGINIA: Ohio Co.: 
Wheeling (K. W. Haller). Hancock Co.: Tomlinson Run State Park 
(K. W. Haller). OHIO: Knox Co.: Brinkhaven (Barrows 1918). 
KENTUCKY: Carter Co.: Olive Hill. NORTH CAROLINA: Wake 
Co.: Raleigh (Bishop and Crosby 1926). Madison Co.: Paint Rock 
(Banks 1911). GEORGIA: Clarke Co.: Athens. Hall Co.: 

Gainesville (B. J. Kaston). FLORIDA: Duval Co.: Jacksonville. 

Pinellas Co.: Clearwater (B. Malkin). Sarasota Co.: Sarasota (A. 
M. Nadler). Highlands Co.: Highlands Hammock (W. J. Gertsch 
and A. M. Nadler); Lake Ishtopoka (A. M. Nadler). Collier Co.: 
Everglades (A. M. Nadler). Monroe Co.: Tavernier (A. M. Nadler). 
Dade Co.: Miami (A. M. Nadler); Kendall (A. M. Nadler). ALA- 
BAMA: Madison Co.: Monte Sano (Archer 1946). Cherokee Co.: 
May’s Gulf (Archer 1946). De Kalb Co.: De Soto State Park 
(Archer 1946). Jefferson Co.: Shade’s Mountain (Archer 1946). 
Hale Co.: Moundville (Archer 1946). Escambia Co.: Brewton 

(Archer 1946). Houston Co.: Dothan (Archer 1946). Mobile 
Co.: Mon Luis Island (Archer 1946). Baldwin Co.: Hog Creek 


June, 1954] 


Levi : Spiders 


83 


(Archer 1946); Cheaha State Park (Archer 1946); Lagoon (A. F. 
Archer). OKLAHOMA: Delaware Co.: (Banks, Newport and Bird 
1932). BAJA CALIFORNIA: (Banks 1898). DURANGO: El 

Salto (W. J. Gertsch). COLIMA: Manzanillo (F. Bonet). PUEBLA: 
Huauchinango (H. M. Wagner). VERACRUZ: Cordoba (J. C. 

and D. L. Pallister). CHIAPAS: Las Casas (C. and M. Goodnight, 
L. Stannard); Tenejapa (C. Goodnight). GUATEMALA: Moca 

(C. and P. Vaurie). PANAMA: El Volcan, Chiriqui (W. J. Gertsch). 
CANAL ZONE: Barro Colorado Isl. (Banks 1929). CUBA: Soledad 
(Bryant 1940); Trinidad Mountains (Bryant 1940); Pico Turquino 
(Bryant 1940). HAITI: La Visite * (6000-7000 ft.) (Bryant 1948); 
foot hills, n.e. of LaHotte (4000 ft.) (Bryant 1948). DOMINICAN 
REPUBLIC: Cordillera Central, n. of Loma Rucilla Mountains, 

(5000-8000 ft.) (Bryant 1948); foot hills of Cordillera Central, n. 
of Santiago, (2000-5000 ft.) (Bryant 1948); Cordillera Central, rain 
forest n. of Valle Nuevo, (6000 ft.) (Bryant 1948). PUERTO 
RICO: Adjuntas ( Petrunkevitch 1930). LESSER ANTILLES: St. 
Vincent Island (Simon 1894). PERU: Utcuyacu, Junin, (1600- 
2200 m.) (F. Woytkowski). 

Spintharus hentzi, new species 
Figures 47, 51, 54, 55. 

FEMALE: Carapace yellowish white, a reddish brown patch on each side on 
posterior lateral corner. Sternum yellowish white. Legs yellow white with patellse 
and tibiae darker, especially on the fourth legs which have these two seg- 
ments reddish brown. Abdomen yellowish white except dorsum which is 
yellowish between inner pair of dark red longitudinal stripes. Tubercles 
and area between them covered by a dark red patch. Four pairs of white 
spots on dorsum. The pair of spots on ectal sides of tubercles are not visible 
in figure 47. 

Eyes on diagnostic turret (fig. 51). Anterior median eyes separated by 
one diameter, almost touching laterals. Posterior median eyes a little less 
than one and one-half diameter apart, less than a fourth their diameter from 
laterals. Laterals touching each other. Anterior median eyes smaller than 
others in a ratio (1: 1.8). Height of clypeus about 6 diameters of anterior 
median eyes. Fourth legs much longer than first. Abdomen with a diagnos- 
tic pair of anterior tubercles (fig. 47, 51). The internal genitalia, because 
they are sclerotized, are difficult to study. Connecting ducts appear to be 
without loops (fig. 55). Epigynum (fig. 54) similar to that of S. flavidus. 

Total length of female holotype 4.5 mm; carapace 1.10 long, 1.14 wide, 
0.59 high. First patella and tibia, 2.01. Second patella and tibia, 1.34. 


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Third patella and tibia, 0.94. Fourth femur, 2.82; patella and tibia, 2.30; 
metatarsus, 2.90; tarsus, 0.72. 

This species differs from S. flavidus in that the eyes are on a 
turret and closer together, in having a pair of abdominal tubercles 
and in that the internal female genitalia are more sclerotized, and 
the connecting canals are devoid of a loop. Only the study of a 
male will make certain that this species is distinct from S. flavidus 
and S. gracilis. 

Type locality: Female holotype from Arima, Trinidad, collected 

in May, 1953 by N. L. H. Krauss. 

REFERENCES CITED 

Archer, A. 1946. The Theridiidae or comb footed spiders of Alabama. Pap. 
Alabama Nat. Hist. Mus. 22: 1-67. 

Comstock, J. H. 1940. The Spider Book. rev. edit. Doubleday, Doran, 
and Company. New York. 729 pp. 

Holm, A. 1938. Beitrage zur Biologie der Theridiiden. Festschrift E. Strand 
5: 56-67. 

Wiehle, H. 1937. Theridiidae oder Haubennetzspinnen (Kugelspinnen) in 
F. Dahl. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 33: 119-222. 


Fig. 1-3. 

Fig. 4. 
Fig. 5-6. 

Fig. 7. 
Fig. 8-10. 


Fig. 11. 
Fig. 12. 
Fig. 13. 
Fig. 14. 


Plate I 

Episinus truncatus Latreille, left palpus. 1. Ventral view. 2. 
Ventral view, expanded (cymbium removed). 3. Dorsal view, 
expanded (cymbium removed). 

E. amoenus Banks, palpus, ventral view. 

E. juarezi n. sp., palpus. 5. Ventral view. 6. Ventral view, 
expanded. 

E. chiapensis n. sp., palpus, ventral view. 

E. cognatus O. P.-Cambridge, palpus. 8. Ventral view. 9. 
Ventral view, expanded. 10. Dorsal view, expanded (cym- 
bium removed). 

E. colima n. sp., palpus, ventral view. 

E. nadleri n. sp., palpus, ventral view. 

E. bruneoviridis (Mello-Leitao), palpus, ventral view. 

E. panamensis n. sp., palpus, ventral view. 


(C, conductor; E. embolus; M, median apophysis; R, radix; T, tegulum; Y, 
cymbium.) 


Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. LXII 


(Plate I) 



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Plate II 

Fig. 15-16. Episinus truncatus Latreille. 15. Epigynum. 16. Female 
genitalia, dorsal view. 

Fig. 17-18. E. amoenus Banks. 17. Epigynum. 18. Female genitalia, 
dorsal view. 


Fig. 19-20. 
Fig. 21-22. 


Fig. 23. 
Fig. 24-25. 


E. bruneoviridis (Mello-Leitao) 19. Epigynum. 20. Female 

genitalia, dorsal view. 

E. cognatus O. P.-Cambridge. 21. Epigynum. 23. Female 
genitalia, dorsal view. 

E. gratiosus Bryant, epigynum (after Bryant). 

E. erythrophthalmus (Simon). 24. Epigynum. 25. Epigynum, 
cleared. 


Fig. 26-27. E. dominions n. sp. 26. Epigynum. 27. Epigynum, cleared. 
Fig. 28-29. E. nadleri n. sp. 28. Epigynum. 29. Female genitalia, dorsal 
view. 

Fig. 30-31. E. juarezi n. sp. 30. Epigynum. 31. Female genitalia, dorsal 


view. 


Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. LXII 



( Plate II) 






v 


87 




[Vol. LXII 


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New York Entomological Society 


Plate III 

Fig. 32. Episinus amcenus Banks, dorsal view, female (legs removed). 

Fig. 33. E. cognatus O. P.-Cambridge, dorsal view, female. 

Fig. 34. E. bruneoviridis (Mello-Leitao), dorsal view, female. 

Fig. 35. E. panamensis n. sp., dorsal view, male. 

Fig. 36. E. erythrophthalmus (Simon), dorsal view female. 

Fig. 37. E. nadleri n. sp., dorsal view, female. 

Fig. 38. E. dominicus n. sp., dorsal view, female. 

Fig. 39. E. amoenus Banks, lateral view, female. 

Fig. 40. E. colimus n. sp., dorsal view of carapace, male. 

Fig. 41. E. cognatus O. P.-Cambridge, spindle shaped seta. 

Fig. 42-43. E. juarezi n. sp., carapace, male. 42. Dorsal view. 43. Lateral 
view. 

Fig. 44-45. E. angulatus (Blackwall), web (after Holm). 


Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. LXII 


(Plate III) 



89 


Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. LXII 


(Plate IV) 




Fig. 46. 
Fig. 47. 
Fig. 48-50. 

Fig. 51. 
Fig. 52-53. 

Fig. 54-55. 


Spintharus flavidus Hentz, dorsal view, female. 

S. hentzi n. sp., dorsal view, female. 

S. flavidus Hentz. 48. Palpus, subventral view, expanded. 

49. Palpus, ventral view. 50. Lateral view, female. 

S. hentzi n. sp., lateral view, female. 

S. flavidus Hentz. 52. Epigynum. 53. Female genitalia, 

dorsal view. 

S. hentzi n. sp. 54. Epigynum. 
view. 


55. Female genitalia, dorsal 


(C, conductor; E, embolus; M, median apophysis; R, radix; T, tegulum; Y, 
cymbium.) 


90 


June, 1954 ] 


Whelden: Bumble-bee 


91 


NOTES ON THE BUMBLE-BEE 
(BOMBUS FER VIDUS FABRICIUS) 

AND ITS CHROMOSOMES 

By Roy M. Whelden 
Union College, Schenectady, New York 

One of the more common of the bumble-bees in northern New 
England is B. fervidus. Yet its nests are not always easily found and 
collected. So when, in the present case, a nest was located in the 
open space beneath the frames of an abandoned beehive, collection 
seemed imperative, especially as it was necessary to move the hive. 

The nest was a loose mass of soft, lightly entangled, slender grass 
blades, amongst which there were a few bits of goose-down. The 
position of the beehive made it almost certain that all this material 
was carried in and arranged by the bees. In the center of this mass, 
there was the single irregular comb, about 12cm. across, resting on a 
thin layer of grass blades. Collection was made late in the afternoon 
of August 19, 1947, and included all foraging bees as they returned 
(from foraging). Presumably the entire colony was taken: no ad- 
ditional bees were observed later. 

Fixation was in a modification of Bouin’s solution, the adults 
being plunged directly into this fluid without dissection. The con- 
tents of the cells were removed carefully and also put into the fixing 
fluid. Finally several pieces of the comb itself were dropped into 
the fixative. Five separate cells in the comb were partially full of 
a very thick dark brown honey which was extremely fragrant and of 
a very fine taste. 

The nest contained four eggs, fifteen larvae, forty-two pupae (plus 
one male prepupa) and seventeen adults. Later on, each of these 
was sectioned and stained in Heidenhain’s haematoxylin, as were a 
few of the emptied cells. The adult bees comprised one conspicu- 
ously large specimen, 21.5 mm. long, and an extremely small one 
(scarcely 7.8 mm. long; all the others were very uniformly 13 — 1 6 mm. 


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long) . Of this group, ten were very definitely worker adults, containing 
very small undeveloped ovaries with no eggs; the remaining five were 
male bees, with mature sperm. 

Of the pupae, 37 were found to be males, five were apparently to 
become workers, and one only was a queen. 

The larvae fall into three very distinct size groups; seven are large 
ones, nearly fully grown. Of these, six are males, the other probably 
a worker. Two of the males are about half the length of the pre- 
ceding group. Six larvae are very small; two of these are definitely 
males, the other four are as yet indeterminate. 

One of the eggs was newly laid and uninucleate. The others all 
had embryo developed to cover the greater part of the yolk surface. 
In one, development of the stomo- and proctodaeum was well ad- 
vanced, but differentiation was not great. Two of the eggs showed 
a great many cells with nuclei in various stages of division. Each 
nucleus contained a single rather prominent nucleolus, and an inde- 
terminate number of very small uniformly dispersed chromatin gran- 
ules. The surrounding cytoplasm was noticeably more dense than 
that of the nucleus and quite uniform. The earliest evidence of 
impending division was found in a gradual increase in the amount of 
dark staining material, which tended gradually to aggregate to form 
what at first appeared to be a continuous but irregular filament, and 
then with increasing diameter broke into discrete elongate particles. 
There were twelve of these; usually it was difficult to determine the 
exact number at this stage, since they were not all in one plane. 
(Fig. 1.) Typical division stages showed the various phases passed 
through, (Fig. 2 & 3 for anaphase and Fig. 6 for metaphase and 
telophase). There was one conspicuous exception to this series, and 
it was shown quite clearly in a great many cells in these eggs. Mostly 
these cells were in the epidermis, and were usually rather conspicuous 
because they protruded above the general level of the egg surface, 
often for about one half their diameter. In these cells, the number 
of chromosomes was just double that of those above described, being 
clearly twenty-four. Two of these cells are shown in metaphase in 
Figs. 4 & 5. It is to be noted that these cells seem to be rather uni- 
formly distributed in the epidermal tissues. 


June, 1954] 


Whelden: Bumble-bee 


93 


Dividing nuclei occurred rather sparingly in the cells of the fifteen 
larvae, and showed little that was not seen earlier in the eggs. Here, 
however, there was greater difference in the sizes of the cells, with 
corresponding but smaller differences in the nuclear sizes. In Figure 

7 is shown a typical epidermal cell, with the twelve chromosomes 
forming a compact group in a faintly staining enveloping substance. 
Surrounding this there is a conspicuously clear zone, in turn surround- 
ed by the darker mass of uniformly fine granular cytoplasm. Figure 

8 presents a chromosome picture that is frequently seen in this bee, 
that of two chromosomes noticeably smaller than the other ten. This 
apparently is not so in all the cells, as is clear from a comparison 
of these two figures. 

In the larva? were to be seen frequently cells in which there were 
more than the usual number of chromosomes, usually 24 instead of 
12. (Fig. 10.) As in the eggs, these cells occurred singly, almost 
always in the epidermis. Occasionally a cell was noted which seemed 
to have even more than 24 chromosomes. Figure 9 is an example, 
in which there appear to be at least thirty chromosomes. No differ- 
ences were to be found between corresponding cells in worker and 
male larvae. No good dividing nuclei were found in the testes 
in larvae. 

Among the pupae, only in the males were there cells showing 
good nuclear divisions. In them these were often abundant, especi- 
ally in the testes. Some of the individuals showed no indication of 
reduction divisions, the testes still being formed of uniformly regular 
crowded cells (Fig. 11); other specimens showed testes in which 
sperm maturation was nearly completed. In individuals between 
these two groups, there were often large numbers of dividing cells 
in all stages, from regular divisions of undifferentiated cells showing the 
usual twelve quite uniform chromosomes (Figs. 12-15), to those 
showing various stages in reduction division (Figs. 18-23). The 
latter occurred in scattered groups in the several testes lobes, each 
group seeming to be very uniform in the stage and rate of division 
of its cells; but among the different groups, there was the greatest of 
irregularity. 

One fact was very frequently noticeable — when the chromosomes 
began moving from the metaphase plate to the poles, often very 


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great irregularity seemed to be the rule. Another noticeable feature 
was the presence of one or two small granules among the chromosomes. 
Perhaps there were always two of these granules, but in many cases, 
there seemed to be only one. Not infrequently none was observed, 
especially in the earlier stages of division. It is easy to suppose that 
even if present one or both of these granules could be obscured by 
a much larger chromosome. With separation of the chromosome 
halves and migration to the spindle poles, these granules seemed to 
be much more frequently observed, when they were quite often 
seen lagging behind on the spindle, even after the chromosomes had 
begun to lose their identity when merging into a forming nucleus. 
(Figs. 15, 17, 21 & 22). In no case could any connection of the 
granules to any chromosome be detected. 

At the completion of the reduction divisions, there were often 
formed rather large spherical cells not unlike the cells forming the 
early testes except that these following reductions had very small 
spherical nuclei about 2g in diameter. (Fig. 26.) In other and ap- 
parently more usual cases, reduction division led into sperm matura- 
tion at once. Well before the end of pupation, sperm formation 
had been completed in the entire testes. 

In the pupa, many cells were observed to have a larger chromosome 
number than twelve. Most conspicuous of these polyploid cells were 
some in the forepart of the intestine, where the cells occurred singly, 
were of noticeably larger size and when properly oriented showed 
conspicuous spindles. (Fig. 28.) In these cells the chromosome num- 
ber was frequently 24, but occasionally appeared to be at least 30 
or higher. (Fig. 27.) In the forepart of the gut, in the region of the 
proventriculus, similar large cells with increased chromosome numbers 
were often observed. (Fig. 25.) 

In the head, where they were apparently always limited to certain 
of the appendages and to the epidermis, there were some exception- 
ally large cells. No satisfactory divisions were observed in any of 
these cells, but a few gave indication that the chromosome numbers 
were large, perhaps as high as 36. 

As is usual in Hymenoptera, the cells of the brain cortex showed 
a very great range in size, some being truly gigantic. In no case 


June, 1954] 


Whelden: Bumble-bee 


95 


could an accurate chromosome count be made in any of these large 
cells, but it was definitely in the order of 24 and 36. 

Little need be said of the adults here. The only dividing nuclei 
found in any of them were in the queens, and there only in the cells 
of the follicular epithelium. Even here nuclear divisions were rarely 
found. In these, there were invariably twelve chromosomes, very 
small here as would be expected, considering the small size of the cells. 

Presumably such reduction divisions as were to occur in the fe- 
males had been completed before fixation. But all stages in egg 
formation were found. In the smallest eggs, scarcely distinct from 
the surrounding cells, the nucleus was relatively very large, with 
conspicuously sparse chromatin substance. As egg enlargement pro- 
gressed, the egg nucleus gradually changed its position and its shape, 
moving to a position near the lower end of the egg, until it seemed 
pressed against the egg membrane and had a thick discoid shape. 
Later in development, it moved away from this position and once again 
became spherical. 

Sectioning of the cells of the comb showed that in nearly all cases 
the inner wall of the cell was covered with an irregular layer of 
pollen grains, sometimes sparse and sometimes two to four grains 
thick. These grains were from four different plants, in about equal 
numbers. Very rarely a grain of some other plant was seen. These 
were of the same species as those which were observed in the mid- 
guts of the several larva?. 


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EXPLANATION OF FIGURES 

1. Epidermal cell of embryo in egg, the chromatin now aggregated into 
twelve chromosomes. 

2. From the same egg, an epidermal cell in early anaphase, the twelve 
pairs of chromosomes being quite clear. The darker ones are above the 
shaded ones. 

3. Two epidermal cells, one showing a later stage of anaphase. The 
nucleus of the cell at the right is sectioned, only being figured in this 
section. The chorion is indicated above the cells. 

4. Two complete epidermal cells plus a portion of a third from the 
epidermal layer of the same egg. One cell protrudes very prominently above 
the surface of the egg; in this there are 24 chromosomes. 

5. Another of these protruding cells, also with 24 chromosomes, from 
another egg. 

6. Two cells from stomodaeum, that at the left with twelve chromosomes 
at metaphase, that at the right in (late) telophase, the nuclear division nearing 
completion. These cells border the lumen of the stomodaeum. 

7. Surface cell from a small worker larva, showing the twelve small 
chromosomes. 

8. Cell from a medium sized worker larva, showing twelve chromosomes, 
two of which are conspicuously smaller. 

9. Epidermal cell of same medium sized larva, with over 30 chromosomes. 

10. Surface cell of medium sized larva, showing one of the many cells 
having a greater number of chromosomes. In this nucleus there are 24, in 
metaphase. 

11. Spermatogonia, in early prophase. 

12. & 13. Spermatogonia, showing metaphase plate, with twelve chromo- 
somes, plus small granule. 

14. Spermatogonium, showing 12 chromosomes, plus very small granule, very 
irregularly distributed on the spindle. 

15. Spermatogonium, in mid- anaphase, with twelve chromosomes to each 
half, plus a minute granule. 

16. Spermatogonium, showing bent spindle. 

17. Early telophase, with minute granule remaining remote from two 
chromosome masses. 

18. Stage of second spermatocyte division. 

19. Early pairing of chromosomes in spermatocyte division. 

20. Spermatocyte division, showing six chromosomes, plus two minute 
particles. 

21. Late anaphase, showing six pairs of chromosomes, plus two small gra- 
nules, in spindle fibres. 

22. Group of three cells in early to mid- telophase, showing lagging par- 
ticles; and at right, six chromosomes at each pole. 

23- A cell similar to one at right above, but cut transversely, showing the 
six small chromosomes rather clearly. 

24. In wall of oesophagus, in thorax of male pupa, showing late anaphase 
with twelve chromosomes, plus small granule. 

25. In same region as fig. 24, but in metaphase, and with 24 chromosomes. 

26. Cell before beginning of sperm formation. 

27. Large cell in fore part of intestine, showing at least thirty chromosomes. 

28. Cell in same region, at right angles to that in fig. 27. 


June, 1954] 


Whelden : Bumble-bee 


97 



98 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


NEW ARRANGEMENTS FOR JOURNAL 

Beginning with Volume 62, of which this Journal is the second issue, 
the publication of the Journal of the New York Entomological So- 
ciety has been transferred to New Haven, Connecticut. The present 
editor and the editor emeritus, had been hopeful that it would be 
possible to continue publication with the former publishers, Business 
Press, Inc., of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, but the matter of costs forced 
the Society to make the final decision. 

We have nothing but praise for the careful, workmanlike product 
of the former publishers, who served us well for the 28 year period, 
1925 - 1953. The Science Press Printing Company, Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania, operated by the Cattell family, printed the Journal during 
the years 1925 - 1947 and when that company sold out to Business 
Press, Inc., this publication went over to the new company which 
continued to serve us through 1953. We would not ordinarily differ- 
entiate between Business Press and Science Press, because of the fact 
that most of the persons with whom the Journal dealt transferred 
their employment from the former firm to the latter, when the busi- 
ness was sold. 

So we have moved. Obviously, there have been many difficulties 
in bringing forth the first issue of Volume 62, due in March, 1954, 
and appearing, finally, in December, 1954. Publication of the cur- 
rent issue has also lagged badly. It is expected that, during the 1955 
calendar year, the Journal will be able to make a partial recovery 
toward appearing on schedule and that the four issues of the 1956 
volume will appear by the end of that year. — F. A. Soraci. 


June, 1954] 


Hood : Arachisothrips 


99 


A NEW ARACHISOTHRIPS FROM ARGENTINA 

By J. Douglas Hood 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

The species bescribed below was taken by Dr. Petr Wygodzinsky 
at Tucuman Argentina, and is particularly interesting because the 
known distribution of the genus is thereby extended from Mexico 
and Jamaica to the far southern portion of South America . 1 

Arachisothrips seticornis, sp. nov. (Pis. V and VI). 

Female (macropterous ) . — Length 0.82 mm. Color brownish yellow; ptero- 
thorax darkened laterally, abdomen paler apically, legs concolorous with body; 
fore wings with a gray-brown band across middle of inflated part, this band 
broadened along posterior margin of wing and connected along this margin 
with a second cross-band which occupies basal half of narrowed apical part 
of wing; antennal segment I yellow and paler than head, II yellowish brown 
and darker than head, III and IV yellow and shaded with gray in about basal 
half except for the yellow, narrow pedicel of III; V-VIII gray brown, the 
first of these paler than the others, especially in basal half. 

Head (Fig. 2) typical in form, with strongly constricted, neck-like base, 
protruding eyes, distinct postocular notch, and broad frontal costa; cheeks 
greatly swollen, somewhat diverging posteriorly, then so abruptly constricted 
that the posterior margin of the resulting bulge is transverse; dorsal surface 
polygonally reticulate. Eyes small, rounded, 53 g long dorsally, 40g wide, 
91 apart. Ocelli small, borne on a slight prominence, the median one facing 
forward above a longitudinal groove, the posterior pair directed somewhat 
posteriorly and laterally, 13g in diametter and 13 g apart. Mouth-cone short 
(66g), broadly rounded. Antennae (Fig. 3) eight-segmented, typical in 
structure, terminal segment extremely long and slender, about twenty-two 
times as long as greatest width; antennae almost devoid of setae and with all 
sense-cones simple and arising from outer surface of segments, III-V each 
with one near apex, VI with one at apical third, VII with one at basal 
third, this the largest; segment II reticulate with asperate lines, III-V each 
with several distinct, raised cross-lines. 

Prothorax (Fig. 2) transverse, sides diverging posteriorly (rather than 
merely rounded), dorsum finely cross-striate throughout, except in the two 
sublateral foveae and for a few polygonal reticles laterally (rather than 


2 The cost of the cuts for the two accompanying plates was borne by Cornell 
University, through its committee on Faculty Research Grants. 


100 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


striate merely anteriorly and posteriorly); posterior third abruptly elevated 
and with its anterior margin vertical (rather than undifferentiated from rest 
of notum); all setae minute. Fore wings (Figs. 1, 4, 5) typical, greatly 
inflated in basal two-thirds to form a sac, but not appreciably constricted at 
middle of this inflation, entire surface of wing except extreme tip and an 
area along costal margin near base of wing polygonally (usually hexagonally) 
reticulate; ambient vein complete, broad, and strong, its costal portion set 
with stout, nearly black, backwardly-curved, asperate (not pinnate) setae 
( Fig. 6) which are supported by pale stalks, the setae disposed in two series 
in the saccate part of wing, one series arising from anterior margin of vein 
and directed outward, the other arising from inner surface and directed in- 
ward, both series inclined upward (morphologically) and together presenting 
the appearance of ribs arising from a breastbone, several of them projecting 
beyond base of wing as seen from above; median vein broad and distinct, with 
one stalked seta where it ends on distal margin of inflation; one long (I60g), 
slender, pale seta extending into wing-sac; hind wings typical. Fegs typical, 
tibiae claviform (Figs. 7-9). 

Abdomen normal, lightly reticulate at sides, lightly cross-striate elsewhere 
in most of dorsal surface. 

Measurements of female (holotype): Length 0.82; head, total length 0.110, 
median length 0.106, width across eyes 0.171, just behind eyes 0.155, great- 
est width across cheeks 0.167, least width near base 0.107; prothorax, median 
length of pronotum 0.070, greatest width of pronotum 0.190; mesothorax, 
greatest width across anterior angles 0.203; metathorax, greatest width pos- 
teriorly 0.231; fore wings, length 0.853, greatest width 0.276; abdomen, 
greatest width 0.337. 


Antennal 

segments : 

I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Length 

00: 

30 

47 

110 

63 

62 

43 

32 

132 

Width 

O) : 

34 

35 

18 

17 

19 

14 

9 

6 


Total length of antenna 0.519 mm. 


ARGENTINA: Tucuman, February 14, 1953, Dr. Petr Wygod- 
zinsky, 1 2 (holotype), from "Parque Aconquija, in a dark and 

rather moist place in the forest, near a small creek, among fallen 
leaves.” 

It is impossible to compare this species satisfactorily with the two 
previously-named ones because the descriptions of the latter are too 
brief and do not include the measurements which present-day workers 
on the group consider essential. The eight-segmented antennae should 
presumably distinguish it from the Jamaican millsi, whose antennae 


June, 1954] 


Hood : Arachisothrips 


101 


are said to be seven-segmented, though the reference in the original 
description of that species is to a figure which shows an eight- 
segmented antenna. From the Mexican boneti, described in some- 
what less than seven full lines of text, which is said to have eight- 
segmented antennae but where again the reference is apparently to 
the wrong figure, the present species would appear to differ markedly 
in (1) the subangulate, rather than rounded, cheeks; (2) the shallower 
constriction near the middle of the saccate part of the fore wings; 
and (3) the form of the sides of the pronotum. Perhaps, too, the 
eighth antennal segment is slenderer. The conspicuously elevated 
posterior third of the pronotum and the almost complete cross- 
striation of its surface, referred to in the description above, are pre- 
sumably characters possessed in common by all three species, even 
though not shown in the figure of boneti. 

Seen for the first time, the members of this genus present a most 
un-thysanopterous appearance, because their greatly inflated fore 
wings, marked with a dark cross-band and reticulated, produce a 
striking resemblance to the homopterous Tingidae, such as Corythuca 
— in fact, one wonders whether their apparent scarcity might not be 
partly due to the failure of collectors to penetrate their disguise. With 
their wings removed, however, or if short-winged, they would be 
looked upon by any student of the thrips as a thoroughly conven- 
tional type of Heliothripinae, and, indeed, the characters exhibited 
by the wings are merely of degree, rather than of kind: Reticulated 
fore wings and stalked setae, for example, occur in Parthenothrips 
and saccate fore wings in Retithrips. The legs and antennae, as well 
as other body parts and the sculpture, are closely duplicated in other 
members of the same group. 

This close relationship certainly must be reflected in their food 
habits, and the three known species, rather than being ‘'inhabitants 
of ground cover” are much more likely feeders upon green leaves 
like their relatives. The fact that only five specimens are known to 
date bears out a belief that we know little about where to look 
for them. 


Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. LXII 



Arachisothrips seticornis, sp. nov.; 9, holotype, x 46. 
[J.D.H., camera lucida] 

102 


(Plate V) 


Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. LXII 


(Plate VI) 



Arachisothrips seticornis, sp. nov.; $, holotype. — 2, head and prothorax, 
x 157. — 3, left antenna and front of head, x 196. — 4, left fore wing, x 73. 
— 5, anterior portion of right fore wing, ventral aspect, x 73 (sculpture of 
the morphologically ventral surface shown only at bend of wing) . — 6, 
basal portion of costal vein of left fore wing, x 196. — 7, left fore tibia, 
ventral aspect, x 118. — 8, left middle tibia, ventral aspect, x 118. — 9, 
left hind tibia, ventral aspect, x 118. 

[J.D.H., camera lucida] 

103 



104 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXI1 


INSECTS FOR SALE IN NEW YORK CITY BEFORE 1800 

The "New-York Daily Advertiser” of December 26, 1796 carried 
the following: "A Naturalist, lately arrived from Europe, takes this 
method to inform his friends and the public in general, that he has 
brought with him, a large collection of birds, insects, butterflies, and 
several quadrupeds, from different parts of the world, which he will 
dispose of, either by large or small quantities. He further informs, 
that he possesses entirely the art of stuffing animals, &c. so as to give 
them their natural appearance, as well as to preserve them from decay. 
Apply at No. $55 Broadway.” 

Another insect that was offered for sale by some one at No. 7 Beek- 
man street, New York, along with wax figures, "and an alarm against 
House Breaking and Fire”, consisted of a "brilliant Diamond Beetle.” 
This advertisement was printed in the "New-York Daily Advertiser” 
of March 21, 1791. — H. B. Weiss. 


EXHIBITS OF INSECTS IN NEW YORK CITY BEFORE 1800 

In the "Weekly Museum” of July 26, 1794, the Museum and Wax 
Works in the Exchange advertised its "largest collection of Birds, 
Butterflies, Insects and Beetles in America; from Europe, Asia, Africa 
and America. The collection contains near 600 Birds, upwards of 
2000 Insects.” A later advertisement in the "Columbian Gazetteer” 
of October 16, 1794 is somewhat more detailed and refers to the 
number of insects as being between two and three thousand "such 
as butterflies, Stinging bees, Biting flies and Beetles — One box 26 
by 18 inches, contains one thousand and forty-two different species 
of Beetles arranged in families.” 

William Winstanley in the "Weekly Museum” of February 4, 1797 
stated that a New Panorama would be opened "in Greenwich street 
near the bottom of Barley street” on the sixth of the month and that 
a print shop at the Panorama was well furnished among other things 
with "a large collection of American Butterflies and other insects 
in frames.” — H. B. Weiss. 


it: 


June, 1954] 


Smith & Wing: Ant 


105 


REDESCRIPTION OF DISCOTHYREA TESTACEA ROGER, 
A LITTLE-KNOWN NORTH AMERICAN ANT, 
WITH NOTES ON THE GENUS 
( H YMENOPTER A : FORMICID2E ) 

By Marion R. Smith 1 and Merle W. Wing 2 

The primary purpose of this paper is to redescribe and figure 
Discothyrea test ace a Roger, an almost unknown North American ant, 
and to furnish such historical and biological facts concerning it as 
may be of interest. The genus Discothyrea is also discussed and all 
the known species listed. 

In 1863 (Berlin. Ent. Ztschr. 7: 176-177) Roger described a new 
genus and species of ponerine ant, Discothyrea testacea, on the basis 
of a worker and dealated female. His generic description was un- 
usually thorough, his specific description extremely brief. Through 
some unfortunate oversight he failed to designate a specific type 
locality; however, this was remedied later in 1863 in his "Verzeichniss 
der Formiciden — Gattungen und Arten,” where he gave "Nord 
Amerika” as the general type locality without further remark. 

From 1863 until 1948 no one in this country succeeded in find- 
ing additional individuals, and the presence of testacea in North Am- 
erica was becoming a matter of considerable doubt. Such well- 
known works as Wheelers, 1910 and 1926 editions of "Ants”; 
Smith’s, 1947, "A Generic and Subgeneric Synopsis of the United 
States Ants, Based on the Workers”; and Creighton’s, 1950, "Ants of 
North America”, made no mention of the genus or species. So far 
as we are aware, no one in North America has ever seen Roger’s 
types. A number of workers, especially beginners, did not know 
that Discothyrea had ever been recorded for North America, although 
the species testacea is listed for North America by Emery (1911, 
in Wytsman’s Genera Insectorum, fascicule 118, p. 52). Emery 

1 U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Entomology 
Research Branch, Washington, D. C. 

2 Raleigh, N. C. 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


apparently recorded the form from North America entirely on the 
basis of Roger’s original statement. Not only had our workers 
failed to find testae ea, but even another North American species, 
Ponera gilva (now Euponera gilva ) described by Roger in 1863, was 
not collected again until 1919. The authors do not believe that either 
species is so rare that it should not have been collected on numerous 
occasions during this time. Credit for collecting the first Discothyrea 
since Roger’s time, though, should go to the junior author, who 
found a single worker on August 29, 1948, while collecting from 
soil humus by means of a Berlese funnel about three miles from Holly 
Springs (Wake County), North Carolina. Less than a year later 
(April 29, 1949) H. T. Vanderford found three workers of Discothyrea 
adhering to the roots of a swamp fern growing on the edge of an old 
salt marsh lake at Savannah, Georgia. Approximately two months 
later he collected two additional workers and a dealated female from 
almost the same spot, an area of approximately six square feet. Vander- 
ford kindly permitted us to study all his specimens except one worker, 
and we came to the conclusion that they represent the same species 
as that of the individual collected in North Carolina which we be- 
lieved to be Roger’s testacea. 

Realizing that Roger’s types should be in the Zoological Museum 
of the University of Berlin, we sent H. Bischoff one worker each 
of the North Carolina and Georgia individuals to be compared with 
the type. At the same time we requested Dr. Bischoff to furnish us 
with as detailed information as possible concerning specific locality, 
date, and collector of the types. After comparing our individuals with 
the type Dr. Bischoff pronounced them to be the same species. He 
also stated that there were no original labels of Roger’s attached to 
the type, but only labels by Gerstacker as follows: "Discothyrea testacea 
Rog.*, Amer. Sept.” The asterisk following Roger’s name is inter- 
preted as indicating type designation. No further information was 
available, but it is Dr. Bischoff’s opinion that the type specimens 
may have been sent to Roger by Christian Zimmerman from one of 
the Carolinas. Upon reading the biography of Dr. Zimmerman we 
learned that he was a German who migrated to and lived in the 
United States from 1832 to 1867, mostly in Georgetown and Colum- 
bia, South Carolina. He had been a teacher of music and drawing 


June, 1954] 


Smith & Wing: Ant 


107 


and a collector and student of insects, mostly Coleoptera. It appears 
that we shall never know for certain the locality or collector of 
testacea, and that we can only surmise that the species was collected 
in the Carolinas, probably by Zimmerman. This is especially unfor- 
tunate, since testacea is the genotype of Discothyrea. 

So far as we know, only 21 forms of Discothyrea have been des- 
cribed, these having been recorded from all the faunal realms except 
the Palearctic. The ants are believed to be well adapted to the Tem- 
perate and Torrid Zones of the earth. The forms and the faunal realms 
from which they have been recorded are as follows: 

Nearctic 

testacea Roger (the genotype), 1863, worker, dealate female, (prob- 
ably North or South Carolina). 

Neotropical 

denticulata Weber, 1939, worker, Forest Settlement, Mazaruni River, 
British Guiana. 

horni Menozzi, 1927, alate female, fig. 1, San Jose, Costa Rica. 
Menozzi, 1937, worker, San Jose, Costa Rica. 

humilis Weber, 1939, dealate female, Barro Colorado Island, Pan- 
ama Canal Zone. 

icta Weber, 1939, dealate female, grounds of Imperial College of 
Tropical Agriculture, St. Augustine, Trinidad, British West Indies. 

isthmica Weber, 1940, dealate female, Barro Colorado Island, Pan- 
ama Canal Zone. 

neotropica Bruch, 1919-1920, dealate female, 3 figs., Alta Gracia, 
Province of Cordoba, Argentina. 

Ethiopian 

hewitti Arnold, 1916, worker, Grahamstown, Cape Province, South 
Africa. 

oculata Emery, 1901, worker, alate female, male, Cameroons, Africa. 

oculata var. sculptior Santschi, 1913, worker, French Congo, Africa. 

patrhzi Weber, 1949, worker, dealate female, fig. 1, Kenya, Africa. 

traegaordhi Santschi, 1914, worker, Pietermaritzburg, Natal, Africa. 

Oriental 

globus Forel, 1905, worker, Tjompea, Java. 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


globus var. sauteri Forel, 1912, worker, dealate female, Pilam, Form- 
osa. 

Australian 

antarctica Emery, 1895, worker, North Island, New Zealand. Emery, 
1897, worker, pi. 2, fig. 8, Hunua Mountains, New Zealand. 
Moore, 1938, biology and distribution. 

bidens Clark, 1927-1928, worker, pi. 1, figs. 30, 31, Victoria, Aus- 
tralia. 

clavicornis Emery, 1897, worker, pi. 15, figs. 39, 40, German, New 
Guinea. 

Mann, 1919, alate female, fig. 6, Fulakora, Ysabel, British Solomon 
Islands. 

crassicornis Clark, 1926-1927, worker, pi. 6, figs. 4, 4a, worker, Man- 
jimup, Western Australia. 

lea Clark, 1934, dealate female, pi. 2, fig. 11, Mt. Lofty, Southern 
Australia. 

remingtoni Brown, 1948, worker, figs. 1A, IB, 7 Mi S. E. La Foa, 
New Caledonia. 

turtoni Clark, 1934, worker, dealate female, pi. 4, figs. 5, 6, Otway 
Range, Australia. 

The worker of our North American Discothyrea is readily dis- 
tinguishable from that of other North American ponerine genera in 
the possession of a 9-segmented antenna 3 , the funiculus of which is 
strongly thickened (clavate) toward the apex and the last funicular 
segment remarkably enlarged, oval and approximately as long as the 
combined lengths of the preceding funicular segments; the semi- 
circular, disk-like clypeus extended above the mandibles; extremely 
minute or almost obsolescent eye; dorsum of thorax without sutures; 
gaster strongly curved anteroventrally with the apical segments pro- 
truding from the venter rather than the apex of the large, second gas- 
tric segment; erect hairs lacking from most of the body except usually 


3 Some species of Discothyrea are known to have only a 7 -segmented antenna, 
the reduction in segments probably being due to fusion. One should be 
cautious, therefore, in accepting a given number of segments as being in- 
variable for a species. It is not impossible that individuals in a colony may 
have a variable number of segments composing the antenna. 


June, 1954] 


Smith & Wing: Ant 


109 


the apex of the gaster; body unusually small (less than 2 mm.) and 
with a dull opaque or subopaque cast. 

The North American female is very similar to the worker except 
for her larger size, possession of wings (when a virgin), and modifica- 
tions of the head and thorax such as ocelli, compound eyes, and the 




Worker of Discothyrea testacea Roger. Fig. 1, anterior view of head. Fig. 2, 
lateral view of body (illustrations by Arthur D. Cushman). 


extra sclerites of the thorax. We have not seen a Discothyrea male, 
but a male of oculata, an African species, is known to have a 13-seg- 
mented antenna with a short scape, which is approximately as long 


110 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


as the combined lengths of the first three funicular segments, the 
frontal carinae fused to form a single vertical plate as in the worker 
and female, the thorax with Mayrian furrows, the anterior wing lacking 
a disocidal cell but having at least one closed cubital cell, the petiole 
and gaster almost as those of the other castes. 

Although Discothyrea is an ancient and relict genus, we are not 
aware of any fossil forms. These highly specialized ants are well 
adapted to their cryptotobiotic life. Little is known concerning their 
feeding habits, but it is almost a certainty that they are carnivorous, 
probably on some of the small organisms near the surface of the soil, 
humus, or well rotted cavities of logs and stumps. Their unusually 
small colonies must not comprise more than a dozen or so adult 
individuals and should be found in the habitats mentioned above. 
It is quite likely that females establish colonies alone without the 
assistance of workers. 

Discothyrea testacea Roger, 1863, Berlin. Ent. Ztschr. 7:177, worker, fe- 
male (without locality). — Roger, 1863, Verzeichniss der Formiciden, Gat- 
tungen und Arten, p. 21 (designated "Nord Amerika” as type locality). — 
Mayr, 1886, Zool. — Bot. Gesell. Wien 36: 438. — Emery, 1895, Zool. 
Jahrb. Abt. f. System. 8: 226. — W. M. Wheeler, 1911, Ann. N. Y. Acad. 
Sci. 21: 162. — Emery, 1911, in Wytsman’s Genera Insectorum, fascicule 118, 
p. 52. — Weber, 1939, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 32: 99, 101-102, worker, 
female (in key). — Weber, 1940, Psyche 47: 79. — Donisthorpe, 1943, 
Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 10: 640. — Borgmeier, 1949, Rev. Brasil Biol. 
9: 205, worker, female (in key). — M. R. Smith, 1951, in U. S. Dept. Agr. 
Monogr., No. 2, p. 785. 

WORKER. Length 1.55 mm. 

Head ovoid, approximately one and one-third times as long as broad (maxi- 
mum length from the extreme anterior border of the clypeus to the posterior 
border of the head, 0.46 mm., maximum breadth, eye to eye, 0.34 mm.), 
with weakly convex sides, rounded posterior corners and almost imperceptibly 
emarginate posterior border. Compound eye extremely minute, scarcely per- 
ceptible, placed on side of head nearer to the base of the mandible than to 
the posterior border of the head, composed of only a few ommatidia. An- 
tenna 9-segmented, placed near the extreme anterior border of the head; scape 
short (excluding the pedicel, 0.25 mm. in length), strongly curved and also 
strongly thickened (clavate) toward the apex; funiculus short and stout, the 
first segment as long as, or longer than broad, the second through the seventh 
segments successively widening, each of these being clearly broader than 


June, 1954] 


Smith & Wing: Ant 


111 


long, the last funicular segment (eighth) extraordinarily large, oval, and ap- 
proximately as long as the combined lengths of the preceding funicular 
segments. Clypeus extended over the mandibles as a plate or disk-like process, 
the anterior edge of which is subangularly arched (from side to side). Frontal 
carinse fused with the clypeus into an extremely thin, vertical plate, which 
extends from the anterior border of the clypeus between and also past the 
antennal insertions, the plate bearing a very small but visible hole (viewed 
in profile). Mandible subtriangular, the masticatory border bearing several 
rather indistinct denticuli at the base and a fairly distinct and acute tooth at 
the apex. In profile, dorsum of the thorax rather evenly and moderately arched 
(anteroposteriorly), meeting the slightly inclined declivity of the epinotum 
to form a distinct angle. Thorax, from above, 0.46 mm. in length (from 
the extreme anterior border of the pronotal collar to the point where the 
dorsum of the thorax meets the epinotal declivity, widest at the pronotal 
humeri, narrowest at the epinotal tubercles; the promesonotal and mesoepinotal 
sutures lacking; pronotal humeri rounded or subangular; dorsum of the 
thorax meeting the epinotal declivity to form a distinct subangular emargina- 
tion between the epinotal tubercles. Legs moderately long, the femora and 
tibiae not especially thickened, the anterior and posterior tibia each with a 
well developed and distinct spur, the spur apparently lacking on the middle 
tibia. Petiole, in profile, erect, somewhat wedge-shaped, with the apex of the 
wedge directed dorsally, ventral border of the petiole with a spine-like 
lamella; viewed anteriorly, the petiole also appears wedge-shaped, with the 
highest point of the wedge at about the middle of the dorsal border of the 
petiole. Gaster from above, 0.63 mm. in length (from the extreme base 
of the first gastric segment to the extreme apex of the second gastric segment), 
the first two segments combined form an ellipsoid, the base of which is sub- 
truncate and the apex of which is subangularly rounded; in profile, the much 
rounded apical segments of the gaster are borne from the venter rather than 
the apex of the second gastric segment. Extreme apex of gaster with a sting 
as in other ponerines. 

Body and appendages devoid of any erect or suberect hairs. Pubescence 
scarcely perceptible, grayish, extremely fine and very closely appressed on 
body and appendages. 

Body light brown or yellowish brown to slightly reddish brown, the color 
depending largely on the intensity of the light, subopaque or opaque, this 
also depending upon the light intensity. Eyes blackish. 

The two Georgia workers are similar to the North Carolina worker 
except for some minor differences that seem scarcely worth men- 
tioning. Differences in the length of the head, for instance, are 
very close, 0.03 — 0.04 mm., so these might well be within the range 
of error in measuring. The epinotal declivity of each of these workers 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


also appears more vertical, and the general body color more infuscated 
or sordid. 

DEALATE FEMALE. Length 2.01 mm. 

Larger than the worker. Total body length obtained in the same manner 
as with the worker and comprising the following parts, head 0.50 mm., 
thorax 0.66 mm., gaster 0.85 mm. Differing from the worker largely in the 
usual female characters such as the possession of ocelli, compound eyes, and 
thoracic modifications. Other differences are mandible edentate except for the 
single apical tooth; eye rather large, oval, approximately 0.13 mm. at its 
greatest width and bearing in this width 10-12 ommatidia, placed approximately 
0.05 mm. from the base of the mandible; anterior ocellus borne less than 
0.10 mm. behind a transverse line connecting the posterior border of each 
eye; compound eyes and borders around the ocelli black; pronotal humeri 
more angular; epinotal declivity apparently more concave. Color similar to 
that of the two Georgia workers but more sordid than that of the worker 
from North Carolina. 

The redescription of the worker is based largely on the individual 
from North Carolina which has been carefully compared with the 
type. The redescription of the female is from the single, dealated 
Georgia individual. 

Type locality — North America (very probably collected in one 
of the Carolinas by Dr. Christian Zimmerman). 

Other localities — 3 miles from Holly Springs (Wake County), 
North Carolina, Merle W. Wing and Savannah, Georgia, H. T. Vander- 
ford. 


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113 


AN ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BUTTERFLIES AND 
SKIPPERS OF CUBA 
(LEPIDOPTERA, RHOPALOCERA) 

By Salvador Luis de la Torre y Callejas 
Professor of Zoology 
Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba 

(Continued from Vol. LXII, No. I 

Family DANAID/E 
Subfamily Danain^E 
Tribe Danaini 
Genus Danaus Kluk 

Danaus Linnaeus, 1758. 

Danaus Kluk, 1780. 

Danaida Latreille, 1804. 

Anosia Hiibner, 1816. 

Danais Latreille, 1819. 

Danaomorpha Kremky, 1925. 

Panlymnas Bryk, 1937. 

Dio gas d’ Almeida, 1938. 

Genotype: Papilio plexippus Linnaeus, 1758. 

According to Opinion Number 124 of The International Commis- 
sion on Zoological Nomenclature, Linnaeus did not use the word 
Danaus as a generic term. (See Smithsonian Misc. Coll. vol. 73, No. 
8, p. 1, Oct. 28, 1936). 

62. DANAUS (DIOGAS) PLEXIPPUS MENIPPE (Hiibner) 

(The Monarch) 

Anosia menippe Hiibner, 1816. 

Danais erippus : Gundlach, 1881: 23. 

Anosia ( Danaida ) plexippus : Abbot, 1914: 205. 

Danaida ( Anosia ) ar chip pus: Kremky, 1925: 166. 

Anosia plexippus : Showalter, 1927: 113; Fazzini, 1934: 18; J. H. 
Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 204. 


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Danaus plexippus plexippus : Clark, 1932: 115; id., 1941: 533; Bates, 
1935: 145; Field, 1938b: 127; Comstock, 1944: 430; Bruner, 
Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 17; J. A. Ramos, 1946: 52; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1946: 106; id., 1946b: 109, 117; id, 1947: 19. 

Danais plexippus : Hoffmann, 1933: 227; id, 1936: 262; Holland, 
1942: 68; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 274. 

Dio gas curassavicae : d’Almeida, 1939: 44; Hoffmann, 1940c: 663- 

Danaus ( Anosia ) curassavicae curassavicae : Berger, 1939: 191. 

Danaus erippus menippe : Forbes, 1939: 133. 

Danaus plexippus : Brown, 1944b: 238; Evans, Kloet, Hincks. . , 
1946: 4; Weiss & Boyd, 1950: 164; Judd, 1950: 169; Garth, 
1950: 15. 

Danaus menippe menippe : Chermock, 1947: 2. 

Danaus ( Danaida ) plexippus plexippus : Dufrane, 1948: 192. 

Danaus plexippus menippe : Field, 1950: 236. 

Danaus (Dio gas) plexippus menippe : S. L. de la Torre, 1951: 95. 

Illustrations. — Kremky, 1925: pi. XX, f. 3, (genital), text figs. 6-8, 
(legs), 9, (genital); Showalter, 1927: pi. 9, f. 12, p. 124, fig. not 
numbered; Clark, 1932: pi. 6, f. 4, pi. 58, f. 1, 2, pi. 63, f. 2, 3, 
pi. 64, f. 1, 2; id, 1941: pi. 71, f. 1; Fazzini, 1934: p. 19, f. not 
numbered; J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: pi. I, f. 1, 2, 

(larva), f. 3, (chrysalis), f. 4, pi. XXVIII, f. 1, pi. XXXII, f. 3; 
d’Almeida, 1939: pi. 4, f. 5, 6, 8, (genital), pi. 5, f. 5, 7, pi. 16, 
f. 1, 3; id, 1944: pi. 2, f. 1, 2; Holland, 1942: text figs. 4, 5, 
(eggs), 14, 15, (head of Caterpillar), 16, 18, (larva), 23, 24, 
(larva and chrysalis), 29, 30, (head), 40, (venation), 41, 42, 
(section of larva), 80, (swarm of D. plexippus resting on a tree), 
pi. IV, f. 1-3, (chrysalis), pi. VII, f. 1; Comstock, 1944: pi. 5, f. 
9; S. L. de la Torre, 1946b: pi. 13, f. 31-34; id., 1947: pi. I, f. 2; 
Weiss & Boyd, 1950: pi. XVI, f. 50a, 50b. 

63. danaus (diogas) plexippus plexippus (Linnaeus) 

Papilio plexippus Linnaeus, 1758. 

Danaida ( Anosia ) archippus ni grip pus : Kremky, 1925: 167. 

Danaus plexippus nigrippus : Field, 1938b: 128. 

Danaus erippus megalippe : Forbes, 1939: 133. 

Diogas curassavicae nigrippus : d’Almeida, 1939: 54. 


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Danaus plexippus megalippe : Clark, 1941: 536; Beatty, 1944: 156; 

S. L. de la Torre, 1947: 19. 

Dio gas erippus? : Schweizer, 1941: 11. 

Dio gas curassavicas megalippe : d’ Almeida, 1944: 53. 

Danaus (Dio gas) plexippus megalippe : S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65. 
Danaus plexippus plexippus : Field, 1950: 236. 

Danaus (Dio gas) plexippus plexippus : S. L. de la Torre, 1951: 96. 

This subspecies was reported by the writer in 1947. (See Memo* 
rias de la Sociedad Cubana de His. Nat., vol. XIX, p. 19). 
Illustrations. — Kremky, 1925: text fig. 10, (genital); d’Almeida, 1939: 
pi. 18, f. 3; Clark, 1941: pi. 71, f. 2; S. L. de la Torre, 1947: 
pi. I, f. 1; Garth, 1950: f. 7. 

64. DANAUS (DIOGAS) PLEXIPPUS PORTORICENSIS Clark 
Danaus plexippus portoricensis Clark, 1941: 539; Comstock, 1944: 

431; d’Almeida, 1944: 54; S. L. de la Torre, 1947: 20; Munroe, 
1951: 56. 

Danaus megalippe portoricensis : Forbes, 1943: 297. 

Diogas curassavicae portoricensis : d’Almeida, 1944: 70. 

Danaus (Diogas) plexippus portoricensis : S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 
65; id., 1951: 96. 

This subspecies was reported by the writer in 1949 (See The 
Lepidopterists’ News, vol. Ill, No. 6, p. 65). 

Illustrations. — Clark, 1941: pi. 72, f. 3, 4; d’Almeida, 1944: pi. 2, 
f. 1, 2; Comstock, 1944: text fig. 1, (venation); pi. 5, f. 10. 

65. danaus (danaus) gilippus Berenice (Cramer) 

Papilio berenice Cramer, 1779. 

Danais berenice\ Gundlach, 1881: 24; Holland, 1942: 69. 

Anosia berenice\ Holland, 1916: 488; Showalter, 1927: 113; J. H. 

Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 207; Hoffmann, 1940c: 662. 
Danaus gilippus berenice : Bates, 1935: 146; Forbes, 1939: 135; 
Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 17; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 
106; Chermock, 1947: 2. 

Danaus berenice berenice'. Field, 1938b: 129; Clark, 1941: 541; S. 
L. de la Torre, 1947: 20. 

Anosia gilippus berenice'. d’Almeida, 1939: 23; id., 1944: 39. 


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Anosia eresimus kaempfferi : d’Almeida, 1939: 36; id., 1944: 41, 46. 
Danaus ( Danaus ) gilippus berenice : S. L. de la Torre, 1951: 97. 
Illustrations. — Showalter, 1927: pi. IX, f. 11; d’Almeida, 1939: pi. 6, 
f. 1, (genital), pi. 15, f. 4; Clark, 1941: pi. 73, f. 3; Holland, 1942: 
pi. VII, f. 2; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: pi. 10, f. 45-47, 50, (scales); 
id., 1947: pi. 2, f. 7, 8. 

66. DANAUS (DANAUS) GILIPPUS STRIGOSA (H. W. Bates) 
Danais strigosa H. W. Bates, 1864. 

Danais berenice strigosa'. Hoffmann, 1924: 1; id., 1933: 228. 

Anosia berenice strigosa : J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 208. 
Danais berenice : Hoffmann, 1936: 262. 

Danaus berenice strigosa : Field, 1938b: 129; Clark, 1941: 541; S. 
L. de la Torre, 1947: 20; Garth, 1950: 16. 

Danaus gilippus strigosa'. Forbes, 1939: 135; Chermock, 1947: 2. 
Anosia gilippus berenice var. strigosa : d’Almeida, 1939: 25; id., 
1944: 43. 

Anosia berenice form strigosa'. Hoffmann, 1940c: 662. 

Danais berenice var. strigosa'. Holland, 1942: 69. 

Anosia berenice race strigosa'. Brown, 1944b: 237. 

Danaus (Danaus) gilippus strigosa'. S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65; 
id., 1951: 98. 

This subspecies was reported by the writer in 1947 (See Mem. 
Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat., vol. XIX, p. 20). 

Illustrations. — Hoffmann, 1924: f. 2; J. H. Comstock & A. B. Com- 
stock, 1936: pi. XXXII, f. 2; d’Almeida, 1939: pi. 6, f. 2, (genital), 
pi. 7, f. 2, (genital), pi. 18, f. 1; Clark, 1941: pi. 73, f. 4; Holland, 
1942: pi. VII, f. 3; S. L. de la Torre, 1947: pi. 2, f. 9. 

67. danaus (danaus) gilippus gilippina (Hoffmann) 

Anosia berenice form gilippina Hoffmann, 1940: 277; id., 1940c: 
662; d’Almeida, 1944: 41. 

Danaus (Danaus) gilippus gilippina: S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65; 
id., 1951: 98. 

This subspecies was reported by the writer in 1949 (See The 
Lepidopterists’ News, vol. Ill, No. 6, p. 65). 


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Illustrations. — Hoffmann, 1940: f. 3, 4; d’Almeida, 1944: pi. 1, f. 3, 
pi. 2, f. 3. 

68. danaus (danaus) eresimus tethys Forbes 
Danaus eresimus tethys Forbes, 1943: 301. 

Danaus eresimus'. Bates, 1935: 146; Clark, 1941: 541; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1946: 106; id., 1947: 21. 

Danais eresimus'. Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 275. 

Danaus (Danaus) eresimus tethys-. S. L. de la Torre, 1951: 99. 

This subspecies was described by William T. M. Forbes in 1943 
(See Journal N. Y. Ent. Soc., vol. LI, p. 301). 

Illustrations. — Clark, 1941: pi. 74, f. 1, 2; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 
pi. 10, f. 48, 49, (scales); id, 1947: pi. 2, f. 6. 

69. DANAUS (DANAUS) ERESIMUS MONTEZUMA Talbot 
Danaus eresimus montezuma Talbot, 1943; Forbes, 1943: 299; Cher- 

mock, 1947: 2. 

Danais cleothera : M. Sanchez Roig & G. S. Villalba, 1934: 109; id, 
1934b: 32. 

Anosia eresimus cleothera : d’Almeida, 1939: 34. 

Anosia cleothera : Hoffmann, 1940c: 663; Brown, 1944b: 238. 
Danaus cleothera : Clark, 1941: 539; S. L. de la Torre, 1947: 21. 
Anosia eresimus ares d’Almeida, 1944: 46. 

Danaus (Danaus) eresimus montezuma'. S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65; 
id, 1951: 100. 

This subspecies was reported by Dr. Mario Sanchez Roig and 
Gaston S. Villalba in 1934 (See Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat, vol. 
VIII, No. 2, p. 109, and Revista de Agricultura, vol. 15, No. 55, 
P- 32). 

Illustrations. — M. Sanchez Roig & G. S. Villalba, 1934b: f. 2 ?; 
d’Almeida, 1939: pi. 3, f. 1, 6, (genital), pi. 15, f. 5, pi. 16, f. 
4; Clark, 1941: pi. 74, f. 3, 4; S. L. de la Torre, 1947: pi. 2, f. 4, 5. 

Subfamily LYCOREIN^ 

Tribe LYCOREINI 
Genus Lycorea Doubleday 

Lycorea Doubleday, 1847 (See Brown, 1941: 136). 

Lycorella Hemming, 1933. 


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Genotype: Ly corea atergatis Doubleday & Hewitson, 1847 (See Brown, 
1941: 136). 

70. LYCOREA CERES DEMETER C. & R. Felder 

Ly corea demeter C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867; Gundlach, 1881: 19. 
Ly corea ceres demeter : Bates, 1935: 147; d’Almeida, 1939: 88; id., 
1944: 62; Comstock, 1944: 437; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 
78; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 106. 

Illustrations. — d’Almeida, 1939: pi. 23, f. 1; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 
pi. 10, f. 51, 52, (scales). 

Tribe Anetiini 
Genus Anetia Hiibner 

Anetia Hiibner, 1823, f. 1, 2. 

Anelia Hiibner, 1823, f. 3, 4. 

Clothilda Blanchard, 1840. 

Genotype: Anetia numidia Hiibner, 1823?. 

71. ANETIA (CLOTHILDA) NUMIDIA BRIAREA (Latreille) 

Argynnis briar e a Latreille, 1820. 

Clothilda pantherata : Gundlach, 1881: 27. 

Anelia numidia numidia'. Bates, 1935: 148. 

Anetia numidia-. d’Almeida, 1939: 60; id., 1944: 56. 

Clothilda ( Clothilda ) numidia briarea : Forbes, 1939: 108. 

Anetia ( Clothilda ) numidia briarea : S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 69. 
Illustrations. — Bates, 1935: f. 9, (venation); d’Almeida, 1939: pi. 
11, f. 8, 10, (genital), f. 15, (venation), pi. 12, f. 4, 10, (legs), 
f. 5, (palp), f. 17, (tarsus), pi. 13, f. 7, (genital), pi. 20, f. 1, 2. 

72. ANETIA (CLOTHILDA) PANTHERATA CLARESCENS (Hall) 

Clothilda pantherata clarescens Hall, 1925. 

Clothilda numida: Gundlach, 1881: 27. 

Anelia pantherata clarescens: Bates, 1935: 150; S. L. de la Torre, 
1946: 106. 

Anetia pantherata clarescens: d’Almeida, 1939: 62; id., 1944: 57. 
Clothilda ( Clothilda ) pantherata clarescens: Forbes, 1939: 108. 


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Anetia ( Clothilda ) pantherata clarescens : S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 69. 
Illustrations. — d’Almeida, 1939: pi. 28, f. 2, 4; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 
pi. 10, f. 53, 54, (scales). 

73. anetia (synalpe) cubana (Salvin) 

Clothilda cubana Salvin, 1869; Gundlach, 1881: 28. 

Anelia cubana : Bates, 1935: 150; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 106. 
Anetia cubana : d’Almeida, 1939: 63; id., 1944: 57. 

Clothilda ( Synalpe ) cubana : Forbes, 1939: 107. 

Anetia ( Synalpe ) cubana : S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 69. 

Illustrations. — d’Almeida, 1939: pi. 29, f. 1, 2. 

Subfamily ITHOMIIN/E 

Genus Hymenitis Hiibner 

Hymenitis Anon. (Illiger?), 1807. 

Hymenitis Hiibner, 1816. 

Greta Hemming, 1934. 

Genotype: Papilio diaphanus Drury, 1773 ( = Hymenitis diaphane 

Hbn, 1816). 

We do not know whether a generic name of an anonymous author 
is accepted in Nomenclature. d’Almeida asked that question of the 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (See his pa- 
per entitled "Alguns tipos de generos da ordem Lepidoptera. la. 
Nota: Rhop., Fam. Mechanitididae. Papeis Avulsos do Dep. Zool. 
Secret, da Agric. Sao Paulo, vol. II, No. 14, p. 185). We await their 
opinion; meanwhile, agreeing with d’Almeida, we consider this name 
null and adopt the name Hymenitis Hiibner, 1816, placing the name 
Greta Hemming, in the synonymy of the same. 

74. hymenitis cubana Herrich-Schaffer 

Hymenitis cubana Herrich-Schaffer, 1862; Gundlach, 1881: 19; Bates, 
1935: 151; id., 1939: 2; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 38; 
S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 106. 

Illustrations. — Bates, 1935: f. 10, (venation); S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 
pi. 10, f. 55, 56, (scales). 


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Family SATYRID^E 
Subfamily SATYRIN/E 

Genus Calisto Hiibner 

Calisto Hiibner, 1823. 

Genotype: Papilio zangis Fabricius, 1775. 

75. CALISTO HEROPHILE HEROPHILE Hiibner 

Calisto herophile Hiibner, 1823; Gundlach, 1881: 26; Lathy, 1899: 
226; Holland, 1916: 494; Bates, 1935: 152; id., 1939: 3; Dethier, 
1940: 14; Comstock, 1944: 480; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 106. 
Calisto herophile herophile : Bates, 1935b: 242; Michener, 1943: 6, 
id., 1949: 1; Munroe, 1950b: 225; S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 62. 
Illustrations. — Lathy, 1899: pi. IV, f. 8, 9; Bates, 1935: f. 11, (vena- 
tion); id., 1935b: f. 6, (genital); Dethier, 1940: pi. Ill, f. 1, (2o. 
instar head capsule), f. 3, (first instar head capsule), f. 5, 6, (eggs), 
f. 9, 11, (color pattern on an abdominal segment); S. L. de la 
Torre, 1946: pi. 10, f. 57-62, (scales). 

76. CALISTO HEROPHILE PARSONSI Clench 

Calisto herophile parsonsi Clench, 1943: 26; Michener, 1949: 1; S. L. 

de la Torre, 1950: 72; id., 1952: 62. 

Calisto sp .: Munroe, 1950b: 229. 

This subspecies was captured by Dr. Carl T. Parsons in the Trinidad 
Mts., Las Villas province, and described as a new subspecies by Mr. 
Harry K. Clench in 1943 (See Psyche, vol. L, Nos. 1-2, p. 26). 

77. CALISTO bruneri Michener 

Calisto bruneri Michener, 1949: 2; S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 62. 

This species was described by Dr. Charles D. Michener in 1949 
(See American Museum Novitates, No. 1391, p. 2). 

78. CALISTO SMINTHEUS SMINTHEUS Bates 
Calisto smintheus Bates, 1935b: 242. 

Calisto delos Bates, 1935b: 243; id., 1939: 4; Michener, 1943: 6; 
id., 1949: 2; S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65. 


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Calisto smintheus smintheus : Bates, 1939: 3; Michener, 1943: 6; id., 
1949: 1; S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65; id., 1952: 62; Munroe, 1950b: 
226 . 

This species was reported by Mr. Marston Bates in 1939 (See Mem. 
Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat, vol. XIII, p. 3). 

Illustration. — Bates, 1935b: f. 9, (genital). 

79. CALISTO SMINTHEUS MURIPETENS Bates 

Calisto smintheus muripetens Bates, 1939: 3; Michener, 1943: 6; id, 
1949: 1; S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65; id, 1952: 63; Munroe, 1950b: 
226 . 

This subspecies was described by Mr. Marston Bates in 1939 (See 
Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat, vol. XIII, p. 3). 

80. CALISTO SMINTHEUS BRADLEYI Munroe 

Calisto smintheus bradleyi Munroe, 1950b: 227; S. L. de la Torre, 
1952: 63. 

This subspecies was described by Eugene G. Munroe in 1950 (See 
Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, vol. LVIII, No. 4, p. 227). 

Family NYMPHALID/E 
Subfamily HeliC0NIIN>E 
Tribe HELICONIINI 
Genus Heliconius Kluk 

Heliconius Kluk, 1802; Latreille, 1804 (part). 

Eueides Hiibner, 1816: 11. 

Sunias Hiibner, 1816: 12. 

Mi gonitis Hiibner, 1816: 12 (preoccupied in Mollusca). 

Aj antis Hiibner, 1816: 13. 

Apostraphia Hiibner, 1816: 13. 

Sicyonia Hiibner, 1816: 13. 

Heliconia Godart, 1819 (part). 

Laparus Billberg, 1820. 

Phlogris Hiibner, 1825. 

Semelia Doubleday, 1844. 

Blanch ardia Buchecker (1880?); preoccupied in fishes. 


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Heliconias Boenninghausen, 1896. 

Genotype: Papilio charithonia Linnaeus, 1767. 

81. HELICONIUS (heliconius) charithonius ramsdeni Com- 
stock & Brown 

Heliconius charithonius ramsdeni Comstock & Brown, 1950: 14. 
Heliconius charithonia : Gundlach, 1881: 20. 

Heliconius charithonius'. Holland, 1916: 488. 

Heliconius charithonia charithonia'. Bates, 1935: 157; Bruner, Scara- 
muzza & Otero, 1945: 128. 

Heliconius charithonius charithonius'. Comstock, 1944: 438; Beatty, 
1944: 156; J. A. Ramos, 1946: 52. 

Heliconius ( Heliconius ) charithonius charithonius'. S. L. de la Torre, 
1949b: 192. 

Heliconius ( Heliconius ) charithonius ramsdeni'. S. L. de la Torre, 
1952: 70. 

Illustrations. — Michener, 1942: f. 1, (venation), f. 13, (harpe); 
Comstock & Brown, 1950: f. 3D. 

82. HELICONIUS (HELICONIUS) CHARITHONIUS PUNCTATUS Hall 

Heliconius charithonia punctata Hall, 1936: 276. 

Heliconius charithonius punctatus'. Comstock, 1944: 439; Beatty, 1944: 
156; Comstock & Brown, 1950: 11. 

Heliconius ( Heliconius ) charithonius punctatus : S. L. de la Torre, 
1949: 65; id, 1949b: 192; id, 1952: 70. 

This subspecies was annotated for Cuba by the writer in 1949 (See 
The Lepidopterists’ News, vol. Ill, No. 6, p. 65, and Memorias So- 
ciedad Cubana de Hist. Nat, vol. XIX, p. 192). 

Illustrations. — Comstock, 1944: pi. 7, f. 12; Comstock & Brown, 1950. 
f. 3 A. 

83. heliconius (eueides) cleobcea cleobaiA (Geyer) 

Eueides cleobcea Geyer, 1832, Gundlach, 1881: 22; id, 1891: 445. 
Eueides cleobcea cleobcea : Bates, 1935: 158; Comstock, 1944: 440; 

Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 128. 

Heliconius ( Eueides ) cleobcea: Michener, 1942: 3. 

Heliconius {Eueides) cleobcea cleobcea'. S. L. de la Torre, 1949b: 192. 


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Genus Philcethria "Dalman” Billberg 

Philcethria "Dalman” Billberg, 1820. 

Metamandana Stichel, 1907. 

Genotype: Papilio dido Clerch, 1764. 

84. * PHILCETHRIA DIDO (Clerch) 

Papilio dido Clerch, 1764. 

Metamandana dido : Bates, 1935: 237; Hoffmann, 1940c: 674. 
Philcethria dido : Michener, 1942: 3; S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65; id., 
1949b: 193. 

This species is cited by Bates as doubtful; but we know that it 
has been observed on several occasions in Cuba. 

Illustrations. — Michener, 1942: f. 8, (venation), f. 9, (harpe). 

Tribe Dionini 
Genus Dryas Hiibner 

Dry as Hiibner, 1807. 

Colcenis Hiibner, 1819. 

Genotype: Papilio iulia Fabricius, 1775. 

85. dryas iulia cillene (Cramer) 

Papilio cillene Cramer, 1782. 

Colaenis delila : Gundlach, 1881: 55. 

Colaenis julia cillene : Holland, 1916: 489; Riley, 1926: 240. 

Colaenis julia nudeola : Bates, 1935: 159; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 
1945: 127. 

Colaenis cillene : Holland, 1942: 78. 

Dryas iulia cillene : S. L. de la Torre, 1949b: 193 (See W. P. Comstock, 
1944: 443, and C. Michener, 1942: 4). 

Illustrations. — Michener, 1942: f. 3, (venation), f. 12, (harpe); Hol- 
land, 1942: pi. LXXI, f. 1, 2. 

Genus Agraulis Boisduval & Leconte 

Agraulis Boisduval & Leconte, 1836?. 

Genotype: Papilio vanillce Linnaeus, 1758. 


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Dr. Charles D. Michener considers different the genus Agraulis 
Bsd. & Lee., 1836?, to the genus Dione Hiibner, 1819 (See American 
Museum Novitates, No. 1215, p. 5). 

86. AGRAULIS VANILL2E insularis Maynard 
Agraulis insularis Maynard, 1889. 

Dione vanillce : Gundlach, 1881: 57; Hall, 1936: 276. 

Dione vanillce var. insularis : Holland, 1916: 490. 

Dione vanillce insularis : Riley, 1926: 243; Bates, 1935: 160; Com- 
stock, 1944: 443; Beatty, 1944: 156; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 
1945: 127; J. A. Ramos, 1946: 52; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 
275; Munroe, 1951: 56. 

Agraulis vanillce insularis : Michener, 1942b: 2; S. L. de la Torre, 
1949b: 194. 

Illustrations. — Michener, 1942: f. 6, (venation), f. 17, (harpe); Com- 
stock, 1944: pi. 6, f. 4. 

87. AGRAULIS VANILL2E nigrior Michener 

Agraulis vanillce nigrior Michener, 1942b: 7; S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 
65; id., 1949b: 194. 

This subspecies was reported by the writer in 1949 (See The 
Lepidopterists’ News, vol. Ill, No. 6, p. 65, and Memorias Sociedad 
Cubana de Hist. Nat, vol. XIX, p. 194). 

Subfamily NYMPHALIN^E 

Genus Euptoieta Doubleday 

Euptoieta Doubleday (not Hiibner), 1848. 

Genotype: Papilio claudia Cramer, 1775. 

88. EUPTOIETA HEGESIA HEGESIA (Cramer) 

Papilio hegesia Cramer, 1779. 

Euptoieta hegesia: Gundlach, 1881: 44; id, 1891: 447; Holland, 1916: 
491; Bates, 1935: 161; d’Almeida, 1941: 308; S. L. de la Torre, 
1943: 140; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 184; Avinoff & 
Shoumatoff, 1946: 276. 

Euptoieta hegesia karihica Stichel, 1938. 

Euptoieta hegesia hegesia'. Berger, 1939: 196; Comstock, 1944: 444; 
S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 65. 


June, 1954] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


125 


Illustrations. — Holland, 1942: pi. VIII, f. 8; S. L. de la Torre, 1943: 
pi. 16, f. 2; Comstock, 1944: text fig. 5, (the markings in the 
forewing discal cell). 

89. euptoieta CLAUDIA (Cramer) 

Papilio claudia Cramer, 1775. 

Euptoieta claudia : Clark, 1932: 114; J. H. Comstock & A. B. Com- 
stock, 1936: 109; Hoffmann, 1936: 262; id., 1940c: 674; Field, 
1938b: 122; Holland, 1942: 80; S. L. de la Torre, 1943: 139; id, 
1949: 65; Brown, 1944c: 346; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 276; 
Bruner, 1947: 26; Garth, 1950: 20. 

Euptoieta claudia claudia : Schweizer & W. Kay, 1941: 15. 

This species was reported by the writer in 1943 (See Mem. Soc. 
Cub. Hist. Nat, vol. XVII, p. 139). 

Illustrations. — Clark, 1932: pi. 21, f. 1, 2; J. H. Comstock & A. B. 
Comstock, 1936: pi. XVIII, f. 4; Holland, 1942: pi. V, f. 8, 9, 
(chrysalis), pi. VIII, f. 9; S. L. de la Torre, 1943: pi. 16, f. 1. 

Genus Melitcea Fabricius 

Melitcea Fabricius, 1807. 

Genotype: Papilio cinxia Linnaeus, 1758. 

90. MELIT2EA (MICROTIA) PELOPS PELOPS (Drury) 

Papilio pelops Drury, 1770. 

Phyciodes pelops : Gundlach, 1881: 53; Hall, 1936: 276. 

Phyciodes pelops aegon : Bates, 1935: 162; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 
1946: 277. 

Phyciodes pelops pelops : Comstock, 1944: 446. 

Melitcea ( Microtia ) pelops pelops : S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 66. 

We place this species in the subgenus Microtia of the genus Melitcea 
according to Wm. T. M. Forbes (See "The genus Phyciodes”, 1945. 

Ent. Amer, vol. XXIV, No. 4, p. 152 and 188). 

Illustrations. — Comstock, 1944: text fig. 7, (venation), pi. 9, f. 1. 

Genus Phyciodes Hiibner 
Phyciodes Hiibner, 1819. 

Genotype: Papilio cocyta Cramer, 1777 ( =Papilio tharos Drury, 1773). 


126 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


91. PHYCIODES (PHYCIODES) PH AON PHAON (Edwards) 

Melitcea phaon Edwards, 1864. 

Phyciodes phaon : M. Sanchez Roig & Gaston S. Villalba, 1934: 109; 
id, 1934b: 32; Field, 1938b: 113; Hoffmann, 1940c: 676; Holland, 
1942: 137. 

Phyciodes phaon phaon: Bates, 1935: 162; Brown, 19 44c: 350; Bruner, 
1947: 26. 

Phyciodes ( Phyciodes ) phaon : Forbes, 1945: 154. 

Phyciodes ( Phyciodes ) phaon phaon : S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 66. 
Illustrations. — M. Sanchez Roig & G. S. Villalba, 1934b: f. 3; Holland, 
1942: pi. XVII, f. 22, 23. 

92. PHYCIODES (PHYCIODES) PHAON PHAON f. HIEMALIS Edwards 

This is the winter form of that species, which was reported by the 
writer in 1952 (See Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat, vol. XXI, p. 66). 

Phyciodes ( Phyciodes ) phaon phaon f. cestiva Edwards (1878: 179) 
is the summer form of that species. 

93. PHYCIODES (ERESIA) FRISIA FRISIA (Poey) 

Melitea frisia Poey, 1832. 

Phyciodes frisia: Gundlach, 1881: 53; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 
277. 

Eresia frisia: Holland, 1916: 491. 

Phyciodes frisia frisia: Bates, 1935: 163; Comstock, 1944: 448. 
Anthanassa frisia: Holland, 1942: 140. 

Phyciodes ( Eresia ) frisia frisia: Forbes, 1945: 156; S. L. de la Torre, 
1952: 66. 

Illustrations. — Poey, 1832: 3 figs, not numbered; Bates, 1935: f. 12, 
(venation); Holland, 1942: text fig. 94, (neuration), pi. XVII, 
f. 42; Comstock, 1944: pi. 6, f. 6; Forbes, 1945: pi. X, f. 29, 
(genital). 

Genus Chlosyne Butler 

Chlosyne Butler, 1870. 

Genotype: Papilio janais Drury, 1782. 


June, 1954] 


de la Torre: Rhopalocera 


127 


94 CHLOSYNE PEREZI PEREZI (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Synchloe perezi Herrich-Schaffer, 1862. 

Chlosyne perezi : Gundlach, 1881: 54. 

Chlosyne perezi perezi : Bates, 1935: 164; Comstock, 1944: 449. 

Genus Polygonia Hiibner 

Polygonia Hiibner, 1819. 

Grapta Kirby, 1837. 

Genotype: Papilio c-aureum Linnaeus, 1758. 

95. * POLYGONIA INTERROGATION IS /. FABRICII (Edwards) 

Polygonia interrogation is form fabricii : Clark, 1932: 94; J. H. Com- 
stock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 134; Field, 1938b: 75; Hoffmann, 
1940c: 680. 

Grapta interrogation is var. fabricii : Fazzini, 1934: 30. 

Polygonia interrogation is: Holland, 1942: 149. 

Polygonia interrogation is var. fabricii'. S. L. de la Torre, 1943: 140. 
Polygonia interrogationis fabricii'. S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65. 

This species was reported by the writer in 1943 (See Mem. Soc. 
Cub. Hist. Nat, vol. XVII, p. 140). 

Illustrations. — Clark, 1932: pi. 10, f. 3; J. H. Comstock & A. B. 
Comstock, 1936: pi. XXIII, f. 1; Holland, 1942: pi. I, f. 3, pi. HI, 
f. 23, 27, (larva), pi. IV, f. 21, 22, 24-26, 40, (chrysalis); pi. 
XIX, f. 1; S. L. de la Torre, 1943: pi. 16, f. 3. 

Genus Vanessa Fabricius 

Cynthia Fabricius, 1807: 88. 

Vanessa Fabricius, 1807: 110. 

Pyrameis Hiibner, 1819. 

Genotype: Papilio atalanta Linnaeus, 1758. 

We use the name Vanessa according to Opinion number 156 of the 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (See "Opin- 
ions and Declarations Rendered by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature”. Vol. 2, Part 26, pp. 239-250, London, 
1944). 


128 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


96. * VANESSA ATALANTA ITALICA Stichel 

Vanessa atalanta italica Stichel, 1907; Field, 1938b: 82; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1952: 68. 

Pyrameis atalanta'. Gundlach, 1881: 39. 

Vanessa atalanta var. edwardsi? : Grinnell, 1918: 113- 
Vanessa atalanta : Showalter, 1927: 107; Fazzini, 1934: 16; Bates, 
1935: 165; J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 154; Hoff- 
mann, 1940c: 680; Holland, 1942: 153; Comstock, 1944: 451; 
Brown, 1945: 31; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 278; Bruner, 1947: 
26; Garth, 1950: 27. 

Pyrameis atalanta atalanta : Clark, 1932: 84. 

Illustrations. — Showalter, 1927: pi. 3, f. 3; Clark, 1932: pi. 7, f. 5, 
6; Fazzini, 1934: p. 17, fig. not numbered; J. H. Comstock & A. B. 
Comstock, 1936: pi. XXVI, f. 1, 2; Holland, 1942: pi. Ill, f. 35, 
pi. IV, f. 52, 53, 55, (chrysalis), pi. XLIII, f. 4. 

97. VANESSA virginiensis IOLE (Cramer) 

Papilio iole Cramer, 1775. 

Pyrameis hunter a\ Gundlach, 1881: 41. 

Vanessa virginiensis virginiensis : Bates, 1935: 165. 

Vanessa virginiensis'. Comstock, 1944: 449; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 
1946: 278. 

Vanessa virginiensis iole : d’Almeida, 1941: 308; S. L. de la Torre, 
1952: 68. 

98. VANESSA CARDUI CARDUELIS (Seba) 

Papilio carduelis Seba, 1765; Cramer, 1779. 

Pyrameis cardui : Gundlach, 1881: 40; Clark, 1932: 88; Fazzini, 1934: 
14. 

Vanessa cardui : Grinnell, 1918: 113; Bates, 1935: 166; J. H. Coms- 
tock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 158; Hoffmann, 1940c: 681; Hol- 
land, 1942: 154; Comstock, 1944: 450; Brown, 1945: 31; Avinoff 
& Shoumatoff, 1946: 278; Bruner, 1947: 26; Garth, 1950: 27. 
Vanessa cardui carduelis : Field, 1938b: 85; S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 
68 . 


(TO BE CONTINUED) 


New York Entomological Society 


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CONTENTS 


New American Terebrantian Thysanoptera 

By J. Douglas Hood 129 

Records and Descriptions of Neotropical Crane-Flies 
(Tipulidae, Diptera), XXVIII 
By Charles P. Alexander 139 

Gaylord Crossette Hall, 1871-1954 153 

Book Notice • • 160 

Notes on Some Siphonaptera from Albany County, 

New York 

By Edward D. Cummings 161 

The Faneuil Hall Grasshopper and Shem Drown . 166 

The Odonata of Cape Cod, Massachusetts 

By Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. and Sarah Preble Gibbs .... 167 

Andrew S. Fuller, Early Economic Entomologist of 
New Jersey, 1828-1896 

By Harry B. Weiss 185 


An Annotated List of the Butterflies and Skippers of 
Cuba (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) 

By Salvador Luis de la Torre Y Callejas 189 

NOTICE: Volume LXII, Number 2, of the Journal 
of the New York Entomological Society was 
Published on May 5, 1955. 


Published Quarterly for the Society 
By United Printing Services, Inc. 

263 Chapel St., New Haven, Conn. 

Subscriptions should be sent to the Treasurer, J. Huberman, American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York 24, N. Y. 

Entered as second class matter July 7, 1925, at the post office at New Haven, 
Conn., under the Act of August 24, 1912. 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in the Act of Feb- 
ruary 28, 1925, embodied in Paragraph (d-2) Section 34.40 P. L. & R. of 1948. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

New York Entomological Society 


Vol. LXII September, 1954 No. 3 

NEW AMERICAN TEREBRANTIAN THYSANOPTERA 

By J. Douglas Hood 

With the exception of one from Texas, the eight new species de- 
scribed below are from the American tropics — Argentina, Costa 
Rica, Panama, British West Indies, French West Indies, Puerto Rico, 
and Surinam. 

Heterothrips elusive, sp. nov. 

Like condei in having fore wings much paler basally, abdominal 
sterna with setae anterior to those on posterior margin, and middle 
and hind tibiae yellow but clouded at middle; but with fringe of 
microtrichia on abdominal tergum VI broadly interrupted on either 
side of median line and pronotum with about 35 transverse striae 

FEMALE (macropterous). — Color blackish brown, not paler in basal 
abdominal segments; legs pale yellow, with fore and hind femora shaded 
at middle of dorsal surface, the hind femora more darkly; fore wings brown, 
recognizably paler for a short distance beyond their dark base; antennae 
about concolorous with body in segments I and II, slightly paler in VI-IX, 
II pale yellow apically, III wholly pale yellow, IV yellow but lightly shaded 
with gray, V darker but yellowish basally. Length about 1 mm. (fully dis- 
tended, 1.2). Head 104, across eyes 134, just behind eyes 130, across cheeks 
137, at base 125, distinctly cross-striate, about 8 striae in occipital area; a 
pair of setae directly in front of median ocellus; eyes 67, width 41, interval 53; 
mouth-cone with tip about 50 beyond dorsal margin of head; antennae normal; 
segment III composed of three parts; I 20(27), II 34(23-24), III 53(23), 
IV 35(23), V 24(18), VI 27(17), VII 14(11), VIII 14(9), IX 14(5). 
Pronotum 110, width 176; surface cross-striate with about 35 heavy dark 
lines about 3g apart, and with a relatively large number of dark setae (those 
at middle of disc occasionally as close together as their length); mesonotum 
strongly and closely cross -striate, the striae less than 2 g apart; metanotum 
sculptured concentrically, the striae with closely set microtrichia; fore wings 


0EC16J955 


130 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


672, setae dark brown in dark areas, costa with about 27, anterior vein with 
about 28, posterior vein with about 22. Abdomen 277 at segment IV, 
closely pubescent laterally in I-VII, almost completely in VIII, in posterior 
two-thirds of IX, and with a patch at middle of X; comb complete on terga 
VII and VIII, on VI interrupted broadly at sides of a median group of 
8-13, II- V with a few microtrichia at median line; sterna II-VII with posterior 
comb and with a number of dark setae in advance of those along posterior 
margin. 

MALE (macropterous) . — Length about 0.8 mm. (fully distended, 0.9). 
Color as in female, but with somewhat paler antennas; abdominal terga with 
a few microtrichia on posterior margin at middle, VII and VIII with comb 
complete, IX not modified; sterna without glandular areas. 

SURINAM: Landerij (air-field near Paramaribo), July 4, 1951, 
Dr. D. C. Geijskes and J. D. H., 6 $ $ (including holotype) and 
4 $ $ (including allotype), from flowers of Clusia nemorosa 

G. F. W. Meyer. 

Heterothrips cacti, sp. nov. 

Allied most closely to the following species ( trinidadensis ) and 
apparently also to flavitibia, agreeing with both in having (1) pos- 
terior margins of abdominal terga fringed with microtrichia which 
arise directly from the terga themselves (rather than from margining 
plates or scales), (2) pronotum not closely striate with dark lines, 
(3) fore wings with white subbasal cross-band, (4) mid and hind 
tibiae dark across middle and yellow at either end, (5) head with 
a pair of setae directly in front of median ocellus, and (6) antennal 
segment III composed of three parts; but differing from both in 
having numerous short dark setae on pronotum only about their 
length apart, mesonotum not closely striate (the striae at middle about 
6fx. apart), ventral surface of pterothorax and abdomen with numerous 
conspicuous dark setae like those on pronotum (in addition to the 
setae on posterior margins of abdominal sterna), and antennae nearly 
white in the broad sensory band which occupies the apical two-fifths. 

FEMALE (macropterous). — Color blackish brown, not paler in basal 
abdominal segments; legs paler than body, the fore pair yellow with femora 
heavily shaded along upper surface except at tip, their tibiae lightly clouded 
at middle, mid and hind femora and mid tibiae brown at middle and yellow 
at either end, the hind tibiae yellow but shaded at middle of upper surface, 
all tarsi yellow; fore wings brown at extreme base, remainder pale yellowish 


Sept. 1954] 


Hood: Thysanoptera 


131 


in its basal fifth and yellowish brown beyond, darker at tip of wing; antennae 
about concolorous with body in segments I, II, and V-IX, but with II yellow 
across tip and V and VI somewhat yellowish in most of basal half, III clear 
whitish yellow, IV abruptly brown in basal three-fifths (pedicel darkest) and 
abruptly nearly white in apical two-fifths. Length about 1.2 mm. Head 127, 
width across eyes 164, just behind eyes 159, across cheeks 161, across base 
148, delicately cross-striate, about 9 stronger striae in occipital area; a pair 
of setae directly in front of median ocellus; eyes 87, width 54, interval 56; 
mouth-cone with tip about 67 beyond dorsal margin of head; antennae normal; 
segment III composed of three parts; I 24(33), II 37(28), III 60(27), 
IV 44(23), V 31(18), VI 33(16), VII 24(13), VIII 20(10), IX 23(7). 
Pronotum 150, width 231; surface cross-striate with delicate lines which 
frequently anastomose and are about 6 /a apart (three or four along anterior 
margin dark), and with numerous dark setae (those at middle of disc about 
as far apart as their length); mesonotum similarly sculptured; metanotum 
sculptured concentrically as in sericatus group, the striae with closely set 
microtrichia; fore wings 714, setae dark gray-brown in dark areas, costa with 
about 32, anterior vein with about 25, posterior vein with about 24. Abdomen 
300 at segment IV, pubescent laterally in I-VII and in about posterior half 
of VIII and IX, VII with a small median patch, VI and X nearly bare medially; 
comb complete on terga VI-VIII, usually with a few median teeth on II-V; 
sterna II-VI similarly but somewhat irregularly fringed, and with numerous 
dark setae in advance of those along posterior margin. 

MALE (macropterous). — Length about 1 mm. Color about as in female, 
but with much paler antennae, segment II paler and much more yellowish 
than I, III pale yellow, IV golden yellow in basal three-fifths and pale 
beyond, V-VII brownish yellow and successively shaded a little more darkly 
with gray, VIII and IX yellowish gray; abdominal terga II-VI with a few 
microtrichia on posterior margin at middle, VII and VIII with comb complete, 
IX not modified; sterna VI-VIII each with a transverse glandular area. 

ARGENTINA: Ingeniero Juarez, Formosa, November 29, 1949, 
F. Monros, 3 $ 2 (including holotype) and 5 $ $ (including 

allotype), from cactus flowers; received from Dr. Abraham Willink. 

Heterothrips trinidadensis, sp. nov. 

Allied most closely to the preceding species {cacti) and apparently 
also to flavitibia, agreeing with both in having (1) posterior margins 
of abdominal terga fringed with microtrichia which arise directly from 
the terga themselves (rather than from margining plates or scales), 
(2) pronotum not closely striate with dark lines, (3) fore wings 
with white subbasal cross-band, (4) mid and hind tibiae dark across 


132 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


middle and yellow at either end, ( 3 ) head with a pair of setae directly 
in front of median ocellus, and (6) antennal segment III composed 
of three parts; but differing from the former species in that the 
pronotum and the ventral surface of pterothorax are sparsely set 
with pale setae, abdominal sterna without setae in front of posterior 
marginal ones, and in the coloration of the fourth antennal segment; 
and differing from the latter species ( flavitibia ) also in the color 
of the fourth antennal segment. 

FEMALE (macropterous). — Color dark blackish brown, not paler in basal 
abdominal segments, with bright red internal pigmentation; femora concolorous 
with body save for yellow tips of fore pair; fore tibiae largely yellow but shaded 
heavily along dorsal surface except at ends; mid and hind tibiae pale whitish 
yellow, the former with middle half blackish brown, the latter similarly 
but not so heavily darkened in a band whose middle is beyond middle of tibiae 
and which is largely confined to dorsal surface; all tarsi whitish yellow; fore 
wings dark brown at extreme base and in apical four-fifths, remainder white; an- 
tennae about concolorous with body in segments I, II, and IV-IX, I and II more 
brownish, IV-IX more blackish and darker, IV with the sensoria themselves 
pale, III pale yellow to deep incision at basal two-fifths, brownish yellow beyond, 
shading to a dark gray apical band which begins at first whorl of setae. Length 
about 1.3 mm. (distended, 1.55). Head 122, across eyes 145, across cheeks 
147, across base 140, delicately cross-striate, about 11 stronger striae in 
occipital area; a pair of setae in front of median ocellus; eyes 74, width 45, 
interval 55; mouth-cone with tip about 47 beyond dorsal margin of head; 
antennae normal; segment III composed of three parts; I 24(29), II 38(26), 
III 63(25), IV 43(25), V 27(19), VI 27(16), VII L6-17 (11), VIII 14(10), 
IX 19(6). Pronotum 137, width 216; surface with three or four distinct 
cross-striae along anterior margin and along posterior margin, remainder 
almost smooth; mesonotum with heavy close dark striae; metanotum sculptured 
concentrically as in sericatus group, the striae granulate; fore wings 763, setae 
dark brown in dark areas, costa with about 31, anterior vein with about 26, 
posterior vein with 19. Abdomen 398 at segment IV, pubescent, but with 
the microtrichia minute or wanting at extreme sides of III-X, IX and X with 
the usual median patch, IX bare across base; comb complete on terga VI-VIII, 
usually a few teeth medially on II-V; sterna II-VI similarly fringed, but 
without setae in advance of the dark ones along posterior margin. 

MALE (macropterous). — Length about 1 mm. Color and structure almost 
as in female; comb broadly interrupted on either side of median line of 
tergum VI, IX not modified; sterna III-VIII each with a transverse glandular 
area. 

TRINIDAD: El Tucuche, June 22, 1951, J. D. H., 6 $ $ (includ- 
ing holotype) and 1 $ (allotype), in flight at extreme summit of the 


Sept. 1954] 


Hood: Thysanoptera 


133 


mountain. — St. Augustine, June 25, 1951, J. D. H., 1 $ from a 
dead branch. 

Sericothrips vicenarius, sp. nov. 

Like typical sambuci in having the body pale yellow, without dark 
antecostal lines on abdominal terga, no comb on tergum VI, non- 
banded fore wings, and fore wings without accessory setae; but with 
three pairs of minute gray dots in area of pronotal blotch and a similar 
pair of dots at sides of metanotum, at posterior angles of metathorax, 
and on abdominal terga II-VI, the pronotum much more closely striate 
in area of blotch than anterior to it, segment IV of antennae about 
2.0 times, VI about 2.6 times, as long as wide, and the setae on fore 
wings and that on posterior angles of pronotum brown or gray, those 
at middle of anterior margin of fore wings about 30 g and shorter 
than width of wing. 

FEMALE (macropterous). — Color nearly uniform pale yellow (due to 
internal pigmentation in body, legs, antennal segments I-V, and wing veins), 
somewhat whitish in abdomen, with small gray dots (visible by reflected 
light) as described above; legs concolorous with body; fore wings colorless 
except for an extremely faint cloud opposite anal area and the conspicuous 
yellow-pigmented ambient, anal, and medial veins; antennae yellow, sometimes 
slightly darkened in apical portion of segment I, III narrowly shaded with 
gray just beyond pedicel and again at tip, IV more heavily darkened beyond 
setae, apical third of V and all of VI-VIII gray. 

Length about 1.1 mm. (distended, 1.2 mm.). Head 97g long, 153 across 
eyes, 146 across cheeks, 130 across base, 20 across frontal costa, faintly cross- 
striate with pale lines, chaetotaxy normal; occipital apodeme colorless, far 
posterior to eyes and to ocellar area, arched forward only slightly, with about 
three stria? behind it medially; eyes 68 long, 41 wide, 71 apart; mouth-cone 
short, broadly rounded at tip, extending about 85 beyond posterior margin 
of head; antenna? normal, seta? on II-V mostly gray, segment I 19(29), II 
3,6(27), III 50(20), IV 43(20), V 39(20), VI 43(16), VII 10(7), VIII 
13-14(5). Pronotum 123 long, 171 wide, cross-striate throughout, more 
finely in blotch, about 16 stria? crossing midline in front of median seta? 
of blotch, without inter-strial lines or wrinkles; seta at posterior angles 32 g, 
gray, other seta? paler; meso- and metanota similarly finely striate; hind tibiae 
not especially slender, about 17 lg long; fore wings about 728g long, seta? 
dark yellowish gray, costa with 25-29, median vein with 3 or 4 + 18-22, those 
on vein at middle of wing about 34g. Abdomen normal in structure and 
chaetotaxy, 280g wide at segment JV, without medial fringe on posterior 
margin of terga I-VI. 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


TEXAS: Bay City, March 31, 1939, J. D. H., 7 $ $ (including 
holotype), from leaves of Baccharis halimifolia L. (det. by C. V. 
Morton); Francitas, Feb. 26, 1939, J. D. H., 10 $ $ , from miscellane- 
ous living vegetation. 

Sericothrips mimosas, sp. nov. 

Like burungce in having the fore wings light gray, with an obscure 
dark area opposite the slightly darkened anal lobe and a minute 
colorless spot beyond the area, without indications of cross-bands, 
veins orange-pigmented in fresh specimens, one accessory seta on fore 
wings, abdominal terga II-VII with complete dark antecostal line, 
VII and VIII (only) with complete comb, and pronotal blotch distinct, 
though broken; but with the head dark yellowish brown in ocellar area 
and along occipital line, with abdominal terga II-VIII rather heavily 
shaded at sides behind basal dark line, this shading occupying about 
one-half the length of the segments and extended on VII and VIII 
to posterior margin in about median fourth, with about 16 striae 
medially in front of pronotal blotch, and the wing setae longer, those 
on costal margin at middle of wing about 43 /x long. 

FEMALE (macropterous) . — Color orange-yellow, head nearly colorless 
between antennas and darkened with brown in ocellar area and broadly so 
along occipital line; pronotal blotch distinct, dark gray-brown and complete 
along anterior margin, about three pairs of paler, coalescing gray spots occupying 
the foveas behind; mesonotum darkened anteriorly and at sides, metascutellum 
irregularly darkened; abdominal terga II-VII with complete dark brown 
antecostal line, VIII with this line dark in median third, all of these segments 
shaded (especially at sides) behind the line for about one-half their length, 
the shading extended on VII and VIII to posterior margin in about median 
fourth; IX and X not darkened; legs about concolorous with body, femora and 
front and middle tibias obscurely darkened or spotted at middle, hind tibiae 
yellow; fore wings pale gray, with orange pigment (especially in veins), 
somewhat darker in anal lobe and opposite it, with a minute colorless spot 
at basal fifth, the setae all dark gray; antennae nearly colorless in segment I, 
brown beyond, II as dark as VI, III nearly colorless in basal two-thirds of 
pedicel and in a narrow line just beyond, yellowish in basal half or more of 
swollen apical portion, narrowly nearly black at tip, IV and V nearly black 
in pedicel and at tip, paler beyond pedicel, VI-VIII dark brown. 

Length about 1.1 mm. (distended, 1.3 mm.). Head 107 long, 150 across 
eyes, 136 across cheeks, 120 across base, 15 across frontal costa; sculpture 
normal, consisting of fine cross-lines, these dark in the dark parts of occiput, 


Sept. 1954] 


Hood: Thysanoptera 


135 


absent from the pale transverse area between occipital line and the ocellar 
area and eyes. Pronotum 122 long, 175 across, with dark cross-lines of 
sculpture, these closer together in blotch, about 16 medially in front of 
blotch; seta at posterior angles 55 long, nearly black, outstanding, other setae 
paler, normal in number and distribution. Mesonotum and metascutellum finely 
and closely striate, without inter-strial roughenings; fore wings 770 long, slender 
but normal, with about 3 + 24 setae on vein and one accessory seta near tip; hind 
tibae 218 long, not especially slender. Abdomen 276 wide (at segment IV), 
structure and chaetotaxy normal, all setae brown. Antennal segments: I 
21(26-27), II 40(26), III 57(20), IV 54(18), V 44(16-17), VI 53(16), 
VII 11(7), VIII 13(5). 

MALE (macropterous). — Nearly identical in color and structure with 
female; length about 1 mm. 

COSTA RICA: Turrialba, Jan. 16, 1951, Dr. T. Roy Hansberry, 
18 $ 9 and 5 $ $ (including holotype and allotype), from Mimosa 
flowers and foliage. 


Echinothrips caribeanus, sp. nov. 

Like americanus in having dark brown body with red internal pig- 
mentation and abdominal terga II-VII with microtrichia arising from 
the lines of sculpture at sides in posterior half; but with the fore 
wings nearly uniform brown, setas on wings shorter (those at middle 
of costa about 65/x, at middle of vein about 50/x), occipital and 
pronotal reticles not wrinkled, and setae on dorsum of antennal seg- 
ment II near apex blunt and tapering only slightly. 

FEMALE (macropterous). — Color dark brown, with red internal pigmenta- 
tion; fore legs yellow, lightly shaded at middle of femora and near base of 
tibiae; mid and hind tarsi and distal halves of their tibiae yellow, remainder 
of legs dark brown except for yellow bases of femora; fore wings light 
gray, with orange pigment in ambient vein; antennae dark brown in segments 
I and II, somewhat paler in V beyond setae and in VI-VIII, remainder pale 
yellow with III shaded in constricted portion just beyond pedicel. 

Head I43g long, across eyes 151, across cheeks 145, at base 139, across 
frontal costa 18, cheeks slightly concave, serrate in basal half, sculpture and 
chaetotaxy normal, reticles not roughened; mouth-cone extending 74g beyond 
posterior dorsal margin of head, broadly rounded at tip, maxillary palpi 
2-segmented; antennae normal, segment I 24(31), II 40(29), III 56(16), IV 
45(17), V 50(16-17), VI 66(16-17), VII 17(8), VIII 25(6). Pronotum 
113g long, 202 across, sculpture as illustrated for subflavus; setae at posterior 
angles grayish yellow, slightly dilated and blunt at tip, inner 5 1ft, outer 56; 


136 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


fore wings 89 6g long, costa with about 16 setae, vein with about 14, these 
dilated at tip and yellow. Abdomen normal, with dark raised lines of sculpture 
along sides curved posteriorly, those in about posterior half with microtrichia. 

MALE $ (macropterous). — Virtually identical with female in color 
and structure, but with numerous glandular areas on sterna III-VIII; length 
about 1.22 mm. (distended, 1.35 mm.). 

GUADELOUPE: March 12, 1915, Dr. C. B. Williams, 16 $ $ 
(including holotype) and 3 S S (including allotype), from lower 
side of leaves of Erythrina sp.; same, 2 $ 2 , from grass and low 
herbage; same, 1 $ from jaws of ant. 

MARTINIQUE: March 14, 1915, C. B. W., 2 $ 2 , swept from grass. 

ST. VINCENT: Kingston, Dec. 10, 1917, C. B. W., 1 2 , under- 
side leaf of small weed. 

TRINIDAD: St. Annes, Jan. 7, 1917, C. B. W, 1 2 , swept from 
low herbage. 

PANAMA: Barro Colorado Island, C. Z., July 29, 1933, J. D. H. 
and James Zetek, 1 $ , from flower of Euphorbia brasiliensis. 

PUERTO RICO: El Yunque (Caribbean National Forest), June 16, 
1951, J. D. H., 1 2 , from grass. 

Enneothrips (Enneothripiella) subtilis, sp. nov. 

Distinctive in having head and body yellowish brown, with all 
femora partly or largely brown, antennal segments I-IX almost wholly 
brown, abdomen very closely striate with dark lines at sides, the lines 
without microtrichia, interocellar setae short and inconspicuous, and 
seta at posterior angles of prothorax about as long as width of 
fourth antennal segment. 

FEMALE (macropterous). — Color nearly uniform yellowish brown, abdomen 
paler medially in segments III-V, head narrowly darkened across base; fore 
femora brown along outer surface, yellow along inner surface and at tip, 
the mid femora largely brown, hind femora dark brown, all of them yellow 
at base; tibiae and tarsi yellow, the former lightly clouded with brown along 
outer surface; fore wings dark brown, pale in about second seventh except 
along costal margin; antennae nearly uniform brown throughout, segment I 
only slightly paler than II, III pale in pedicel and (like IV and V) narrowly 
pale just beyond pedicel. Length about 0.9 mm. Head 89 g, width across 


Sept. 1954] 


Hood: Thysanoptera 


137 


eyes 130, across cheeks 128, cheeks nearly straight and parallel; dorsal surface 
with fine raised cross-lines which project distinctly beyond outline of cheeks, 
no wrinkles between the lines, ocellar area similarly but more faintly sculptured; 
chaetotaxy normal, all setae slender, pale, and inconspicuous, interocellar setae 
about 17 g; occipital apodeme darkened, marginal; eyes 57 g, width 39, 
interval 52; ocelli about 14 g in diameter, the posterior pair about 20 apart 
and about 11 from median ocellus; mouth-cone with tip slender (not broadly 
rounded) and extending about 110 g beyond posterior dorsal margin of head, 
maxillary palpi 3-segmented; antennae normal, almost as illustrated for type 
species, segment I 19(24) g, II 33(22, exclusive of the strongly-projecting 
lines of sculpture), III 39(17), IV 43(16), V 39(15), VI 37(14-15), 
VII 13(8), VIII 8(6-7), IX 12(4). Pronotum 106 g, width 157, seta at 
posterior angles 30; striae very fine and close (1.5-2 g apart), without inter- 
lineations; mesonotum as closely but more strongly striate, anterior sclerite of 
metanotum similarly striate across base, longitudinally striate elsewhere, 
reticulated medially only at extreme posterior margin; fore wings 546 g, 
typical, with 24-26 setae on costal margin, fore vein with 4+7-8 in basal 
half and 1+1 in apical sixth, hind vein with 13-15 evenly-spaced ones. 
Abdomen 238 g wide at segment IV, lateral thirds of most terga with striae 
dark, strong, inclined backward, and closely spaced (about 1.5 g apart), 
microtrichia only along posterior margins of terga at sides; comb on VIII 
complete; setae dark gray, segment IX with seta I 50 g, II and III 57, X with 
seta I 70, II 67. 

TRINIDAD: April 1, 1915, Dr. C. B. Williams (No. 635), 1 $ 
(holotype), swept from grass. 

Enneothrips (Enneothripiella) flaviceps, sp. nov. 

Distinctive in having head and legs pale lemon-yellow, antennae 
with segment I yellow and remainder almost wholly brown, abdomen 
without microtrichia arising from lines of sculpture (the latter weak, 
transverse, and rather widely spaced), interocellar setae fully twice 
as long as diameter of ocelli, and seta at posterior angles of prothorax 
longer than fourth antennal segment. 

FEMALE (macropterous) . — Color of head and abdomen pale lemon- 
yellow, thorax orange-yellow, the head narrowly darkened across base, abdominal 
terga II- VIII gray medially, more narrowly so on VI-VIII, these clouds darkest 
anterior to antecostal line; thoracic nota with very obscure clouds either side 
of middle; legs nearly clear yellow; fore wings almost uniform yellowish brown; 
antennae with segment I pale like head, Il-IX brown, II darker than 
III and somewhat orange, III pale yellow in pedicel and basal part of widened 
portion, IV pale basally, V with pedicel dark, both of last nearly colorless 
just beyond pedicel, VI-IX uniform brown. Length about 0.9 mm. Head 


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New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


107 g, width across eyes 140, across cheeks 134, across base 122, cheeks 
slightly arched; dorsal surface with fine raised cross-lines which project only 
slightly beyond outline of cheeks, but without wrinkles between the lines, 
the striae longitudinal medially between bases of antennae, ocellar area smooth; 
chaetotaxy normal, but interocellar setae long (35 g) and gray, other setae 
shorter and paler; occipital apodeme darkened, marginal; eyes 67/*, width 49, 
interval 62; ocelli 13-14 g in diameter, the posterior pair about 23 apart and 
10-11 from median ocellus; mouth-cone with tip slender (not broadly rounded) 
and extending about 81 g beyond posterior dorsal margin of head, maxillary 
palpi 3-segmented; antennae normal, almost as illustrated for type species, 
segment I 19(24)g, II 32(23-24), III 37(19), IV 47(19), V 38(16), VI 
34(17), VII 13(10), VIII 10(7), IX 13(4). Pronotum 111 /*, width 
142, seta at posterior angles 56; striae fine and close, without interlineations; 
mesonotum finely striate, anterior sclerite of metanotum reticulate medially 
in about posterior half, striate elsewhere; fore wings 546 / a , typical, with 
about 26 setae on costal margin, fore vein with 4+6 in basal half and 1+1 
in apical sixth, hind vein with about 13 evenly-spaced ones. Abdomen 
251 /* wide at segment IV, lateral thirds of most terga transversely weakly 
striate, microtrichia only along posterior margins at sides; comb on VIII 
complete; setae dark gray, I-III on IX 45-47 g, I and II on X 62. 

PANAMA : Barro Colorado Island, C. Z., August 8 ( 1 $ , holotype, 
from unidentified plant), Aug. 10 (2 $ $ from leaves of Machaerium 
purpurascens ) , and Aug. 14 (1 $ from miscellaneous vegetation), 
1933, J. D. H. 


Sept., 1954] 


Alexander: Tipulid^e 


139 


RECORDS AND DESCRIPTIONS OF NEOTROPICAL 
CRANE-FLIES (TIPULIDAE, DIPTERA), XXVIII 

By Charles P. Alexander 
Amherst, Massachusetts 

The preceding part under this general title was published in the 
Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 61: 147-157; 1953- 
At this time I am considering a series of Tipulidae that were taken 
at El Limbo, in the Yungas del Palmar, Province of Chapare, Depart- 
ment of Cochabamba, Bolivia, at a general altitude of 2,000 meters, 
in March 1953. This important series of crane-flies was received 
from Mr. Alberto F. Prosen, to whom I express my sincere apprecia- 
tion. The types of the novelties are preserved in my personal col- 
lection. 

Besides the Tipulidae herein described as new, a considerable num- 
ber of additional species were included, with the same data as given 
above. Most of these were known previously only from Ecuador 
and Peru and provided marked extensions of range. 

Tipula ( Eumicrotipula ) conspicillata Alex. 

Limonia ( Limonia ) bimucronata Alex. 

L. (L.) brachyacantha Alex. 

L. ( Dicranomyia ) labecula Alex. 

L. (D.) subandicola Alex. 

L. ( Geranomyia ) aequalis Alex. 

L. ( G.) carunculata manabiana Alex. 

L. ( G .) stoica Alex. 

Shannonomyia sopora Alex. 

Atarba ( Ischnothrix ) obtusiloba Alex. 

A. ( Atarba ) macracantha Alex. 

A. (A.) scabrosa Alex. 

Elephantomyia ( Elephantomyia ) boliviensis Alex. 

Teucholabis ( Teucholabis ) ducalis Alex. 

Gonomyia ( Paralipophleps ) heteromera Alex. 

G. ( Lipophleps ) projecta Alex. 

G. (L.) senaria Alex. 

Erioptera ( Empeda ) austronymphica Alex. 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


E. E. boliviana Alex. 

E. E. percupida Alex. 

E. ( Erioptera ) andina Alex. 

E. E. multiannulata Alex. 

E. E. mania Alex. 

Molophilus ( Molophilus ) piger Alex. 

M. (M.) tucumanus Alex. 

Genus Tipula Linnaeus 

Tipula (Eumicrotipula) longurioides new species 

Belongs to the glaphyroptera group; general coloration of praescutum yellow, 
subnitidous, with three reddish brown stripes; a conspicuous brown spot on 
the pretergite beneath the humeri; antennae very short; femora obscure yellow, 
darker outwardly, with a vague darker nearly terminal ring; wings weakly 
tinged with brown, almost unpatterned; cells C and Sc, with the stigma, darker 
brown; vein Ri + 2 entirely atrophied; abdomen black, the basal segments and 
the hypopygium yellowed; male hypopygium with the posterior border of 
tergite produced into a short median point; gonapophysis very large and 
conspicuous; eighth sternite unarmed. 

Male. Length about 12 mm.; wing 14 mm.; antenna about 2.4 mm. 

Female. Length about 11.5 mm.; wing 14 mm.; antenna about 2 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of head yellow; nasus very short; basal three segments 
of palpi yellow, the terminal one abruptly black. Antennae unusually short 
in both sexes; basal three segments yellow, the remainder black; flagellar 
segments subcylindrical, with poorly developed basal enlargements; verticils 
much shorter than the segments; terminal segment very reduced. Head 
buffy; vertical tubercle low. 

Pronotum obscure yellow, restrictedly patterned with darker medially and 
on sides. Mesonotal praescutum yellow with three reddish brown to brown 
stripes, the surface subnitidous; a very conspicuous black spot on the preter- 
gites opposite the humeral region of the praescutum; posterior sclerites of 
notum yellow, patterned with more reddish brown, including the scutal lobes, 
scutellum and central line of the mediotergite. Pleura and pleurotergite 
more opaque yellow; a very small black dot on dorsal anepisternum before 
the wing-root. Halteres with stem pale brown, knob obscure brownish yellow. 
Legs with the coxae and trochanters obscure yellow; femora obscure yellow, 
more infuscated outwardly, with a vague darker nearly terminal ring; tibiae 
and tarsi more reddish brown, the outer tarsal segments darker; claws (male) 
simple. Wings with a weak brownish tinge, cells C and Sc, with the stigma, 


Sept., 1954] 


Alexander: Tipulhxe 


141 


darker brown; small and vague darkenings at origin of Rs, cord and outer 
end of vein Cu\ obliterative areas before stigma and across cell 1st M 2 restricted 
and inconspicuous; veins brown. Venation: Rx +2 entirely atrophied; petiole 
of cell Mi about one-half longer than m\ basal section of vein Mi perpendicular. 

Basal abdominal segments broadly yellow laterally, the tergites with a con- 
spicuous blackened central stripe, the fourth and succeeding segments black; 
hypopygium light yellow. Male hypopygium with the tergite transverse, its 
posterior border broadly emarginate, the median area produced into a small 
carinate blade; lateral angles narrowly produced into longer points. Basistyle 
small, unproduced, its lobes reduced and inconspicuous. Outer dististyle a weak 
club with relatively few long setas. Inner dististyle with the beak and lower 
beak conspicuous, the latter smaller and more blackened; setae of dorsal region 
long but scattered and relatively few in number. Gonapophysis very con- 
spicuous, appearing as a broadly flattened obtuse blade, with a smaller inner 
one that narrows outwardly, bidentate at extreme tip. Eighth sternite un- 
armed, the posterior border pale and very shallowly emarginate. 

Holotype, $ , El Limbo, Cochabamba, 2000 meters, March 1953. 
Allotopotype, $ . 

The present fly is quite distinct in the coloration, venation and 
structure of the male hypopygium. It is most similar to species such 
as Tipula ( Ettmicrotipula ) flavidula Alexander but quite distinct in 
the coloration, wing pattern, and details of structure of the male hypo- 
pygium. 

Genus Limonia Meigen 

Limonia (Rhipidia) proseni new species 

General coloration of mesonotum light brown, pleura with a broad darker 
brown longitudinal stripe; antenna (male) unipectinate, black throughout ex- 
cept for the pale apical pedicels of the segments; femora obscure yellow, 
pale brown outwardly, most extensively so on the fore legs; wings faintly 
infuscated, with a restricted darker brown pattern; 5A ending just before 
midlength of Rs\ cell 1st M a long-rectangular; vi-cu shortly before fork of M; 
male hypopygium with two short rostral spines. 

Male. Length about 6.5 mm.; wing 7 mm. 

Rostrum black, relatively long, about one-half the remainder of head; palpi 
black. Antennas black, the glabrous apical pedicels of the flagellar segments 
obscure yellow; flagellar segments unipectinate, the longest branches nearly 
as long as the segments; penultimate segment vaguely produced, darkened 
except for the apical stem, shorter than the terminal segment. Head light 
brown; anterior vertex reduced to a capillary line. 


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New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


Pronotum dark brown. Mesonotal praescutum almost uniformly light brown, 
without clearly defined stripes, the sides paler; scutal lobes light brown; re- 
mainder of notum more testaceous yellow. Pleura with a broad diffuse darker 
brown longitudinal stripe, the ventral pleurites yellow. Halteres with stem 
pale yellow, knob weakly darkened. Legs with coxae and trochanters testaceous 
yellow, the fore coxae darker; femora obscure yellow, the tips passing into 
pale brown, most extensive on the fore legs, very narrow on the hind pair; 
tibiae and tarsi pale brown, the outer tarsal segments darker. Wings faintly in- 
fuscated, with a restricted darker brown pattern, arranged much as in domestica 
and allies; small spots at near midlength of cell Sc, origin of Rs and fork of 
Sc; cord and outer end of cell 1st M 2 ; stigma ringed with pale brown, the 
center pale; a dusky streak in cell R 2 beyond stigma, with scarcely indicated 
similar darkenings in cells R3 and R 5 ; broad but diffuse dusky clouds in cell 
R adjoining vein M and in base of cell 1st A; veins pale brown, darker in 
the patterned areas. Venation: Sc relatively long, Sci ending shortly before 
midlength of Rs, Sc 2 close to its tip; cell 1st M 2 long-rectangular, nearly 
equal to the distal section of vein M 3 ; m-cu about one-fifth its length before 
the fork of M. 

Abdomen dark brown, including the hypopygium, the basal sternites a 
trifle paler. Male hypopygium with the tergite semicircular in outline, the 
posterior border broadly rounded; setae relatively few, marginal. Basistyle 
with the ventromesal lobe relatively large, with a small accessory lobule near 
base. Dorsal dististyle a stout rod, strongly curved on outer half, suddenly 
narrowed into a terminal spine. Ventral dististyle fleshy, its area approximately 
three times that of the basistyle; rostral prolongation stout, with two short 
spines that are not quite as long as the prolongation beyond their insertion. 
Gonapophysis with mesal-apical lobe black, nearly straight, the narrowed tip 
a little curved. 

Holotype, $ , El Limbo, Cochabamba, 2000 meters, March 1953. 

Limonia ( Rhipidia ) proseni is dedicated to Sehor Alberto F. Prosen. 
It is most similar to species such as L. ( R .) sycophant a Alexander and 
L. ( R .) thy she Alexander, differing in the coloration, venation, and 
slight details of the male hypopygium. 

Limonia (Geranomyia) neanthina new species 

Generally similar to anthina and glauca; size relatively small (wing under 
8 mm.); general coloration greenish yellow, the praescutum with a broad 
reddish brown central stripe; femora with two blackened rings, the narrower 
one subterminal; wings pale yellow, with a conspicuous brown pattern; male 
hypopygium with the notch of the tergite very deep and narrow, the lobes 
conspicuous; rostral spines straight, from a small common basal tubercle. 


Sept, 1954] 


Alexander: TipuliD/E 


143 


Male. Length, excluding rostrum, about 6 mm.; wing 7.5 mm.; rostrum 
about 4 mm. 

Female. Length, excluding rostrum, about 6.5 mm.; wing 7.6 — 7.8 mm.; 
rostrum about 4 mm. 

Rostrum black throughout, long in both sexes, exceeding one-half the wing. 
Antennas black; flagellar segments oval with short verticils. Head above 
black, with a narrow buffy gray central line over the entire vertex. 

Pronotum reddish brown, paling to greenish yellow on sides. Mesonotal 
praescutum with a broad median reddish brown stripe, the lateral borders 
less evidently darkened, leaving broad pale green intermediate areas be- 
tween the stripes; posterior sclerites of notum strongly greenish, the centers of 
the scutal lobes darkened. Pleura and pleurotergite greenish, presumably 
fading to yellow in long dead specimens. Halteres with stem pale green, 
knobs infuscated. Legs with the coxae and trochanters pale green; femora on 
proximal half chiefly blackened, the bases yellowed, least extensive on fore 
legs, more broadly so on the middle and posterior pairs; outer half or less 
yellow, enclosing a second blackened ring that is subequal to the yellow 
annuli before and beyond it; tibiae dark brown or blackened, the bases yellowed; 
tarsi light brown, the outer segments black. Wings tinged with yellow, the 
prearcular and costal fields more saturated; a relatively heavy brown pattern, 
as follows: Bases of cells R and M; supernumerary crossvein in cell Sc; origin 

of Rs; fork of Sc; stigma, confluent with a complete band at cord; outer end 
of cell 1st M 2 ; marginal clouds at ends of longitudinal veins, largest over 
the Anals; a restricted heavy darkening at midlength of cell 2nd A; veins 
light yellow, infuscated in the patterned areas. Venation: Sc long, Scj. ending 
about opposite midlength of Rs, Sc 2 near its tip; r-m reduced by approximation 
of adjacent veins; cell 1st M 2 subequal in length to distal section of vein Afi +2 . 

Abdomen pale brown, strongly suffused with green, including the hypopyg- 
ium. Male hypopygium with the tergite narrowed posteriorly, the caudal 
border with a deep and narrow notch, the lobes obtuse, conspicuous. Ninth 
sternite broadly semioval, with numerous rather short setas that are well- 
distributed over the surface. Dorsal dististyle a gently curved rod that nar- 
rows to the long straight terminal spine. Ventral dististyle large and fleshy, 
its area exceeding four times that of the basistyle; rostral prolongation moder- 
ately long, with two straight spines that exceed the prolongation, placed 
close together at summit of a low common tubercle. Gonapophysis pale, the 
mesal-apical lobe relatively slender, without a lateral flange, gently curved 
to the acute tip. Aedeagus relatively broad, glabrous, terminating in two 
very large apical flaps, their apices obtuse. 

Holotype, 2 , El Limbo, Cochabamba, 2000 meters, March 1953. 
Allotopotype, $ . Paratopotypes, 2 $ $ . 


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New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


The most similar described species is Limonia ( Geranomyia ) anthina 
Alexander, of Peru, which differs in the larger size, details of coloration, 
and in the structure of the male hypopygium. 

Genus Orimarga Osten Sacken 
Orimarga (Orimarga) subcostata new species 

Size relatively small (wing, female, about 5.5 mm.); general coloration 
gray, the praescutum with three vaguely darker stripes; intermediate flagellar 
segments nearly globular; legs obscure yellow, the outer tarsal segments dark- 
ened; wings with a weak brownish tinge; Sc very long, Sci ending beyond 
three-fourths the length of Rs; R 2 longer than Ri+y, basal section of R i+ 5 short, 
suberect at origin; m-cu nearly three times its length before fork of M. 

Female. Length about 6 mm.; wing 5.6 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi brownish black, the former about one-third the re- 
mainder of head. Antennae very pale brown, the pedicel brighter; inter- 
mediate flagellar segments nearly globular, with inconspicuous vestiture; outer 
segments passing into oval. Head light gray; anterior vertex about three 
times the diameter of scape. 

Thoracic dorsum gray, the praescutum with three scarcely indicated brownish 
gray stripes; scutal lobes faintly brownish gray. Pleura infuscated dorsally, 
more brownish yellow below. Halteres obscure yellow. Legs with the coxae 
and trochanters testaceous yellow; remainder of legs brownish yellow to 
obscure yellow, the outer tarsal segments darkened. Wings with a weak 
brownish tinge, the prearcular and costal fields more whitened; veins very 
pale brown, more yellowed at the wing base. Anterior branch of Rs without 
macrotrichia; veins Ran, Mi +2 , M 3 and Mi with trichia. Venation: Sc very 

long, ending beyond three-fourths the length of Rs, Sc 2 some distance from 
its tip, with no indication of the free tip of Sc 2 ; Rs angulated at origin, long, 
about equal to the distal section of vein R i+ 5 ; Ri +2 shorter than R>; m-cu 
nearly three times its length before fork of M, about opposite Sc 2 ; basal 
section of vein R i+5 short, suberect at origin, about in alignment with fork of 
M; cell Ms longer than its petiole. In one wing of type, vein R> entirely 
atrophied. 

Abdomen dark brown, including the genital shield; cerci short, slightly 
upcurved, horn-yellow, the tips ending almost on a level with those of the 
hypovalvae. 

Holotype, $ , El Limbo, Cochabamba, 2000 meters, March 1953. 

Orimarga ( Orimarga ) subcostata is quite distinct from all other 
described regional species in the venation, particularly the combination 


Sept, 1954] 


Alexander: Tipulhle 


145 


of very long Sc and short R 1 + 2 . In general, it is closest to species such 
as 0. ( 0.) dampji Alexander, yet quite distinct in the features listed. 


Genus Atarba Osten Sacken 

Atarba ( Ischnothrix ) rectangularis new species 

General coloration of thorax buffy; antennae (male) elongate, approximately 
equal to the body, the flagellar segments with a long outspreading pubescence; 
wings tinged with brown, the long-oval stigma darker brown; vein R 3 short, 
oblique, m-cu beyond midlength of cell 1st AI 2 ; abdominal segments bi- 
colored, especially the sternites; male hypopygium with the median area of 
the posterior border of the eighth sternite produced into a long parallel- 
sided lobe, the ninth sternite into two strong horns; aedeagus small and weak. 

Male. Length about 6 — 6.2 mm.; wing 6.6 — 7 mm.; antenna about 
6.3 — 6.4 mm. 

Rostrum obscure yellow; palpi dark brown. Antennae (male) very long, 
approximately equal to the body; scape and pedicel light yellow, flagellum 
dark brown; flagellar segments very long-cylindrical, with abundant erect 
white pubescence, this three or four times as long as the diameter of the 
segment. Head light brown. 

Thoracic dorsum buffy, without a distinct pattern; scutellum and postnotum 
darker, pruinose. Halteres with stem pale, knob weakly darkened. Legs 
with the coxae pale, the fore pair darker in front; trochanters pale yellow; 
remainder of legs light brown, the outer tarsal segments blackened. Wings 
tinged with brown, the long-oval stigma darker brown; veins dark brown. 
Venation: Sc relatively long, Sci ending beyond midlength of Rs, Sc 2 a short 
distance from its tip; vein R ;s short, oblique, subequal to the distance on mar- 
gin between it and the tip of R i +2 ; m-cu beyond midlength of cell 1st M 2 

Abdominal tergites brown, the posterior borders more yellowed; sternites 
bicolored, yellow, with a darkened ring at near midlength of each; subterminal 
segments dark brown, forming a conspicuous ring; basistyies of hypopygium 
light yellow. Male hypopygium with the posterior border of the eighth sternite 
produced into a long parallel-sided lobe, its apex truncate, the length about 
two and one-half times its width. Ninth sternite produced into two stout 
yellow horns that are only slightly divergent, narrowed to the acute tips. 
Basistyle elongate, without mesal lobes. Outer dististyle slender, gently curved 
toward apex, with a series of about a score of appressed spines, the outer ones 
longer; inner style a little longer, dark colored. Aedeagus slender, unusually 
small and weak. 


Holotype, S , El Limbo, Cochabamba, 2000 meters, March 1953. 


146 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


Paratopotype, $ . 

This fiy is most similar to species such as Atarba ( Ischnothrix ) 
capitella Alexander and A. (/.) digitifera Alexander, differing from 
all in the structure of the male hypopygium, especially the nature of 
the lobe of the eighth sternite. The paratype is much darker, with 
slightly different venation, yet seems to be conspecific. 

Genus Tench olabis Osten Sacken 

Teucholabis (Teuchoiabis) analis new species 

General coloration of entire body polished black, the pronotal scutellum, 
an area at center of the suture and the mesonotal scutellum yellow; antennas 
and legs entirely black; halteres black, the knobs orange; posterior tibise and 
basitarsi weakly dilated; wings whitish, restrictedly patterned with brown, 
including the cord and wing tip; basad of cord with no dark areas except 
at end of vein 2nd A; Sc relatively long, Sc± ending about opposite two-fifths 
Rs, the branches of the latter parallel to one another; sternal pocket of fifth 
segment conspicuous. 

Male. Length about 8 mm.; wing 7 mm. 

Female. Length about 6.5 mm.; wing 6 mm. 

Rostrum, palpi and antennae black, the flagellar segments subglobular. 
Head black. 

Thorax almost uniformly polished black, the pronotal scutellum and preter- 
gites, a restricted median area at the suture, and the mesonotal scutellum light 
yellow. Pleura polished black, the dorsopleural membrane pale yellow. 
Halteres with stem black, the apex of knob orange. Legs entirely black, 
in male the posterior tibia before midlength and posterior basitarsus on 
proximal third slightly dilated. Wings whitish, rather restrictedly patterned 
with dark brown, including the stigma and a confluent band over the cord, 
outer end of cell 1st M 2 , and a weak cloud at end of Sc; wing tip rather 
broadly dark brown, leaving nearly the basal halves of cells 2nd M 2 and 
pale, the dark pattern continued basad as a very narrow marginal seam to 
vein Cu; cell Sc dark; no darkening basad of cord except a single spot at end 
of vein 2nd A; veins dark brown, more yellowed in the prearcular field. 
Venation: Sc relatively long, Sci ending about opposite two-fifths Rs; R 2 only 
a little distad of level of cord, R 2+ 3+ 4 thus very short to virtually lacking; 
branches of Rs extending parallel to one another for virtually their whole 
lengths. 


Sept., 1954] 


Alexander: Tipulidaz 


147 


Abdomen black throughout. Sternal pocket of fifth segment conspicuous, 
including a dense concentration on either side of a narrow longitudinal 
cleft, with coarser, inwardly-directed bristles on either side; on sternite six 
with a group of about twenty very long setas on either side of a broad central 
area. Hypopygium lost. 

Holotype, $ , El Limbo, Cochabamba, 2000 meters, March 1953. 
Allotopotype, $ , pinned with type. 

Teucholabis ( Teucholabis ) analis is most similar to species such 
as T. (T.) cybele new species and T. (T.) decora Alexander, differing 
in the coloration of the body and appendages, and in the distribution 
of the wing pattern. 

Teucholabis (Teucholabis) cybele new species 

Head and abdomen black; thorax variegated black, yellow and fulvous, 
prasscutum black with a transverse fulvous band at midlength; a major black 
area on the mesepisternum; halteres black; legs black, the fore and middle 
femora broadly yellow basally; wings with the restricted ground pale yellow, 
heavily patterned with dark brown; pocket of fifth abdominal sternite in male 
an oval area of dense microscopic points; male hypopygium with the spine 
of basistyle short and straight; outer dististyle a flattened black blade, terminat- 
ing in a black spine; inner dististyle a divided blade, the inner arm elongate, 
the beak terminating in two unequal spines. 

Male. Length about 8 mm.; wing 8.5 mm. 

Female. Length about 6.5 mm.; wing 7 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi black, the former nearly as long as the remainder of 
head. Antennas black throughout; flagellar segments oval to long-oval. Head 
black. 

Pronotum yellow. Mesonotal praescutum black medially on anterior third, 
the posterior third uniformly black, the intermediate part fulvous, forming a 
broad crossband at near midlength; scutum black, the region of the suture 
more reddened; scutellum yellow; postnotum reddish. Pleura with the mese- 
pisternum polished black, the propleura and mesepimeron yellow; meron black; 
dorsopleural region chiefly yellow. Halteres black throughout. Legs with all 
coxas black; trochanters brownish yellow, darker beneath, the posterior pair 
more uniformly so; fore femora with the bases broadly yellow, the outer 
half or more black; middle femora with outer two-thirds black, the posterior 
femora entirely blackened; tibiae and tarsi black; posterior basitarsi a trifle 
enlarged on proximal fourth. Wings with the restricted ground pale yellow, 


148 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


the basal region more conspicuously flavous; a broad and conspicuous dark 
brown pattern, restricting the ground to the bases of the Anal cells, and X- 
shaped mark before cord, and an incomplete band beyond cord; veins dark 
brown, yellow in the brightened areas. Costal fringe (male) normal. Vena- 
tion: Sci ending shortly beyond midlength of Rs; veins R1+2 and R 2 subequal; 
branches of Rs virtually parallel to one another for their entire lengths. 

Abdomen black, the basal sternites restrictedly yellowed. Pocket of fifth 
sternite of male an oval area densely set with microscopic points; sixth sternite 
with a group of mesally directed setae on either side of midline; seventh 
sternite with a few similar setae, scarcely forming a pocket. Male hypopygium 
with the apical spine of basistyle short and straight. Outer dististyle a 
flattened black blade that terminates in a slightly curved black spine, the 
inner angle of the blade produced into a small point; style with numerous 
setae, the outer ones large and conspicuous. Inner dististyle a blackened divided 
blade, the main body or beak terminating in two unequal spines, the pos- 
terior lobe elongate, bearing several strong setae on its expanded outer end. 
Aedeagus w r ith the apical spine longitudinal in position, almost in alignment 
with the main axis; two long setae on outer part of aedeagus, with a group 
of about four others on the axis before the spine. 

Holotype, $ , El Limbo, Cochabamba, 2000 meters, March 1953. 
Allotopotype, 2 , pinned with type. Paratopotypes, $ $ . 

Teucholabis (T eucholabis) cybele is most similar to T. (T.) decora 
Alexander, differing in the pattern of the wings and in all details of 
the male hypopygium. 


Genus Gnophomyia Osten Sacken 
Gnophomyia (Gnophomyia) toleranda new species 

General coloration of mesonotum light brown, the praescutum with three 
darker brown stripes; posterior sclerites of notum dark brown, the apex of 
the scutellum broadly paler; femora yellow with a nearly terminal light brown 
ring; wings yellow, weakly patterned with darker, including brown seams 
over cord and outer end of cell 1 st My, vein R > at or very close to fork of 
Ra+a+ij m-cu about its own length beyond the fork of M; abdominal tergites 
vaguely bicolored; male hypopygium with the posterior margin of the tergite 
long-produced medially; outer dististyle a relatively narrow flattened blade, 
its tip obtuse; phallosome blackened, the outer margin vaguely lobed. 


Sept., 1954] Alexander: Tipulida3 149 

Male. Length about 7 mm.; wing 7.5 mm. 

Female. Length about 8 mm.; wing 8 mm. 

Rostrum brown; palpi black. Antennae dark brown, relatively long; flagellar 
segments passing through oval to long-oval. Head ochreous in front and 
behind, the vertex chiefly dark brown; anterior vertex broad, nearly twice the 
diameter of the scape. 

Pronotum darkened medially, broadly light yellow on sides. Mesonotal 
praescutum with the ground light brown, with three darker brown stripes, 
the lateral borders somewhat more brightened; scutum dark brown; scutellum 
darkened medially, the apex broadly paler; postnotum dark brown. Pleura 
and pleurotergite dark brown dorsally, the ventral part broadly yellow. Halteres 
short, the stem infuscated, the large knobs yellow. Legs with the coxae and 
trochanters yellow; femora yellow, with a nearly terminal light brown ring; 
tibiae and tarsi yellow, the outer tarsal segments darkened. Wings with the 
proximal third weakly infuscated, the remainder of the ground more yellowed; 
a further vague brown pattern at origin of Rs and more extensively along the 
outer end of vein Cu; stigma and seams over the cord and outer end of cell 
1st M 2 darker brown; veins yellow in the ground, darker in the patterned 
areas, Venation: Sc long, Sci ending shortly beyond R 2 , the latter at or 

very close to fork of R 2+ a+i; r-m at fork of Rs, vein Rs being in direct longi- 
tudinal alignment with Rs; m-cu about its own length beyond the fork of M ; 
cell 2nd A broad. 

Abdominal tergites vaguely bicolored, reddish brown, the posterior and 
lateral borders darker brown; sternites more uniformly brownish yellow; hy- 
popygium scarcely more brightened . Male hypopygium with the posterior 
border of the tergite long-produced medially. Basistyle short and stout. 
Outer dististyle a relatively narrow flattened blade, the narrowly darkened 
tip obtuse; inner dististyle with the outer part long-oval, with several long 
setse. Phallosome a transverse blackened structure, its outer margin vaguely 
lobed. Aedeagus short. 

Holotype, 8 , El Limbo, Cochabamba, 2000 meters, March 1953. 
Allotopotype, $ , pinned with type. 

Gnophomyia ( Gnophomyia ) toleranda is most similar to species 
such as G. {G.) argutula Alexander, G. (G.) duplex Alexander, and 
G. ( G .) laticincta Alexander, differing from all in the details of colora^ 
tion, venation, and structure pf the male hypopygium. 


150 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


Genus Molophiltis Curtis 

Molophilus (Molophilus) sponsus new species 

Belongs to the plagiatus group; general coloration of thorax reddish brown, 
the pleura with a conspicuous brownish black longitudinal stripe; antenna? 
short; male hypopygium with the beak of the basistyle slender, black; basal 
dististyle unequally bifid, the main axis a long gently curved spine, the 
inner arm shorter; phallosome an oval glabrous plate. 

Male. Length about 3.7 — 4.2 mm.; wing 4.5 — 5 mm.; antenna, 
about 1.1 — 1.2 mm. 

Rostrum dark brown; palpi black. Antenna? short; scape and pedicel light 
browrn, flagellum black; flagellar segments subcylindrical to long-oval, with 
very long verticils. Head grayish white. 

Pronotum and pretergites whitened. Mesonotal pra?scutum, scutum and 
scutellum reddish brown, the humeral region of the pra?scutum pale yellow; 
postnotum darker brown, its posterior end blackened. Pleura yellow, with 
a conspicuous brownish black longitudinal stripe extending from the cervical 
region to the postnotum, more or less interrupted on the propleura and 
pteropleurite. Halteres pale yellow. Legs with all coxa? and trochanters 
pale yellow; fore legs chiefly dark brown, remaining femora obscure yellow, 
the tips vaguely more darkened; tibia? darkened; tarsi passing into black; 
glandular ring on fore tibia of male distinct. Wings pale yellow, the prearem 
lar and costal regions more saturated; maerotriehia darker, Venation: R a 
lying distad of level of r-m; petiole of cell Ah about twice m-cu ; vein 2nd A 
elongate, gently arcuated, ending about opposite one-third the length of the 
petiole of cell Ms. 

Abdomen dark brown; hypopygium brownish yellow. Male hypopygium 
with the beak of the basistyle slender, black, the tip gently decurved. Outer 
dististyle with the unequal arms blackened, the stem horn-yellow. Basal 
dististyle unequally bifid, the main axis a long gently curved spine, the 
inner arm a shorter straight spine that is about one-third as long, the common 
base subequal in length to the shorter arm; a few scattered seta? on axial 
spine and, in cases, on base of lateral one. Phallosome a long-oval plate, 
its apex obtuse, surface glabrous. Aedeagus long and slender. 


Holotypc, $ , El Limbo, Cochabamba, 2000 meters, March 1953. 
Paratopotypes, $ $ . 


Sept., 1954] 


Alexander: Tipulidas 


151 


Most similar to species such as Molophilus ( Molophilus ) cladocerus 
Alexander and M. (M.) gymnocladus Alexander, differing especially 
in the structure of the male hypopygium. 


Genus Toxorhina Loew 

Toxorhina ( Ceratocheilus ) revulsa new species 

General coloration of thorax gray, the praescutum with three darkened 
stripes, the central one more blackened; rostrum shorter than body; knobs of 
halteres weakly darkened; legs black; wings with a strong dusky tinge, the 
prearcular region and base of costal field more whitened; veins delicate; Sc 
short, Sci ending immediately beyond origin of Rs; inner end of cell 1st AU 
pointed, the first section of vein Mi +a long; male hypopygium with spine of 
basistyle and arms of sedeagus relatively slender, the latter terminating in 
hyaline membrane. 

Male. Length, excluding rostrum, about 6 — 6.3 mm.; wing 6.5 — 7 mm.; 
rostrum about 5 — 5.2 mm. 

Rostrum shorter than the wing or the remainder of body, black. Antennae 
black throughout. Front, anterior vertex and narrow orbits gray, the remainder 
of vertex dark brown; anterior vertex broad, about three times the diameter 
of scape. 

Cervical region and pronotum black. Mesonotal praescutum with the 
central region blackened, narrowly divided at posterior end; lateral stripes a 
little paler than the central area, lateral borders buffy gray; scutal lobes dark 
brown, the median region and scutellum more pruinose; postnotum and 
dorsal pleurites blackened, the ventral pleurites with a broad dark gray stripe. 
Halteres with stem and base of knob brownish white, the apex of the latter 
more infuscated. Legs with the coxae blackened, sparsely pruinose; remainder 
of legs black. Wings with a strong dusky tinge, the prearcular region and 
base of costal field more whitened; veins brown, paler in the prearcular area. 
Veins more delicate than in vulsa. Venation: Sc short, Sci ending immediately 
beyond origin of Rs, the latter a little longer than the basal section of R$; 
inner end of the cell 1st M* pointed, with m-cu slightly basad of the fork; first 
section of M 1+2 long, equal to the second section. In the paratype, cell M 2 
open by the atrophy of m. 

Abdomen, including hypopygium, black. Male hypopygium with the apical 
spine of basistyle relatively slender. Base of outer dististyle less expanded 
than in vulsa. Arms of a?deagu| darkened, relatively slender, terminating in 
hyaline membrane. 


152 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


Holotype, $ , El Limbo, Cochabamba, 2000 meters, March 1953. 

The present fly differs from T oxorhina ( Ceratocheilus ) vulsa Alex- 
ander, of Peru, in the coloration and venation of the wings, the more 
delicate veins, and in slight details of structure of the male hypopygium. 

Toxorhina (Ceratocheilus) revulsa macrorhyncha new subspecies 

Female. Length, excluding rostrum, about 9 mm.; wing 7.5 mm.; rostrum 
about 6.2 mm. 

Generally as in typical revulsa new species, differing in the longer rostrum 
and in slight details of coloration and venation. 

Rostrum only a little shorter than the wing, black throughout. Prsescutal 
stripes virtually confluent to form a single discal area; scutellum and postnotum 
clear light gray. Wings with veins heavier and more conspicuous, brownish 
black. Rs nearly straight, subequal to the basal section of R->; inner end of 
cell 1st M 2 less pointed; basal section of vein Mi + 2 shorter than the second 
section. Wings less heavily suffused with darker, the prearcular field paler 
but not abruptly so. 


Holotype, $ , El Limbo, Cochabamba, 2000 meters, March 1953, 


Sept., 1954] 


Weiss: Hall 


153 


GAYLORD CROSSETTE HALL, 1871-1954 

Gaylord C. Hall, former member of the New York Entomological 
Society and its treasurer from 1929 to 1936 died in a convalescent 
home in Quakertown, Pennsylvania on March 21, 1954. For the 
following facts about Mr. Hall’s parents, his youth, his travels and 
business interests, I am greatly indebted to his brother Robert W. 
Hall of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 

Gaylord, who was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on January 26, 1871, 
was one of three brothers, the others being Robert William, born in 
1872 and Norman Fisher, born in 1878. Their father was Ephraim 
Gaylord Hall, a graduate, at the age of 18, from the University of 
Michigan from which he also received his M.A., in 1866. Following 
his graduation he, with other classmates, volunteered in a Michigan 
regiment as a private and finally became a captain. In the Battle of 
Stone-River he was left for dead on the battlefield after a musket 
ball had passed through his neck. After recovery he was put in Libby 
Prison for three months until exchanged, whereupon he returned to 
the Union Army, serving until the end of the war. 

Captain Hall married Alice Cogswell Crossette daughter of Rev. 
Robert Crossette and Dorothea Fisher Crossette in 1869. While a 
young girl Alice C. Crossette was supervisor of music for the Cin- 
cinnati public schools, and in addition to being an artist she wrote 
and illustrated many magazine articles, and was the author of one 
novel. Owing to the moves of his parents Gaylord during his boyhood 
attended schools at Cincinnati, Kent, Hockingport, and Cincinnati 
again, all in Ohio, and Washington, D.C. It was at Hockingport, a 
small village on the Ohio River that Gaylord, aged 10, and his brother 
Robert became interested in butterflies, an interest that remained with 
them for practically their whole lives. 

About 1875 their father Captain Hall began to suffer from the 
wound that he had received during the Battle of Stone-River. This 
was thought to have completely healed but an injury to the base of 
the brain developed and spread until the Captain became physically 
and mentally helpless. This culminated in his death in 1881. 


154 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


In 1885, Mrs. Hall, perhaps in view of her interest in art and 
literature, took her sons to Europe on a visit originally planned for 
two years but that lengthened into five. Christmas was spent on the 
ocean and after reaching Hamburg they went on to Heidelberg where 
they lived for the winter. The boys attended the Realschule and got 
their first German lessons. Later Gaylord and Robert attended the 
same schools and engaged more or less in the same activities, their 
brother Norman being too young. In the words of Robert Hall, their 
arrival in Heidelberg coincided with "the gorgeous celebration of the 
five hundredth anniversary of the founding of the University. But 
tragedy lurked in Heidelberg; it was so damp that drops of water 
collected on the walls and they did not glimpse the sun for twenty- 
one days, with the result that Gaylord developed tuberculosis of one 
lung. Even after he recovered it had an effect on his later life in 
that, fearing recurrence, he decided he must never marry, and he 
never did. The immediate result was doctor’s orders for them to 
move to the most noted resort of those suffering from tuberculosis, 
Davos, in German Switzerland. September, 1886 found them there. 
The village itself is almost as high as the top of Mount Washington, 
with peaks about it up to ten and eleven thousand feet. They thought 
they faced a year but it stretched out to a winter, a summer and an- 
other winter. 

"The second winter Gay was allowed to attend a regular school and 
he and his brother Robert went to a noted one, run by Germans, the 
Friederichsianum (see Thomas Mann’s "The Magic Mountain”). In 
summer there were butterfly and plant collecting and some mountain 
climbing (moderate on Gay’s part). In winter there were sledding 
and skating. Below the village was a moderate sized rink, freshly 
flooded each night by a mountain stream. On sunny days they skated 
in straw hats! A picture of that rink recently appeared in 'Life’; it 
is now the world’s largest and of worldwide fame. 

"In May, 1888 they left Davos. And what an experience that was, 
seeing spring rush on them as they were driven down the mountain 
side. When they passed the lake (Davoser See) it was frozen over 
and there was plenty of snow about, but when they arrived at Lucerne 


Sept., 1954] 


Weiss: Hall 


155 


that evening the blackbirds were singing among the blossoms of the 
horse chestnut trees. 

"They did not stay long in Lucerne, but moved for the summer to 
Gersau, a quaint little village, by the way, mentioned in Schillers 

"William Tell.” In the autumn they went to Vevey and then to 
Montreaux, where they attended the "College de Montreaux.” Their 
apartment was on the shore of the lake with the Castle in full view 
and of course they made frequent visits and saw the deep path in the 
solid stone made by the naked feet of poor Bonivard as described in 
Byron’s "Castle of Chillon.” 

"That brings us to the early summer of 1889 when they went to 
Champery, a typical French-Swiss village in a valley at the base of 
the Dent du Midi. 

"In the fall it was on to Paris and a term in the Lyce Janson de 
Sailly, a rather prominent municipal school. Their apartment was on 
the Avenue Victor Hugo, diagonally across from Hugo’s home. Un- 
fortunately he had been dead some two years. The Arc de Triomphe 
was only about a half block away and still better, the Bois de Boulogne 
was near enough to afford an almost country playground. A real bit 
of luck was that their arrival coincided with the opening of the great 
international exposition of 1889 and the completion of the Eiffel 
Tower. In the summer of 1890 there were some weeks at Ostend, 
with a few day’s trip to England and then back to America! Gay then 
busied himself in electrical concerns and then entered the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology with the class of ’96.” 

Later he went to Chicago with the Metropolitan Elevated Railway, 
with Stone and Webster of Boston, the Boston Elevated Railway, the 
Manhattan Railway Company, and The Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company of New York where he was superintendent of motive power 
and had a staff of over ninety men and women. In the mid-thirties 
he entered the National Arts Club where he lived among a wide circle 
of friends for nearly the balance of his life. For some years he was 
chairman of the House Committee. His interest in art, literature, etc., 
is indicated by his membership in the Salmagundi Club, the Com- 


156 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


monwealth Club of Montclair, the Appalachian Mountain Club, the 
Shakespeare, McDowell and Technology clubs, Water Color Society, 
The American Museum of Natural History, and the American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers. 

After his retirement around 1941, his main hobby was his interest 
in his great grandfather, Jonathan Fisher, father of Dorothea Fisher 
Crossette, and versatile clergyman of Blue Hill, Maine. He made 
many visits to the small sea-side village and published two pamphlets 
about his ancestor. Dr. Mary Ellen Chase dedicated her book "Jona- 
than Fisher, Maine Parson” to Gaylord C. Hall and stated that without 
his help she could not have written it. 

As has been stated Mr. Hall’s interest in butterflies began when 
he was a boy of ten. He was an active member of the local collecting 
group during his residence in New York City and made collecting 
trips with Frank E. Watson, another lepidopterist who was on the 
staff of The- American Museum of Natural History. According to 
Dr. A. B. Klots, he was probably the first of the New York collectors 
to get an automobile. Watson recorded in one of his notebooks his 
first collecting trip via automobile to Lake Hopatcong, N.J., with Mr. 
Hall. Dr. Klots also recalls that inspired by the descriptions and 
painting of Carl Rungius, who was a friend, Hall was the first to 
collect butterflies in the wild interior country at timberline in the 
Wind River Range, Wyoming. Among other things he found there 
Boloria pales (Denis & Schiffermueller) a circumpolar butterfly not 
previously known from North America south of Alaska. Dr. Klots 
visited the same place in 1939 and took a very large series which he 
named Boloria pales halli. Cook and Watson named an aberration 
of Limenitis archijppus floridensis halli after him and he himself 
named Nymphalis j-album subsp. watsoni and Lyccena epixanthe subsp. 
phcedrus, the latter now generally considered a subjective synonym of 
amicetus Scudder. The types are in The American Museum of Natural 
History, to which his collection of butterflies went. This included 
many local specimens as well as some very valuable material of his 
own and other peoples’ collecting in Europe, Canada, and the West. 

Cyril F. dos Passos communicated with Mr. Hall in 1935 about 


Sept., 1954] 


Weiss: Hall 


157 


Argynnis but it was only from 1947 on that he met him occasionally 
at The American Museum of Natural History. As a result of these 
meetings Mr. dos Passes purchased some spread butterflies and pa- 
pered material that Mr. Hall had collected mostly in Wyoming and 
a few in Newfoundland and British Columbia, as well as some by 
well-known, old collectors, also three specimens of Oeneis aello that 
Hall had collected when a boy of 16 in Switzerland, and in addition 
an interesting aberration of Lycaena hypophlceas collected by him at 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Some of the material received by dos 
Passos was turned over to the Museum as a donation from Hall. 

Herbert F. Schwarz, of The American Museum of Natural History, 
knew Mr. Hall over many years and within recent ones he would drop 
into Mr. Schwarz’s office for a friendly visit and to talk over old 
times. My own contacts with Mr. Hall were business rather than 
entomological ones. As treasurer of the New York Entomological 
Society, he paid the bills that I incurred as editor of the Society’s 
Journal. Mr. Hall succeeded the late William T. Davis as treasurer 
of the Society and of course they knew each other quite well. "Willie” 
T. Davis a well-known, versatile naturalist and historian of Staten 
Island was quite bald on the top of his head and in the middle of 
the bald patch a wart reposed. This excrescence annoyed Mr. Davis 
and he decided to get rid of it. Not, however, by visiting a physician, 
but by enlisting the aid of Gaylord C. Hall, who put a binocular 
microscope without a stage on top of "Willie’s” head and neatly 
sliced off the offending wart with a sharp scalpel. This little opera- 
tion probably took place in the attic of the Museum of the Staten 
Island Institute of Arts and Sciences, where Mr. Davis held forth sur- 
rounded by his natural history collections. It is not known if the 
head and scalpel were sterilized before the excision but no ill effects 
followed. 

Mr. Hall attended the meetings of the New York Entomological 
Society quite regularly, as I recall, and was a contemporary of the 
older entomologists, many of whom died before Mr. Hall. If they 
were alive, I am sure they could add to this account many recollections 
of his entomological activities. Personally, I recall Mr. Hall as a very 


158 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


pleasant, rather quiet and friendly gentleman, of slight build, with 
various interests aside from his butterflies. My last correspondence 
with him took place when he was working on his "Supplement to 
the Biographical Sketch of the Rev. Jonathan Fisher”, and dealt with 
"metamorphoses”, popular among children a hundred and fifty years 
ago. 

Mr. Hall was hospitalized during the Christmas holidays of 1948. 
In 1951 he suffered from a coronary thrombosis and had a long siege 
in a hospital. According to his brother Robert, he made a fair re- 
covery but had to be careful about his exercise. During the latter 
part of 1953 he had several hospitalizations because his condition 
became worse. In January 1954, he was so weakened that his doctor 
advised constant care and so on January 30, 1954 his brother Robert 
had him removed from the hospital in New York City to his own 
home in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and then to a convalescent home 
in Quakertown, Pennsylvania, that was close enough for Robert to 
pay him frequent visits. After lingering on for nearly two months, 
Gaylord C. Hall died in the early morning of March 21. He was 
buried in the Nisky Hill Cemetery of Bethlehem. Mr. Hall’s publi- 
cations that I know about, are listed below. As no extended search 
has been made he may have been the author of others. 


Distribution of Argynnis at-lantis and Aphrodite. Jour. N. Y. 
Ent. Soc., 21:162. 1913. 

Limenitis Ursula var. albo fasciata. Jour. N.Y. Ent. Soc., 24:93. 

1916 . 

Aglais j-album Boisduval and Leconte. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 
29:57. 1921. 

Notes on Polygonia j-album, Cercyonis alope, Phyciodes tharos, 
Heodes epixanthe and Euphydryas gilletti. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 
32:109-111. 1924. 


Sept., 1954] 


Weiss: Hall 


159 


Biographical Sketch of the Rev. Jonathan Fisher of Blue Hill, 
Maine, 1768-1847. New York, N. Y. 1945. 20p. 15 plates. Pri- 
vately printed. 

Supplement to the Biographical Sketch of the Rev. Jonathan 
Fisher of Blue Hill, Maine. New York, N. Y. 1946. 22 pages, 
frontispiece and 2 plates. Privately printed. 

Harry B. Weiss 


Highland Park, N. J. 


160 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


BOOK NOTICE 

Insect Fact and Folklore by Lucy W. Clausen. The Macmillan Company, 

New York. June, 1954. 194 pages + 45 figures. $3.50. 

This collection of insect facts and folklore has been many years in the 
making. It is the result of a fervor, nurtured and expressed during 
the waiting period, in whatever manner at hand, to convert anyone who 
might have a few minutes to spare to the study of Dr. Clausens friends, 
the insects. The president of our Society, and the first female to hold 
that office, is a crusader of real ability in the field of promotion of in- 
terest in nature and particularly in insect study. In her work in the 
Department of Public Instruction in the American Museum of Natural 
History, she has been vitally aware of need for an authentic and in- 
teresting presentation of Insects as they effect man and his works. 

The book is not lengthy, yet it is well constructed in a requisite num- 
ber of chapters for good coverage of the field of popular inquiry into 
entomology. The fifteen chapters summarize the field from taxonomy 
to insecticides, with singular lack of prosaism. Her dragonflies are 
Master Aerialists, her wasps are Anesthetists and her termites are 
Undercover Workers. 

It is not meant to stamp this book as having only popular appeal. 
It is needed in every entomological library because it is primarily a 
capable summary of much of the interesting background of the insects. 
As extra dividends there are 45 refreshingly original figures, by Jan 
B. Fairservis, as well as a number of proverbs, anecdotes, beliefs and 
superstitions on the subects of her chapters. 

If, as Dr. Clausen states, the purpose of this book is ". . . . to make 
people aware of the fact that the majority of insects are interesting, 
necessary and do play an important part in the everyday life of all 
peoples”, then she has had an admirable success in her first effort. 
I know her first teacher, "Andy” Mutchler, would join me in offering 
congratulations on her contribution toward a better understanding of 
the insect, entomology and the entomologist. — F. A. S. 


Sept., 1954] 


Cummings: Siphonaptera 


161 


NOTES ON SOME SIPHONAPTERA FROM 
ALBANY COUNTY, NEW YORK 

By Edward D. Cummings 

U. S. Chemical Corps, Army Chemical Center, Maryland 1 

This is the second in a projected series of papers on the Siphonap- 
tera of eastern New York. Sturm (1953) has reported on a small 
collection of fleas from Fulton County. The present paper deals 
with a collection of 241 fleas collected in Albany County during 
1952 and 1953. 

I am grateful to Dr. Allen H. Benton, N.Y.S. College for Teachers, 
Albany, for advice and assistance throughout the progress of this 
study; to Arnold Dansky, who collected most of the mammals from 
which the parasites were taken; and to John Wilcox, N. Y. State 
Museum, Albany, for assistance in the indentification of certain cri- 
tical specimens. 

Nomenclature follows Jellison et. al. (1953), with the exception 
of Peromyscopsylla scotti Fox, which Dr. Jellison informs me was 
inadvertently omitted from the list. 

Family Pulicidae 

Cediopsylla simplex (Baker) — Slingerlands, February, 1953: nine 

males, 16 females, from cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus. Al- 
bany, no date: one male, from house cat, Felis domestica. 
Ctenocephalides f. felis (Bouche) — Colonie, no date: 11 males, 17 
females, from Felis domestica. 

Family Hystrichopsyllidae 

Hystrichopsylla tahavuana Jordan — Albany, October 28, 1952: one 
female from short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda. 


1 Formerly at New York State College for Teachers, Albany, New York. 


162 New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 

Stenoponia americana (Baker) — Albany, Sept. 25, 1952: one male 
from Blarina brevicauda; Sept. 26, 1952: one female from the deer- 
mouse, Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis; March 12, 1953: one 
female, same host. These are the only New York records of this flea. 
Epitedia wenmanni (Rothschild) — Albany, Sept. 27, 1952: one fe- 
male from Blarina brevicauda; Oct. 29, 1952: one male from Pero- 
myscus leucopus noveboracensis. 

Ctenophtloalmus p. pseudagyrtes Baker — This common flea occurred 
on practically every species of small mammal taken. Forty-five speci- 
mens were taken as follows: Albany, March, 1953: nine males and 
12 females from nests of meadow mouse, Micro tus p. pennsylvanicus; 
Sept. 24, 1952: one male from Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis; 
No date: two females, one male, same host; Oct. 14, 1952: one male, 
one female, from Blarina brevicauda; Oct. 15, 1952: one female, 
same host; Oct. 25, 1952: one male, same host; Oct. 28, 1952: two 
males, same host; Oct. 30, 1952: two males, four females, same host; 
Slingerlands, Oct. 31, 1952: four males, three females from Para- 
scalops breweri; Nov. 20, 1952, one female from star-nosed mole, 
Condylura crist at a. 

Doratopsylla blarinae Fox — Albany, Oct. 28, 1952: five males, six 
females, from Blarina brevicauda; Oct. 29, 1952: eight males, three 
females, same host; Oct. 30, 1952: seven males, two females, same 
host; Slingerlands, Nov. 12, 1952: two males, one female, from 
Parascalops breweri. 

Nearctopsylla genalis laurentina Jordan and Rothschild — Albany, Oct. 
28, 1952: one male, two females, from Blarina brevicauda; Oct. 29, 
1952: two males, same host; Oct. 30, 1952: two males, two females, 
same host. 

Holland (1949) has summarized the taxonomic problem in this 
species. Our specimens agree perfectly wtih the description and 
illustrations of N. g. laurentina. The shape of sternum IX of the 
male is very constant in our specimens. Sternum VII of the females 
is more variable, but approaches that illustrated by Holland. 


Sept., 1954] 


Cummings: Siphonaptera 


163 


Family Ceratophyllidae 

Orchopeas leucopus (Baker) — Albany, Sept. 25, 1952: two females, 
from Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis; Sept. 26, 1952: three fe- 
males, same host; Oct. 29, 1952: nine males, 14 females, same host; 
March 12, 1953: six females, same host; March 18, 1953: one male, 
nine females, same host; March 19, 1953: three males, two females, 
from nest which was supposed to be that of Microtus p. pennsylvani- 
cus, but which may have been occupied by deer mice. 

Orchopeas h. howardii (Baker) — Albany, Oct. 15, 1952: four males, 
ten females, from gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis leucotis; February, 
.1953: four males, five females, same host. 

Females of the genus Orchopeas are often exceedingly difficult to 
identify, for the distinguishing characters are highly variable. Often 
the host animal is the best clue to identification, since these fleas 
are rather host-specific; but even this guide is not always helpful, 
since fleas occasionally find their way onto accidental hosts. Most 
keys, e. g. Fox (1940) and Holland (1949) utilize the presence or 
absence of the frontal row of bristles to separate the mouse fleas from 
the squirrel-infesting species, O. caedens and 0. howardii. Hubbard 
(1947) gave no key to the females of this genus, but showed, (Fig. 
36, p. 102), a complete frontal row of bristles on O. c. durus. None 
of our specimens of O. c. durus shows this characteristic, but one 
female, which otherwise agrees with 0. howardii, has a complete 
frontal row of bristles. While this is certainly not the normal state 
of affairs, it apparently may occur in both these species. 

Holland (1949) further stated that the sinus in sternum VII of 
0. howardii "appears to be very constant, there being a small but 
distinct sinus, situated low down.” In our collection, this character 
is highly variable. Figure 1 shows the range of variation in this 
character among females taken from a single gray squirrel at Albany. 
It appears that this character is nearly as variable in this species as in 
other species of the genus. 


164 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 



FIGURE I -variation in sternum vii 

OF ORCHOPEAS HOWARD!! 

Megabothris a. asio (Baker) — Albany, Oct. 15, 1952: one female, 
from Microtus p. pennsylvanicus; Oct. 16, 1952: one male, same host; 
March 19, 1953: one male, two females, same host; March 19, 1953: 
four males, eight females, from nest of same host. 

This species, while difficult to secure by normal trapping methods, 
can be taken readily from nests of its host. Nests collected and 
placed in glass jars in a warm room will produce adult fleas over 
a period of several weeks in most cases. 

Peromyscopsylla scotti I. Fox — This flea has been taken only a few 
times in the northeast, P. h. hesperomys being far more common in 
most collections. Specimens taken were: Albany, Sept. 26, 1952: 
one male, three females, from Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis. 

LITERATURE CITED 

FOX, IRVING. 1940. Fleas of eastern United States. The Iowa State College 
Press, pp. i-vii, 1-191. 


Sept., 1954] 


Cummings: Siphonaptera 


165 


Holland, George P. 1949. The Siphonaptera of Canada. Tech. Bull. 70, 
Canad. Dept. Agr. 306 pp. 

Hubbard, C. A. 1947. Fleas of western North America. Iowa State College 
Press, pp. i-ix, 1-533. 

Jellison, W. L., Betty Locker and Roma Bacon. 1953. A synopsis 
of North American fleas, north of Mexico, and notice of a supple- 
mentary index. Journ. Parasit. 39(6): 610-618. 

Sturm. Robert. 1953. Notes on some Siphonaptera from Fulton county, 
New York. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 61:139-140. 


THE FANEUIL HALL GRASSHOPPER AND SHEM DROWN 

Apropos of the note on entomological signboards in the December 
1948 issue of this Journal, the late Dr. William Procter while passing 
through Boston about 25 years ago, noticed the old grasshopper weather- 
vane on Faneuil Hall. Upon making inquiry the librarian of the State 
House supplied the following information, which Dr. Procter passed 
on to Harry B. Weiss. 

Shem Drown was born at Kittery, Maine in 1683. His father, 
Leonard Drown, born 1646, came to Kittery from the west of England, 
the first of the family to come over to those shores. On account of 
the French and Indian wars he moved with his family to Boston in 
1692, where he died October 31, 1729, and was buried at Copp’s Hill. 

Shem Drown was made a deacon of the First Baptist Church in 1721. 
He died January 13, 1774, aged ninety-one years. 

In 1721 he made a cockerel for the vane of the "new brick church” 
on Hanover Street, which was built the year before. In 1873 this 


166 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


cockerel, or rooster, was moved to the Shepard Memorial Church, Cam- 
bridge, where he still greets the dawn and guards the Washington 
Elm. 

The grasshopper on Faneuil Hall was made in 1742 of hammered 
copper. When it was down for repairs about fifty years ago, a paper 
was found inside of it, which read in part as follows: 

Shem Drown Made Itt, May 25, 1742 
To my Brethren and 
Fellow Grasshopper 

Fell in ye year 1755 November 15th day from ye Market by a great 
Earthquake [repaired] by my old master above. 

Again like to have met with my utter Ruin by Fire, but Hopping 
Timely from my Publick Scitation came off with Broken bones, and 
much Bruised, Cured and again fixed by Old Master’s Son Thomas 
Drown, June 28th, 1763. 

On the evening of Evacuation day, 1889, the "Bird” as it is called, 
was knocked from its perch by the carelessness of the men taking in 
the flag and fell to the street, losing its eyes, horns and two feet. It 
was soon repaired by E. B. Badger & Sons Company and, feeling very 
proud in a new coat of goldleaf, it gave a reception in the historic 
hall before getting back on the perch from which it had been missed. 

In 1899 the "Bird” left the perch again, while the old wooden cupola 
that had long been considered a "fire trap” was replaced by a copper 
and steel one, erected by E. B. Badger & Sons Company. 

Deacon Drown also made the Indian Chief, with bent bow and arrow 
drawn, which for nearly one hundred years did duty as a vane on the 
cupola of the Province House. It is now in the rooms of the Mass- 
achusetts Historical Association. — H. B. W, 


Sept., 1954] 


Gibbs: Odonata 


167 


THE ODONATA OF CAPE COD, MASSACHUSETTS 1 

By Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. and Sarah Preble Gibbs 
Departments of Conservation and Zoology 
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 

Comparatively few workers have studied the Odonata of Cape Cod. 
Such well-known odonatists as Hagen, Kellicott, and Calvert appar- 
ently collected a few dragonflies, but only Howe and Gray did any 
systematic collecting. A remnant of Gray’s collection, which appears 
to have been limited to the Woods Hole region, is now in the museum 
of the Marine Biological Laboratory. His only published contribution 
(1937) concerned Anax longipes. Howe was the principal student 
of the Odonata of Cape Cod (and that of New England), but his 
collecting was limited to the eastern portion (Howe, 1920). His 
listing of New England records (Howe, 1917, 1918, 1917-21), how- 
ever, brought together the available records, and his paper on distri- 
bution of New England Odonata (Howe, 1921) contains some per- 
tinent ideas on Cape Cod. 

During the summers of 1950 through 1953 the present authors 
made 115 collections at 55 localities on the Cape. Seventy-two 
species were found, of which nineteen are new for Cape Cod and two 
( Enallagma recurvatum and Ladona deplanata) are new to both Massa- 
chusetts and New England. Of those listed by other authors, we failed 
to collect thirteen species. This represents the only recorded systematic 
collection of Odonata covering the major part of Cape Cod. 

As a faunal area, Cape Cod is interesting for several reasons. First, 
it is formed almost entirely of glacial moraine and outwash plain and, 
principally for this reason, represents the northernmost extension of 


2 Cape Cod is here defined as the isolated area from the Cape Cod Canal to 
the spit at Provincetown. This excludes a small triangle east of the Plymouth 
moraine which is influenced by streams from the mainland. 


168 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


the Coastal Plain (Fenneman, 1938). Long Island is of very similar 
formation. From New Jersey southward the true Coastal Plain be- 
comes broader, the fall line marking approximately its inner boundary. 
Second, Cape Cod marks the most southerly terminus of the second 
and last substage of the Wisconsin glacier (Woodworth and Wiggles - 
worth, 1934). Thus the species inhabiting it must have become estab- 
lished since the last retreat, a gradual succession of faunas with 
differing temperature and habitat requirements doubtless having occur- 
red as the climate became warmer. Third, the surrounding ocean, due 
to the influence of the cold Labrador current and the warm Gulf Stream, 
is a region of crowded isotherms, causing a faunal break which may 
be reflected on the land. 


From these factors, it might be expected that Cape Cod would be a 
meeting place of northern and southern forms, and that, due to the 
coastal plain habitat, the southern would predominate. Northern 
species may be those at the margin of their range which can tolerate 
certain more favorable habitats, may have become established by ac- 
cident, or may be relict populations. Southern species, although mar» 
ginal, are doubtless entirely immigrants which are expanding their 
range northward. Howe (1921) records 58 species from Cape Cod, 
of which 39 are of southern affinities. In his Manual (1917-21), 
however, 69 species are recorded from Cape Cod, of which 46 are 
southern. Of the 72 species collected by the present authors, 46 are 
southern. Howe (1921) stated that the moraine which extends from 
near Plymouth to Woods Hole was the only faunal barrier in New 
England. He may have believed that this low line of hills was ef- 
fective in preventing many New England species from invading Cape 
Cod. In support of this he listed 28 species whose ranges ended abrupt- 
ly at the moraine. We have collected eighteen of these on Cape Cod, 
and of them only Pantala flavescens appears to be transient. Most 
were breeding populations. Of the remaining ten, four river-inhabit- 
ing species of northern affinities would be hard-put to find suitable 
streams, and three more species are recorded by Howe, himself, in 
his Manual (1917-21). The moraine might be considered a barrier, 
but only in the sense that it demarcates a type of habitat distinct from 
the rest of New England, but similar to the Coastal Plain of Long 


Sept., 1954] 


Gibbs: Odonata 


169 


Island and New Jersey. Evidence of this is the occurrence, predomin- 
antly on the Coastal Plain, of several comparatively rare species, such 
as Enallagma laterale and Ischnura kellicotti, which have been found 
on the Cape and Long Island (Davis, 1913; Thomas W. Donnelly, pers. 
comm.), and Enallagma recurvatum and pictum, which have been 
found in New Jersey (Beatty, 1945, 1946) as well. It must be admit- 
ted that, of these, Enallagma recurvatum alone has been taken only 
in Coastal Plain; the others have been found sparingly in other places. 
The northern Coastal Plain nevertheless seems to be their center of 
distribution. 

There are five general habitat types suitable for Odonata on Cape 
Cod. The most prominent are the kettle holes, formed by deposition 
of glacial outwash material about unmelted blocks of ice. These and 
a few depression ponds will be designated as ponds. The large lakes, 
which may be very large kettles, depressions, or former coves, form 
a different habitat. A few bogs, some small streams, and many 
brackish water areas occur. Some species appear confined to a given 
habitat. Argia moesta, Enallagma exsulans, Dromogomphus spinosus, 
and Epicordulia princeps were found only in large lakes, possibly requir- 
ing the greater wave action which occurs or the greater amount of 
oxygen due to comparative lack of organic detritus and to better mixing. 
These are commonly stream species. Agrion maculatum, Amphiagrion 
saucium, and Sympetrum semicinctum occurred only near running 
water. Kettle holes showed all stages in transition from sandy-bottom- 
ed ponds to true bogs. Several species with bog affinities, therefore, 
were found also in boggy portions of ponds. Bog species were Enal- 
lagma cyathigerum, Nehalennia gracilis, Gomphaeschna furcillata, Dor- 
ocordulia lepida, Libellula quadrimaculata, and Nannothemis bella. 
Since all these are northern species, the relative constancy of the bog 
habitat may permit their survival southward. E^rythrodiplax berenice 
and Libellula needhami were taken only near brackish water habitat. 
Many species had very limited distributions even within a habitat type, 
often occurring in widely separated areas. This was noticeably true of 
Enallagma recurvatum, laterale, and pictum, which occurred in only 
a few ponds of the great number. Others were nearly cosmopolitan, 
occurring widely in one or more habitats. 


170 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


One climatic factor seems important enough to be mentioned. Rain- 
fall in the spring of 1953 was apparently quite heavy, for the water 
level in all the ponds previously visited was approximately a foot and 
a half higher than normal. Even when collecting was ended, in early 
August, the levels were still well above normal. This was accompanied 
by a marked absence of several species which had formerly been 
locally common. Leucorrhinia frigida was a notable example. At 
Flashy Pond it had previously been extremely common, the exuviae 
covering the emergent rush stems. In 1953 only four were caught in 
four trips. Since the normally emergent vegetation was covered, per- 
haps there were not enough places to allow the nymphs to transform. 
The same was true for Celilhemis elisa and martha and Lestes disjunctus 
and forcipatus at Flashy Pond. 


DESCRIPTION OF LOCALITIES 

The names given in the following descriptions are those found on 
the U. S. Geological Survey topographic maps. No attempt is made 
to name ponds not named on these sheets. 

Larger lakes. These are usually both larger and deeper than those 
designated as ponds. They are sandy to the shore line, seldom with 
boggy edges, and are often populated with sport fishes. Blue flag 
( Iris versicolor ) occurred in the marginal water, but was never seen on 
a small pond. Water lobelia ( Lobelia dortmanna) and swamp candle 
( Lysimachia terrestris ) were also common emergents, but were found 
in some of the ponds which had sandy margins. All except Oyster 
Pond are described in the Massachusetts Fisheries Report for Barn- 
stable County (1951). 

1. Ashumet Pond. Mashpee and Falmouth Townships. A smaller 
pond connected to it by a narrow ditch at high water will be distin- 
guished in the species accounts. Eleven collections. June 10-July 30, 
1953. 

2. Lawrence Pond. Sandwich Township. July 25, 1953. 

3. Oyster Pond. Falmouth Township. Slightly brackish at least 
in places, having at one time been a cove. This is quite a different 


Sept., 1954] 


Gibbs: Odonata 


171 


habitat than the other lakes, partly because the margins slope steeply, 
thus allowing no gradual transition of littoral zones. Visited, but not 
collected, on several occasions. Collected June 15, 1953. 

4. Snake Pond. Sandwich Township. July 25, 1953. 

5. Wakeby Pond. Mashpee Township. July 25, 1953. 

Ponds. These are generally small in size, but a few reach several 
acres in area. They usually have at least some accumulation of peat 
and initiation of bog formation at the edges. Commonly they have 
a heavy accumulation of organic debris. Nymphtea, Utricularia, Scirpus, 
and Juncus are common plants. 

6. Deep Pond. Falmouth Township. July 27, 1951. 

7. Deer Pond. Falmouth Township. June 18, 1953. Deeper 
than most. A heavy population of bullheads ( Ameiurus nebulosus). 

8. Duck Pond. Barnstable Township. About a mile west of 
Hyannis airport. June 13, 1953. 

9. Elisha Pond. Yarmouth Township. August 22, 1951. 

10. Emery Pond. Chatham Township. August 23, 1951. 

11. Flashy Pond. Mashpee Township. Twelve collections in 1951- 
1953, June 10-August 24. An extremely productive small pond to 
which special attention was given. 

12. Flax Pond. Bourne Township. Near Barnstable County Sani- 
torium. Nine collections in 1950-1953, June 6-September 2. Now 
being called "Picture Pond.” 

13. Flax Pond. Falmouth Township. Part of L. W. Francis Estate 
in Quisset. Four collections in 1951 and 1953, June 9-August 2. 

14. Fresh Pond. Barnstable Township. About a half mile west 
of Hyannis airport. July 15, 1951. Very little water at time visited. 

15. Grassy Pond. Falmouth Township. Just south of Ashumet 
Pond. June 25, 1951. 

16. Greenough Pond. Yarmouth Township. August 22, 1951. 

17. Hawksnest Pond. Harwich Township. Three collections in 
1951 and 1953, June 25-August 4. Good bog development at one 
end, sandy beach at other. 


172 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


18. Unnamed Pond. Brewster Township. In deep depression 
northeast of Sheep Pond. August 4, 1951. 

19. Horse Pond. Yarmouth Township. August 22, 1951. 

20. Unnamed Pond. Barnstable Township. About a mile north- 
east of Hyannis airport. June 13, 1953- Almost a bog. 

21. Martha Pond. Mashpee Township. June 29, 1951. 

22. Mary Dunn Pond. Barnstable Township. About a mile north 
of Hyannis airport. July 15, 1951. 

23. Miles Pond. Falmouth Township. On Sippewisset Road. 
June 11, 1953. Used by Cahoon’s Ice Plant. Edges drop off abruptly. 

24. Jabinette’s Pond. Yarmouth Township. Three collections in 
1951 and 1953, June 13-July 15. Well-developed bog areas as well 
as sandy beach. Sunfish ( Lepomis gibbosus) very common. 

25. Mill Pond. Harwich Township. At east end of Long Pond. 
August 4, 1951. 

26. Unnamed Pond. Mashpee Township. Just south of John’s 
Pond. Two collections on September 4, 1951 and June 29, 1952. 
Very small, often with no standing water in late summer. 

27. Unnamed Pond. Chatham Township. Southwest of Lovers 
Lake. August 23, 1951. 

28. Randall Pond. Falmouth Township. Two collections on July 
17, 1952 and June 24, 1953. 

29. Unnamed Pond. Falmouth Township. At Old Silver Beach. 
Three collections in 1950 and 1951, June 17-September 2. 

30. Sols Pond. Falmouth Township. June 15, 1953. 

31. Spectacle Pond. Falmouth Township. August 23, 1951. 

32. Unnamed Pond. Mashpee Township. Southeast of John’s Pond. 
Three collections in 1950, 1951, and 1953, June 29-September 4. 
Quite boggy at the edges. 


Sept., 1954] 


Gibbs: Odonata 


173 


33. Twinings Pond. Orleans Township. In most southeasterly por- 
tion of township. August 22, 1951. 

34. Walker’s Pond. Harwich Township. August 4, 1951. 

35. Weeks Pond. Sandwich Township. July 25, 1953. 

3 6. Unnamed Pond. Falmouth Township. In woods north of Ran- 
som Road. Locally called Whittemore Pond. Five collections in 1951 
and 1953, June 11-August 4. Myriophyllum, Nymphcea, and Brasenia 
are abundant plants. 

Bogs. Only two localities were visited which could be called 
definitive bogs. Both have quaking bottoms, but otherwise present 
different aspects. 

37. Woods Hole Cedar Bog. Falmouth Township. Six collections 
in 1951-1953, June 8-July 25. Largely shaded by cedars and has an 
abundance of Sphagnum. A deep bog lake is surrounded by Decadon 
and Andromeda. 

38. Gifford Bog. Falmouth Township. Just west of Long Pond. 
Five collections in 1952 and 1953, June 15-August 20. An open bog 
with Juncus, V actinium (a highbush blueberry), and Rhexia around 
the edges and Sagittaria and Xyris on slightly emergent islands. Nym- 
phcea and Utricularia occur in open water. 

Streams and running water. All but Silver Spring Brook are 
associated with cranberry bogs above the collected areas and have 
sandy bottoms. All are fairly small, no large freshwater streams oc- 
curring on Cape Cod. 

39- Silver Spring Brook. Wellfleet Township. At Austin Orni- 
thological Research Station. July 21, 1951. 

40. Coonamessett River. Falmouth Township. North of Great 
Pond at highway 151 crossing. Two collections on July 7, 1951 and 
June 8, 1953. 

41. Mills River. Barnstable Township. Just south of Mill Pond. 
July 15 and August 22, 1951. This includes an extensively widened 
portion, much like a pond, with a heavy accumulation of detritus. 


174 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


42. Quashnet River. Mashpee Township. At highway 151 cross- 
ing. July 1, 1951. 

43- Mashpee River. Mashpee Township. At highway 151 cross- 
ing. July 7, 1951. 

Brackish habitat. The Odonata collected here may not spend their 
nymphal life in brackish water, but the abundance of some species 
and the lack of completely fresh water point to this condition. 

44. Eastham tidal beach. Eastham Township. Mud flat on inner 
bay. July 21, 1951. 

45. Nauset Bay. Eastham Township. August 18, 1951. 

46. Tidal marsh off Eel Pond, Woods Hole. Falmouth Township. 
Two collections on June 30, 1951 and July 26, 1953. 

47. Sippewisset Beach. Falmouth Township. On Buzzard’s Bay. 
Three collections in 1951 and 1953, July 4-26. A small freshwater 
pond is also present. 

Other localities. These cannot be classified as any of the previous 
habitat types, but may be located near such areas. 

48. Wet meadow in dry bed of Childs River. Mashpee Township. 
Just south of John’s Pond. Two collections on June 29 and July 11, 
1951. 

49. Road west of Elbow Pond. Brewster Township. August 4, 1951. 

50. Ponds of Sandwich Fish Hatchery. Sandwich Township. July 
19, 1952. 

51. Goodwill Park. Falmouth Township. Near Long Pond. July 
10, 1952. 

52. Sippewisset Road, Quisset. Falmouth Township. Near Flax 
Pond of L. W. Francis estate. July 30, 1952. 

53. Telegraph Hill. Sandwich Township. July 25, 1953. 

54. Cultivated cranberry bog near Wing Pond. Falmouth Town- 
ship. July 9, 1952. 

55. Woods Hole. Falmouth Township. July 26, 1951. 


Sept., 1954] 


Gibbs: Odonata 


175 


LIST OF SPECIES 

The dates recorded are the earliest and latest on which we have 
caught or positively identified the species. Since our own extreme 
dates are June 6 and September 4, and since all areas were not given 
seasonal coverage, our collecting does not necessarily indicate the 
season on many species. 

Suborder Zygoptera 
Family Agrionidse 

Agrion maculatum Beauvais. Loc. 41, 42, 43. July 1-August 22. 

Restricted to running water. Common at Mills River. 

Hetaerina americana (Fabricius). Reported by Howe (1917-21). 

Family Lestidae 

Lestes congener Hagen. Loc. 35. July 25, 1953. One male. 

Lestes disjunctus Selys. Loc. l(pond), 9, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 32, 33, 

35, 37, 38. July 1-August 24. Walker (1952) believed that south- 
ern New England would be an area of intergradation between the 
subspecies d. disjunctus and d. australis. Our forms appear referable 
to the subspecies disjunctus and show no intergradation. 

Lestes forcipatus Rambur. Loc. l(pond), 9, 11, 13, 14, 26, 28, 32, 35, 

36, 38, 48. June 15-August 24. In accordance with Walker’s 
(1952) observations, we collected forcipatus earlier than disjunctus 
in this region where both species are common. 

Lestes inequalis Walsh. Loc. 28. June 24, 1953. One male. First 
Cape Cod record 

Lestes eurinus Say. Loc. 8, 11, 15, 21, 32, 38. June 10- July 27. 
Lestes rectangularis Say. Loc. 9, 11, 13, 17, 21, 35, 36, 37, 38, 41. 
June 29-August 22. 

Lestes dry as Kirby. Fvecorded by Howe (1917-21). 

Lestes unguiculatus Hagen. Loc. l(pond). June 29, 1953. One male. 
Lestes vigilax Hagen. Loc. l(pond), 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 
20, 22, 24, 25, 27, 29, 33, 36, 37, 39. June 13-September 2. 


176 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


Family Coenagrionidae 

Argia moesta (Hagen). Loc. l(lake), 2, 4, 5. June 20-July 30. Col- 
lected only at large lakes. 

Argia violacea (Hagen). Loc. 4, 9, 13, 17, 18, 23, 24, 25, 28, 31, 35, 
36, 40, 41, 51. June 11-August 24. 

Enallagma aspersum (Hagen). Loc. l(pond), 11, 12, 14, 20, 24, 32, 
35, 36. June 10-August 6. Taken only in company with other 
Enallagmas, and always outnumbered by at least one of these species. 

Enallagma civile (Hagen). Loc. l(lake), 2, 3, 4, 5, 47. June 10- 
July 30. Collected only on large lakes except for Sippewisset 
Beach, where it was abundant. 

Enallagma doubleday i Selys. Loc. l(pond), 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 
16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 24, 25, 27, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38. June 6- August 
24. The most abundant damselfly on the Cape. At Ashumet Pond, 
where the similar species E. civile was common on the lake, double- 
dayi occurred only in the adjoining pond. Neither was collected 
in the other habitat. This contrasts with the observations of Beatty 
(1945, 1946), who found them flying together in New Jersey. 

Enallagma cyathigerum (Charpentier). Loc. 38. June 15 and 24, 
1953. Pairs were seen in tandem, indicating a probable permanent 
breeding population. 

Enallagma durum (Hagen). Reported by Calvert (1894). 

Enallagma exsulans (Hagen). Loc. l(lake), 4, 5. June 19-July 30. 
Found on large lakes only. 

Enallagma geminatum Kellicott. Loc. 9, 13, 16, 17, 24, 25, 28, 33, 
35, 36, 38, 39. June 20-August 22. First Cape Cod record. Sel- 
dom numerous. 

Enallagma hageni (Walsh). Loc. 11. June 17, 1951. One male. 
First Cape Cod record. 

Enallagma later ale Morse. Loc. 17, 24, 38. June 13-25. First Cape 
Cod record. Abundant around the edge of Jabinette’s Pond on 
June 13, 1953. Pairs in tandem were taken, representing the first 
females on record. These will be described elsewhere. On June 
25 none could be found here. This species apparently has a wide- 
spread, but local distribution. It has been taken in Massachusetts 


Sept., 1954] 


Gibbs: Odonata 


177 


(Morse, 1895; Howe, 1916), Indiana (Muttkowski, 1910), Maine 
(Borror, 1940) and New York (Davis, 1913; Donnelly, pers. 
comm.). Early spring collecting will probably show it to be far 
more common on Cape Cod, though with a short flying season. 

Enallagma minusculuvi Morse. Loc. l(lake), 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 22, 24, 
27. June 10- August 23. Probably the most common early damsel- 
fly, becoming less so later. 

Enallagma pictum Morse. Loc. 17, 25, 28, 36. July 11-August 4. 
First Cape Cod record. Common at Hawksnest Pond after mid- 
July. This species preferred to remain near lily pads, either resting 
on them or flying a short distance above them. It was never seen 
close to the shore line, whereas other Enallagmas with it were com- 
monly found in the rushes or on the shrubby edge. 

Enallagma recurvatum Davis. Loc. 12, 15, 17, 24. June 13-25. First 
Cape Cod and New England record. Like later ale this seems to be 
an early spring species with a short flying season. Abundant 
around Flax (Picture) Pond on June 16, 1953. Ten days previously 
none were found. The species has been collected on Long Island 
(Davis, 1913; Donnelly, pers. comm.) and in New Jersey (Beatty, 
1945, 1946). Thus it seems limited to sandy, coastal plain habitat. 
Early collecting may reveal it farther south. 

Enallagma signatum (Hagen). Loc. 3. 13, 16, 18, 24, 27, 36, 39- 
June 15- August 22. 

Enallagma vesperum Calvert. Loc. l(lake), 4, 13, 17, 18, 25, 27, 36. 
July 21-August 23. First Cape Cod record. 

Nehalennia gracilis Morse. Loc. 37, 38. June 6-July 25. First Cape 
Cod record. Found only in bogs. Very abundant at Woods Hole 
Cedar Bog. 

Nehalennia irene Hagen. Reported by Howe (1917-21, 1920). 

Amphiagrion saucium (Burmeister). Loc. 40, 41, 43. June 8- July 15. 
First Cape Cod record. Restricted to streams. 

Ischnura kellicotti Williamson. Loc. 17, 24, 33, 36. June 20-August 
22. First Cape Cod record. Common at Jabinette’s Pond on 
July 15, 1951, but not seen at two earlier dates in 1953. Besides 
males, only orange females have been seen. This seems to be 


178 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


another widespread species with local distribution. It has been 
recorded from Indiana (Williamson, 1898), Rhode Island (Need- 
ham and Heywood, 1929), Long Island (Donnelly, pers. comm.), 
New Jersey (Calvert, 1898), North Carolina (Westfall, 1942), and 
Florida (Davis and Fluno, 1938; Westfall, 1941). 

lschnura posita (Hagen). Loc. l(pond), 8, 13, 16, 24, 33, 36, 37, 38, 
39, 40, 41, 42. June 6- August 22. 

lschnura ramburii Selys. Recorded by Howe (1917-21). 

lschnura verticalis (Say). Loc. l(pond), 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 
20, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 47, 
48. June 6-August 24. 

Chromagrion conditum (Hagen). Recorded by Howe (1917-21). 

Anomalagrion hastaUim (Say). Loc. 36. August 2, 1951. One male. 

Suborder Anisoptera 
Family Gomphidae 

Gomphus abbreviatus Hagen. Recorded by Hagen (Selys, 1878). 

Gomphus exilis Selys. Loc. l(lake), 11, 12, 17, 23, 40, 51, 54. June 10- 
July 10. A large emergence occurred at Ashumet Pond on June 10, 
1953. On the following day, only one specimen was found. Not 
uncommon on the Cape. 

Gomphus spicatus Hagen. Recorded by Howe (1922). 

Dr omo gomphus spinosus Selys. Loc. 1, 5. June 29-July 25. Common 
at Ashumet Pond during emergence in late June, when many exu- 
viae were found on emergent vegetation and tenerals were found 
in the surrounding scrubby woods. Probably common on large 
lakes. 

Progomphus obscurus (Rambur). Recorded by Howe (1920, 1917- 

21 ). 

Family Aeschnidae 

Anax junius (Drury). Loc. l(both), 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24, 25, 
26, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 36, 37, 38, 39, 47, 48. June 6-September 4. 

Anax longipes Hagen. Loc. 11, 13, 22. June 19- August 6. This 


Sept., 1954] 


Gibbs: Odonata 


179 


seldom-caught species is apparently locally common on the Atlantic 
Coastal Plain. Many authors have reported it from the United 
States from Mississippi and Florida to Massachusetts and inland to 
Ohio and Indiana. Hagen (1884) and Gray (1937) have previously 
recorded it from Woods Hole. At Flashy Pond we often saw five 
or six in a day. We took three males, one with a shotgun, one 
knocked into the water by another male, and a third by net. Our 
single female, with abdomen similar in color to that of females 
of A. junius, was taken while ovipositing alone. The females seem 
to be dimorphic, as one individual with a brick-red abdomen was 
observed, apparently ovipositing. Unlike junius, they lay their eggs 
in the absence of the male. 

Boyeria vinosa (Say). Recorded by Howe (1922). 

Basiaeschna janata (Say). Loc. l(lake). Two males on June 10 and 
11, 1953. First Cape Cod record. 

Gomphaeschna furcillata (Say). Loc. 37. June 8, 1953. Another 
Woods Hole record, possibly from the same bog, is recorded by 
Gloyd (1940, p. 3), which is the first Cape Cod record. 

Aeshna canadensis Walker. Loc. 10, 11, 33, 55. July 26-August 23. 
First Cape Cod record. 

Aeshna clepsydra Say. Loc. 9, 11, 27, 32, 33, 38. August 6-September 4. 

Aeshna tuber culij era Walker. Loc. 38, 52. July 30- August 20. This 
species was abundant hawking along a short stretch of Sippewisset 
Road in the evening of July 30, 1952, but was not seen there again. 

Aeshna umbrosa Walker. Recorded by Howe (1917-21, 1920). 

Aeshna verticalis Hagen. Recorded by Howe (1917-21). 


Family Corduliidas 

Didymops transversa (Say). Loc. 11. June 10, 1953. A mating pair. 
First Cape Cod record. 

Macromia illinoiensis (Say). Loc. l(lake), 51, 53. July 4-25. Exuviae 
found at Ashumet Pond. 

Epicordulia princeps (Hagen). Loc. 1, 2, 5, 47, 49. June 26-August 4 
A very large emergence occurred at Ashumet Pond during the last 
week in June. Hundreds of exuviae were found clinging to emerg- 


180 New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 

ent vegetation; yet even in the surrounding woods, adults were 
uncommon. 

T etragoneuria cy no sura (Say). Loc. 1, 11, 13, 24, 37, 51. June 6- 
July 10. No attempt is made to distinguish the subspecies cynosura 
from simulans; their status as subspecies arouses considerable doubt. 

Dorocordulia lepida (Hagen). Loc. 11, 17, 24, 37, 38. June 15-July 7. 
Found at bogs or quite boggy ponds. 

Family Libellulidae 

Libellula auripennis Burmeister. Loc. l(pond), 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 
24, 28, 29, 32, 35, 36, 38. June 10- September 4. Common at ponds. 

Libellula needhami Westfall. Loc. 46, 47. June 30-August 2. This 
species, only recently distinguished from auripennis (Westfall, 1943), 
was found only near salt water, whereas auripennis was common, but 
only at inland ponds. Westfall’s records show very few needhami 
from localities far from the coast except in Florida. Auripennis, 
however, seems to be found both inland and coastally. Perhaps the 
habitat segregation on Cape Cod is indicative of factors which led 
to their speciation and to which each is adapted. 

Libellula cyanea Fabricius. Loc. l(pond), 11, 13, 24, 28, 29, 32, 35, 
38, 39, 40, 41, 46, 50, 51, 54. June 10-September 2. 

Libellula incesta Hagen. Loc. l(pond), 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 17, 24, 25, 
28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 39, 51. June 25-August 24. An examination 
of the penes of several specimens thought to be vibrans, as based on 
color characters, showed only this species. 

Libellula vibrans Fabricius. Recorded by Kellicott (1884) and Howe 
(1917-21). Probably refers to L. incesta. 

Libellula luctuosa Burmeister. Loc. 3, 47, 51. July 10-July 26. Un- 
common. Collected only on July 10, 1952 at Goodwill Park, Fal- 
mouth. 

Libellula pulchella Drury. Loc. l(pond), 11, 12, 13, 14, 26, 29, 35, 37, 
38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 46, 47, 50, 54. June 6-September 4. 

Libellula quadrimaculata Linne. Loc. 37, 38, 40. June 6-June 15. All 
but one specimen came from bogs. 


Sept., 1954] 


Gibbs: Odonata 


181 


Libellula semifasciata Burmeister. Loc. 37, 38, 46. June 6-July 26. 
Uncommon. 

Ladona exusta (Say). Loc. l(pond), 11, 12, 20, 24, 28, 29, 30, 32, 
36, 37, 38, 40. June 6-July 4. 

Ladona deplanata (Rambur). Loc. l(pond), 7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 20, 24, 
32. June 10-July 17. This represents a northward extension of 
the range of this species and a first record for Cape Cod and New 
England. A cursory study of Ladona exusta, deplanata, and julia 
has convinced us that exusta and deplanata are definitely good 
species, and that julia probably is also. The distal end of the penis 
(median lobes) of deplanata, as seen from the side, is concave, with 
extended ends. That of exusta is convex and not at all extended. 
The abdomen of adult exusta becomes white-pruinose, the dorsum 
of the thorax becoming gray or not at all pruinose. Deplanata 
becomes uniformly gray-pruinose on thorax and abdomen. All the 
exusta studied had the supratriangle of the fore wing crossed, while 
only about a quarter of the deplanata had such a crossvein. The 
dark basal markings of the wings are generally smaller and divided 
by a clear streak in deplanata, but this is not constant. Julia seems 
closer to exusta , the penis being convex distally, but the lobes ex- 
tending more. The abdomen becomes white-pruinose only on the 
anterior segments, and the dorsum of the thorax becomes white. 
The supratriangle is crossed, and the wing markings are small, 
but without the clear streak of deplanata. 

Plathemis lydia (Drury). Loc. 11, 14, 28, 32, 37, 38, 40, 41, 46, 54. 
June 8-August 24. 

Perithemis tenera (Say). Loc. 9, 16, 17, 25, 29, 33, 39. July 1 -Aug- 
ust 22. Never common. 

Nannothemis bella (Uhler). Loc. 38. July 4, 1952. Two males, one 
female. 

Erythrodiplax berenice (Drury). Loc. 14, 39, 44, 45, 47. June 30- 
August 6. 

Erythemis simplicicollis (Say). Loc. l(pond), 4, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 

17, 20, 21, 22, 25, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 46, 
47, 50, 51. June lO-Septem^er 4, 


182 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister). Loc. 11, 13, 23, 28, 29, 32, 
37, 38, 39. June 15-September 2. 

Sympetrum corruptum (Hagen). Recorded by Howe (1917-21). 
Sympetrum costiferum (Hagen). Recorded by Howe (1917-21). 
Sympetrum obtrusum (Hagen). Recorded by Howe (1917-21). 
Sympetrum rubicundulum (Say). Loc. l(pond), 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 
21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 32, 34, 35, 37, 38, 50, 51. June 29- 
September 2. 

Sympetrum semicinctum (Say). Loc. 11, 39, 41. July 15-August 22. 
First Cape Cod record. Seems to prefer the vicinity of running 
water. 

Sympetrum vicinum (Hagen). Loc. 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 19, 25, 31, 32, 
33, 35, 36, 41. August 4-24. 

Leucorrhinia Intacta (Hagen). Loc. l(pond), 17, 20, 24, 37, 38. 
June 6-25. 

Leucorrhinia frigida (Hagen). Loc. 11, 15, 22, 29. June 10-July 27. 

Abundant at Flashy Pond in 1951 and 1952; scarce in 1953- 
Celithemis elisa (Hagen). Loc. l(pond), 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 
19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 51. 
June 10-August 24. 

Celithemis eponina (Hagen). Loc. 10, 25, 33. August 4-23. 

Celithemis martha Williamson. Loc. l(pond), 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 
25, 31, 32, 33, 35, 40, 43, 48. June 25-September 2. First Cape 
Cod record. On July 1, 1951, this species had emerged in numbers 
at Flashy Pond. The height of the breeding season here was around 
August 6, when great numbers of tandem pairs were seen. Males re- 
tained a hold on the female as she dipped her abdomen to lay eggs. 
July 30 was the height of emergence at the small pond adjoining 
Ashumet Pond in 1953. A series of nymphs was collected here. 
Celithemis ornata (Rambur). Recorded by Howe (1917-21, 1920). 
This is probably C. martha. 

Celithemis monomelaena Williamson. Loc. 9. One male, another seen. 
First Cape Cod record. 

Pantala flavescens (Fabricius). Loc. 45. August 18, 1951. One male, 
probably a transient, First Cape Cod record. 


Sept., 1954] 


Gibbs: Odonata 


183 


Trained Carolina (Linne). Loc. l(pond), 8, 11, 12, 13, 17, 35, 48, 52. 
Tune 10- August 6. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The authors express their sincere thanks to James K. Taylor, Mary 
Reilly, and Mary Ayers for aiding us in collecting, and to Dr. Philip P. 
Calvert, Dr. Howard E. Evans, and Thomas W. Donnelly for critical 
comments on the manuscript. 


References 

Beatty, George H., III. 1945. Odonata collected and observed in 1945 at 
two artificial ponds at Upton, New Jersey. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 40: 
178-187. 

. 1946. Dragonflies collected in Pennsylvania and New Jersey in 

1945. Ent. News 62: 1-10, 50-56, 76-81, 104-111. 

Borror, Donald J. 1940. A list of the dragonflies taken in the region of 
Muscongus Bay, Maine. Ent. News 51: 45-47, 74-79. 

Calvert, Philip P. 1894, Data on the distribution of dragonflies I. Ent. News 
5; 242-244, 

- — — — , 1898, Further notes on the new dragonfly Iscknura kellicotti. Ent. 
News 9: 211-213. 

— . 1905. Fauna of New England. Part 6. List of the Odonata. Occ. 

Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 7. 

Davis, E. M., and J. A. Fluno. 1938. Odonata at Winter Park, Florida. Ent. 
News 49: 44-47. 

Davis, William T. 1913. Dragonflies of the vicinity of New York City with 
a description of a new species. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 21: 11-29. 

Fenneman, Nevin M. 1938. Physiography of eastern United States. McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., New York. 

Gloyd, Leonora K. 1940. On the status of Gomphaescbna antilope (Hagen). 
Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 415. 

Gray, George M. 1937. The large green dragonfly, Anax longipes, in the 
Woods Hole region. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 32: 122-124. 

Hagen, H. A, 1884, Anax longipgs, Ent. Monthly Mag. 20: 169-171.. 


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New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


£ Howe, R. Heber, Jr. 1916. A preliminary list of the Odonata of Concord, 
Mass. Psyche 23: 12-15. 

QS . 1917. Distributional notes on New England Odonata. Part I. Psyche 

24: 45-53. 

O- . 1918. Distributional notes on New England Odonata. Part II. 

Psyche 25: 106-110. 

0^ — . 1920. Odonata of Chatham, Massachusetts. Psyche 27: 55-58. 

. 1917-21. Manual of the Odonata of New England. Six parts and 

supplement. Mem. Thoreau Mus. Nat. Hist. II. 

. 1921. The distribution of New England Odonata. Proc. Boston Soc. 

Nat. Hist. 36: 105-133. 

Kellicott, D. S. 1894. Distribution of the Odonata. Ent. News 5: 314. 

Massachusetts, Commonwealth of. 1951. Fisheries report. 

Morse, Albert P. 1895. New North American Odonata. Psyche 7: 207-211, 
274-275. 

Muttkowski, Richard A. 1910. Catalogue of the Odonata of North America. 
Bull. Pub. Mus. City of Milwaukee 1(1). 

Needham, James G., and Hortense Butler Heywood. 1929. A handbook of 
the dragonflies of North America. Thomas C, Springfield, 111. 

Selys-Longchamps, E. de. 1878. Quatriemes additions au synopsis des Gom- 
phines. Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belg. 46: 408-471. 

Walker, E. M. 1952. The Lestes disjunctus and forcipatus complex. Trans. 
Am. Ent. Soc. 78: 59-74. 

Westfall, Minter J., Jr. 1941. Notes on Florida Odonata. Ent. News 52: 
15-18, 31-34. 

. 1942. A list of dragonflies taken near Brevard, North Carolina. 

Ent. News 53: 94-100, 127-132. 

. 1943. Synonymy of Libellula auripennis and Libellula jesseana and 

the description of a new species. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 69: 17-31 

Williamson, E. B. 1898. A new species of Ischnura. Ent. News 9: 209-211. 

Woodworth, J. B., and Edward Wigglesworth. 1934. Geography and geology 
of the region including Cape Cod, the Elizabeth Islands, Nantucket, 
Martha’s Vineyard, No Mans Land, and Block Island. Mem. Mus. 
Comp. Zool. 52, 


Sept., 1954] 


Weiss: Fuller 


185 


ANDREW S. FULLER, EARLY ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGIST 
OF NEW JERSEY, 1828 - 1896 

By Harry B. Weiss 

From a biographical viewpoint some of our early writers on insects 
have been neglected in our entomological literature in favor of their 
more prolific and outstanding contemporaries. Andrew S. Fuller was 
one of such persons. Only a brief mention was made of him in 
Entomological News (June, 1896, p. 192) shortly after his death. The 
only other biographical reference to him in entomological literature 
occurs in L. O. Howard’s "History of Applied Entomology”, (Wash- 
ington, D. C., 1930), in which his portrait is reproduced on plate 5. 

Fuller, an editor, horticulturist, amateur entomologist and writer 
was born at Utica, New York, on August 3, 1828, and brought up in 
a region devoted to fruit growing. His parents moved to a small farm 
near Barre, New York, where he attended a country school and helped 
around the farm. After his parents had moved to Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin, in 1846 he learned carpentering and with his interest in plants 
he started to devote his activities to the construction of greenhouses, 
becoming in 1855 the manager of the greenhouses belonging to W. R. 
Prince of Flushing, Long Island. This position he held for two years. 
He then moved to Brooklyn, New York, and began to cultivate small 
fruits, paying particular attention to strawberry improvement. Soon 
he began to v/rite articles on horticulture for "Life Illustrated,” the 
"New York Tribune” and other papers. The "Tribune” at one time 
distributed, as circulation premiums, 300,000 of Fuller’s strawberry 
plants. And in 1862 his first book "The Illustrated Strawberry Cul- 
turist” appeared. In 1851 he married Jennie Clippens and in I860 
he moved to Ridgewood, New Jersey, and bought a tract of land 
which he improved and then used for experimental purposes. 

His articles continued to appear in the agricultural and horticul- 
tural press. During 1866 and 1867 he edited Woodward’s "Record 
of Horticulture.” From 1868 until 1894 he was editor of the "Weekly 


186 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


Sun” and while connected with this paper he was responsible for 
the distribution of seed white potatoes with subscriptions. In 1871 
he became the associate editor of "Moore’s Rural New Yorker” later 
the "Rural New Yorker”, becoming part owner and editor-in-chief 
in 1876. However within a year he severed these connections. He 
was a member of various organizations and when the New Jersey State 
Horticultural Society was organized for the second time in 1875 he 
was one of its founders and its vice-president from Bergen County. 
At the January, 1876, meeting of this society, in a paper on entomol- 
ogy and its relation to horticulture, he stressed the need for knowledge 
about injurious insects and said that future progress depended largely 
upon success in controlling insects. 

His books include "The Grape Culturist”, 1864; "The Forest Tree 
Culturist”, 1867, which was translated into the German language; 
"Practical Forestry”, 1884; "The Propagation of Plants”, 1887; and 
the "Nut Culturist”, 1896. 

In addition to the accumulation of a large horticultural library, he 
collected insects and minerals. He specialized in the Coleoptera, for 
his collection of which he built a special house. His interests also 
embraced the study of prehistoric American pottery. At the time 
of his death from a heart attack on May 4, 1896 he was a staff writer 
for the "Florists’ Exchange,” the "American Agriculturist” and the 
"American Gardener”. 

From 1868 to 1896 he was the author of some 28 papers on a 
wide range of economic insects as may be noted by his list of titles 
in Henshaw’s "Bibliography of American Economic Entomology” 
Parts IV and V, 1895 and 1896. He was also the author of a paper 
on "Collecting Insects, How to Collect and Transport Them”, 5 pages, 
22 V 2 cm., with no place or date of publication. 

Fuller frequently sent insect specimens or descriptions of insects to 
the editors of the "American Entomologist” for identification. In 
the "Answers to Correspondents” in the columns of that magazine 
and its successors, Fuller’s questions and the editors’ answers may be 


Sept., 1954] 


Weiss: Fuller 


187 


found in Vol. 1, Nos. 3, 4, 10, 11; Vol. 2, Nos. 4, 8, 10. Similar 
references may be found in the "Practical Entomologist”, Vol. 2, No. 
9, and in "Insect Life” Vol. 1, page 86. Of Fuller’s inquiries nearly 
all dealt with species injurious to grapes, strawberries, seeds, black- 
berries, etc. On July 16, 1888, he wrote to C. V. Riley about insects 
confused with the Hessian fly prior to the Revolution and Riley re- 
plied in "Insect Life” that there was no evidence of the existence of 
that insect in America at that early period. At times, various writers 
have confused the work of the Angoumois grain moth with that of 
the Hessian fly. [See Journ. Econ. Ent. Vol. 37, page 838] 

When the "American Entomologist” began for a second time in 
January 1880, after a lapse of ten years, Andrew S. Fuller was 
assistant editor, and C. V. Riley was editor. However the October, 
1880, issue contained only Riley’s name as editor, with the announce- 
ment that Fuller had retired from his editorial duties. During the 
summer of 1880, Fuller had been in New Mexico where his interests 
were likely to call him at any time. 

In 1875 Fuller sent specimens of a beetle that he had collected in 
Montana to Dr. George H. Horn who described it as Aramigus fulleri 
in 1876. Since then it has been known as Fuller’s rose beetle. In 
his "History of Entomology” Essig gives an interesting account of 
the spread of this beetle over the world. It was originally collected 
by Crotch on brambles at Fayal on the island of Horta, Azores, in 
1866 and described by him in 1867 in the Proceedings of the Zoo- 
logical Society of London. It received little attention until it appeared 
in many parts of the United States and was described again by Horn. 

Andrew S. Fuller died on May 4, 1896. An obituary presumably 
written by Frederick Allen Eddy and published in a Bangor, Maine, 
newspaper shortly after his death refers to Fuller’s home in Ridge- 
wood, New Jersey, having been transformed from a barren waste to 
one of the finest places in Bergen County all through the efforts of 
Mr. Fuller who was an enthusiast in botany and other natural sci- 
ences. Upon his Ridgewood home specimens of nearly every nut 
tree in the world were growing, as well as other trees and plants. 


188 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


After her husband’s death Mrs. Fuller, around December 7, 1897, 
sold her husband’s collection of Coleoptera to Frederick Allen Eddy 
of Bangor, Maine, and it became a part of, or perhaps the basis of 
Mr. Eddy’s large beetle collection which came to the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
after Eddy’s death in 1935. Dr. P. J. Darlington, Jr., Curator of In- 
sects, Museum of Comparative Zoology, to whom I am indebted for 
the above and the following information advised me that according 
to a note left by Eddy the Fuller material was in 112 boxes and 
included some 4,500 species and 15,000 or 20,000 specimens. Eddy 
paid $1,050 for it. The Fuller collection included much rare material 
identified by good specialists. Some of it was material from Prof. 
Snow of Kansas. Mr. Eddy combined the Fuller collection with his 
own and at the Museum of Comparative Zoology the Eddy specimens 
are being incorporated in the general collection of North American 
beetles. The Fuller specimens were not labelled as such by Eddy 
and as he received specimens from many other sources it is difficult 
to identify, exactly, the Fuller beetles. However it is assumed that 
most of the specimens in the Eddy collection bearing only state ab- 
breviations as localities and not labelled by Eddy, are Fuller’s. Such 
specimens now bearing the label "Frederick Allen Eddy Collection” 
in the general collection are probably those of Fuller. 


References 

Crawford, Nelson Antrim. Andrew S. Fuller. Dictionary of Ameri- 
can Biography, New York, 1931. 

Hexamer, F. M. Andrew S. Fuller sketch in Bailey’s Cyclopedia of 
American Horticulture, III, p. 6 16. 1906. 

Woodward, Carl R. The Development of Agriculture in New Jersey, 
1640-1880. 1926, p. 235. 

Obituaries in New York Sun, May 5, 1896; New York Tribune, May 
5, 1896; American Agriculturist, May 16, 1896. 


189 


Sept., 1954] De La Torre: Rhopalocera 

AN ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BUTTERFLIES AND 
SKIPPERS OF CUBA 

(LEPIDOPTERA, RHOPALOCERA) 

By Salvador Luis de la Torre y Callejas 
Professor of Zoology 

Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba 

(Continued from Vol. LXII, No. 2 
Pyrameis cardui cardui? : Berger, 1939: 196. 

Illustrations. — Clark, 1932: pi. 8, f. 1, pi. 64, f. 3; J. H. Comstock 
& A. B. Comstock, 1936: pi. XXVI, f. 5, 6; Holland, 1942: pi. I, f. 
1, pi. Ill, f. 37, pi. IV, f. 60-62, (chrysalis); Schwarz, 1949: pi. 
IV, f. 33-35?. 


Genus Hypanartia Hiibner 
Hypanartia Hiibner, 1821. 

Genotype: Hypanartia demonica Hiibner, 1821 ( —Papilio lethe Fab., 
1793). 

99. HYPANARTIA PAULLUS (FABRICIUS) 

Papilio paullus Fabricius, 1793. 

Hypanartia paullus: Gundlach, 1881: 38; Bates, 1935: 166; Comstock, 
1944: 451; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 278. 

Illustration. — Comstock, 1944: pi. 6, f. 11. 

Genus Junonia Hiibner 

Precis Hiibner, 1819: 33. 

Junonia Hiibner, 1819: 34. 

Genotype: Papilio lavinia Cramer, 1775. 

100. JUNONIA EVARETE CCENIA Hiibner 

Junonia coenia Hiibner, 1822; Holland, 1916: 492; id., 1942: 156; 
Showalter, 1927: 107; Fazzini, 1934: 55; J. H. Comstock & A. B. 
Comstock, 1936: 160; Hoffmann, 1940c: 681. 

Junonia genoveva : Gundlach, 1881: 65. 


190 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


Junonia lavinia coenia : Forbes, 1928: 306, 316; Clark, 1932: 79; 
Eliot, 1947: 230. 

Junonia lavinia : Hoffmann, 1933: 235; Brown, 1945: 32. 

Precis coenia : Bates, 1935: 167; Field, 1938b: 89. 

Junonia evarete coenia : Comstock, 1944: 453; S. L. de la Torre, 
1949c: 186. 

Illustrations. — Showalter, 1927: pi. 3, f. 5; Clark, 1932: pi. 7, f. 1-4; 
Fazzini, 1934: p. 55, fig. not numbered; J. H. Comstock & A. B. 
Comstock, 1936: pi. XXIV, f. 3; Holland, 1942: pi. Ill, f. 29, 30, 
(larva), pi. IV, f. 56, 57, 65-67, (chrysalis), pi. XX, f. 7; Coms- 
tock, 1944: pi. 6, f. 8. 

101. JUNONIA EVARETE ZONALis Felder & Felder 

Junonia zonalis Felder & Felder, 1867; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 
279. 

Junonia lavinia : Gundlach, 1881: 64; Holland, 1942: 156. 

Junonia coenia genoveva : Holland, 1916: 492. 

Junonia lavinia zonalis : Forbes, 1928: 307, 316. 

Precis zonalis : Bates, 1935: 168; Dethier, 1941: 70. 

Precis lavinia zonalis : Berger, 1939: 197. 

Junonia genoveva : Holland, 1942: 156. 

Junonia evarete zonalis : Comstock, 1944: 454; Beatty, 1944: 156; 
J. A. Ramos, 1946: 52; S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 186; Munroe, 
1951: 56. 

Illustrations. — Dethier, 1941: pi. V, f. 1, 5, (head of larva), pi. VI, 
f. 7, (para-dorsal spine from the first abdominal segment of larva); 
Holland, 1942: pi. XX, f. 8, ( lavinia ), f. 9, ( genoveva) \ Com- 
stock, 1944; pi. 6, f. 9. 

102. JUNONIA EVARETE ZONALIS f. INCARNATA Felder 

Junonia lavinia zonalis var. incarnata : Forbes, 1928: 307. 

Junonia evarete zonalis form incarnata'. Comstock, 1944: 455; S. L. 

de la Torre, 1949c: 186. 

Junonia evarete incarnata'. Beatty, 1944: 156. 

This form was captured at Bellamar beach, Matanzas province, by 
the writer. 


191 


Sept., 1954] De La Torre: Riiopalocera 

103- JUNONIA EVARETE ZONALIS f. CONSTRICTA Felder 

Junonia lavinia zonalis form constricta\ Forbes, 1928: 309, 316. 
Junonia ev arete zonalis form constricta : Comstock, 1944: 455; S. L. 
de la Torre, 1949c: 186. 

This form was annotated for Cuba by Forbes in 1928 (See Journ. 
N. Y. Ent. Soc., vol. 36, p. 309), and by Wm. P. Comstock in 1944 
(See Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, p. 455). 

Genus Anartia Hiibner 

Anartia Hiibner, 1819. 

Genotype: Papilio jatrophae Johansson, 1763. 

104. ANARTIA JATROPHAE GUANTANAMO Munroe 

Anartia jatrophce guantanamo Munroe, 1942: 2; S. L. de la Torre, 
1949c: 177. 

Anartia jatrophce, Gundlach, 1881: 59; id., 1891: 448; Holland, 1916: 
492; d’Almeida, 1941: 310; id., 1944c: 46. 

Anartia jatrophae jamaicensis : Bates, 1935: 169; Dethier, 1941: 71; 
Comstock, 1944: 457; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 99, 108. 

This subspecies was described by E. Munroe in 1942 (See Amer. 
Mus. Novitates, No. 1179, p. 2). 

Illustrations. — Dethier, 1941: pi. V, f. 3, 6, (head of larva), pi. VI, 
f. 1, (prothoracic segment of larva), f. 2, (fourth abdominal seg- 
ment of larva), f. 6, (para-dorsal spine from the first abdominal 
segment of larva); d’Almeida, 1944c: pi. 3, f. 5, (pupa), f. 6, 
(larva) . 

105. ANARTIA LYTREA CHRYSOPELEA Hiibner 
Anartia chrysopelea Hiibner, 1825. 

Anartia lytrea : Gundlach, 1881: 60; Holland, 1916: 492. 

Anartia lytrcea : Hoffmann, 1940c: 681. 

Anartia lytrea chrysopelea : Bates, 1935: 169; Dethier, 1941: 73. 
Illustrations. — Dethier, 1941: pi. V, f. 2, (head of larva), pi. VI, f. 
3, (prothoracic segment of larva), f. 4, (fourth abdominal segment 


192 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


of larva), f. 5, ( prespiracular spine from the prothoracic segment 
of fourth instar larva), f. 8, (para-dorsal spine from the second 
thoracic segment of larva), f. 11, (spine from head of larva). 

Genus Metamorpha Hiibner 

Metamorpha Hiibner, 1819. 

Victorina Blanchard, 1840. 

Genotype: Metamorpha elissa Hiibner, 1819 ( = Papilio sulpitia 

Cramer, 1780; homonym of Papilio sulpitia Cramer, 1779). 

106. METAMORPHA STELENES INSULARIS (Holland) 

Victorina steneles var. insularis Holland, 1916: 493. 

Victorina stehnelus : Gundlach, 1881: 66. 

Metamorpha stelenes insularis : Bates, 1935: 170; Dethier, 1940: 16; 

Comstock, 1944: 460; S. L. de la Torre, 1946b: 117; id., 1949b: 
193. 

Victorina steneles : Holland, 1942: 171. 

Illustrations.— Dethier, 1940: pi. Ill, f. 2, (para-dorsal spine), f. 10, 
(second instar head capsule). 

107. METAMORPHA STELENES INSULARIS f. LAVINIA (Fabridus) 

Papilio lavinia Fabricius, 1775: 450. 

This is the summer form of that species, which fly in July and 
August (See Comstock, 1944: 458). 

Genus Marpesia Hiibner 

Marpesia Hiibner, 1818. 

Athena Hiibner, 1819. 

Megalura Blanchard, 1840. 

Timet es Doubleday, 1844. 

Tymetes Boisduval, 1846?. 

Genotype: Marpesia eleuchea Hiibner, 1818. 


(To be continued) 


The 

New York Entomological Society 


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Secretary, DR. LOUIS S. MARKS 74 Main St., Tuckahoe, N. Y. 

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Editor Emeritus, DR. HARRY B. WEISS Highland Park, N. J. 

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SCIENCES 


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JOURNAL 

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LXII 


NO 


DECEMBER, 1954 

1 /' ] r t'n, 1 1 \ - ^ ! , - -/ ; -;k : 

Journal 

of the 

New York Entomological Society 

'1"' 1 '/If - : "i . ■'("■: ■ ,i/ J '.-j 

Devoted to Entomology in General 


Editor Emeritus HARRY B. WEISS 

■:> # ' x!; 



if 


Publication Committee 

FRANK A. SORACI HERBERT F. SCHWARZ 

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Subscription $5.00 per Year 


cn 


CONTENTS 


Myodopsylla setosa and Tiarapsylla bella, 
New Species of Fleas from Peru 

By Phyllis T. Johnson 


m 


193 


Southwestern Research Station 


206 


An Annotated List of the Butterflies and Skippers 
of Cuba ( Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) 

By Salvador Luis de la Torre Y Callejas 


207 


NOTICE: Volume LXII, Number 3, of the Journal 
of the New York Entomological Society was 
Published on December 8, 1935 


Published Quarterly for the Society 
By United Printing Services, Inc. 

263 Chapel St., New Haven, Conn. 

Subscriptions should be sent to the Treasurer, J. Huberman, American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York 24, N. Y. 

Entered as second class matter July 7, 1925, at the post office at New Haven, 
Conn., under the Act of August 24, 1912. 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in the Act of Feb- 
ruary 28, 1925, embodied in Paragraph (d-2) Section 34.40 P. L. & R. of 1948. 


JOURNAL 

OF THE 

New York Entomological Society 


Vol. LXII December, 1954 No. 4 


MYODOPSYLLA SETOSA AND TIARAPSYLLA BELLA, 
NEW SPECIES OF FLEAS FROM PERU 

By 

Phyllis T. Johnson 

Department of Entomology, Army Medical Service Graduate School, 
Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D. C. 

Although twenty species of fleas have been described from Peru, the 
specimens were collected during only a small number of surveys, and it 
is likely that the forms described below represent but a small percent- 
age of undescribed species still to be found in Peru. Included in the pres- 
ent paper are descriptions of two new species representing two families 
of Siphonaptera, and records and a short redescription of Tiarapsylla 
titschacki Wagner, 1937. The specimens of T. titschacki, taken by Dr. 
C.C. Sanborn, constitute the first records of this species since the type 
collection. 

I am grateful to Mr. F.G.A.M. Smit of British Museum (Tring) 
who generously lent a pair of Myodopsylla isidori (Weyenbergh, 
1881) for study. The drawings of M. isidori are taken from the male 
of this pair ex Myotis nigricans, Argentina, Patagonia, Rio Colorado. 
Drawings of M. wolff sohni subsp. were taken from a specimen ex 
"various bats”, Paraguay, Sapucay, 1901, W. Foster collector. 

Ischnopsyllidae: Ischnopsyllinae 
Myodopsylla setosa, new species 

(figs. 1,2,6,8,10,12,13) 

TYPE DATA. - Male holotype, female allotype ex "bat”, Peru: Yucay, 
29 Dec. 1937, J. Soukup collector. Deposited in the collections of the 
United States National Museum. 


'SEP 9 .1956 


194 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


DIAGNOSIS. - Near Myodopsylla isidori (Weyenbergh, 1881) and M. 
wolffsohni subsp. Male separable from Myodopsylla wolffsohni and 
M. isidori in having distinct false combs on abdominal terga one 
through three ( fig. 6 ) ; not with false combs only on terga one and two 
(figs. 3 and 5). Further separable from wolfsohni in that the pos- 
teroventral extension of the immovable process of the clasper is long, 
with dorsal and ventral margins parallel (fig. 13, P.); not with this 
portion of process broad and subtriangulate (fig. 11, P.)\ and by the 
shape of the distal arm of the ninth sternum and the dorsal extension 
of the crochet (figs. 2, 4, DA.9 and CR.)\ in setosa n. sp. the crochet 
bears a narrow, pointed apical process, whereas wolffsohni lacks this 
process. Male further distinct from isidori in that the posteroventral 
extension of the immovable process of the clasper is about the same 
width as the dorsal process (fig. 13, P.) not markedly narrower than 
dorsal extension ( fig. 9, P. ) ; and the two apical bristles on postero- 
ventral process very long and "coiled” apically in setosa n. sp., not 
much smaller and lacking the apical curl as in isidori\ also the crochet 
with triangular lobe just below dorsoapical extension (fig. 2, CR .) , 
not with this lobe rectangular (fig. 7, CR.)- Female separable from 
ivolffsohni in having a distinct false comb on tergum three, not lacking 
such a comb. Apparently no valid differences are to be found separa- 
ting setosa n. sp. females from isidori females. 

DESCRIPTION 

HEAD (fig. 1): Much as in other members of the genus. Pale area on frons 
with a row of small bristles which become minute as they progress anterovent- 
rally. A row of three large bristles along anterior margin of antennal groove, 
bristle just above eye much the largest; other than these, with several small 
scattered bristles between antennal groove and pale area of frons. Eye vestige 
visible but pale in color. Second antennal segment with apical row of small 
bristles. 

THORAX (fig. 8): Mesepisternum (MPS.) with anterior margin almost vertical, 
not strongly inclined anteriad; mesepisternal rod (EP.R. - 1) quite distinct. 
Metanotum (MTN.) with false comb of seven or eight close-set flattened 
bristles on a side. Lateral metanotal area (L.M.) with one large median bristle 
plus a small bristle near ventral margin. Metepimere (MTM.) with eight or 
nine bristles set in three irregular rows, bristles of first row small, last row of 
two medium-sized bristles inserted on posterior margin of sclerite. 

ABDOMEN: First tergum (fig. 6, IT.) with well-developed false comb of six 
or seven bristles on a side. Terga two and three in male also with distinct 


Dec., 1954] 


Johnson: Fleas 


195 


false combs of four to five bristles on a side (fig 6, 2T. and 3T.); in female 
false comb on tergum three represented by only three or four flattened bristles 
on the two sides together. 

MALE (fig. 10): Antesensilial bristle (A.B.) set on small protuberance, dorsally 
this protuberance no longer than width of bristle base. Sensilium (SN.) ovate 
viewed laterally, lacking a posterolateral extension occurring in certain other 
species of this genus. Eighth tergum (8T.) with marginal bristles as follows: 
dorsal margin with six or seven small pale bristles inserted on mesal surface, 
plus two larger submarginal bristles on lateral surface; at posterodorsal angle 
and just ventrad to this angle with three long bristles and two small pale bristles 
between the dorsal and the median long bristles; below large bristles a row of 
six or seven pale bristles which are twice as long as pale bristles on dorsal 
margin. Below bristles, the apical (posterior) margin of eighth tergum is dis- 
tinctly serrate its entire length. Basal portion of eighth sternum (8S.) roughly 
square, anterodorsal angle rounded, posterodorsal angle acute, posterior margin 
slightly concave; ventrocaudal process of eighth sternum lightly sclerotized, 
with several pale lateral bristles ventroapically; two "brushes” of mesal bristles. 
Distal arm of ninth sternum (DA. 9 and fig.2) with rounded apex; bearing three 
equidistant bristles on or near posterior (ventral) margin as follows: just below 
apex a small submarginal bristle followed by narrow wing-like extension which 
extends to largest bristle which is halfway between small subapical bristle and 
medium-sized bristle present ventrally on a narrow lobe. Immovable process 
of clasper (P. and fig. 13) with posteroventral extension rectangular, more than 
two times as long as broad, dorsal and ventral margins parallel and straight, width 
of posteroventral extension about the same as width of dorsal extension of process, 
the two apical large bristles on posteroventral extension flagellate, coiled apically. 
Moveable finger (F. and fig. 13) triangular, dorsal angle acute, posteroventral 
angle of about 90°. Aedeagal apodeme (AE.A.) about five times as long as 
broad, apex acute. Penis rods (P.R.) forming a complete circle. Crochets (fig. 2, 
CR.) divided into two processes, the upper process with narrow acute dorsoapical 
extension, below this a subtriangular lobe; lower process with caudally expanded 
apex. 

FEMALE (fig. 12): Similar to modified segments of related species. Sperma- 
theca (SP.) and seventh sternum (7S.) as shown in figure. 

LENGTHS: Holotype 2.4mm., allotype 2.3mm. 

Stephanocircidae: Craneopsyllinae 

Tiarapsylla Bella, new species 

(figs. 15-17, 19) 

type DATA. - Holotype female, three paratype females ex " Felis pajaros 
garleppi” (Felis colocolo garleppi ) , Peru: Dept, of Puno, Picotani, 22 
Sept. 1941, C.C. Sanborn collector. Holotype female deposited in the 
collections of the Chicago Natural History Museum, two paratype fe- 


196 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


males in collection of E-obert Traub, remaining paratype female in the 
collections of British Museum (Natural History), Tring. 

Veils colocolo is undoubtedly an abnormal host, the true host probab- 
ly being Lagidium (viscacha) as with T. titschacki Wagner 1937. The 
cat from which the type specimens of T. bella were taken was observed 
hunting viscachas at the time of capture. 

DIAGNOSIS. - Separable from Tiarapsylla argentina Jordon, 1942 in lack- 
ing an entire row of pale pseudosetae on inner aspect of mesonotal 
flange, the pseudosetae being only three or four in number on the two 
sides together and confined to the dorsum of the flange (fig. 19, PS.S.); 
and second antennal segment with fringe of long bristles extending 
well beyond apex of head; not lacking such bristles. Close to T. tit- 
schacki Wagner, 1937; some of the differences as follows: a larger 
flea (bella- 5mm., titschacki-' 3 ) H -4.4mm.) ; helmet comb of bella n. sp. 
with base evenly convex, formed of eight or nine spines and ending 
well short of ventral head margin (fig. 16); not with ten to twelve 
spines (usually 11-12) in a sinuate row extending almost to ventral 
head margin (fig. 14). Small bristles on helmet posterior to the comb 
confined to area behind dorsal two spines in bella n. sp., not behind 
upper three or four spines as in titschacki. Second antennal segment 
with its apical flange longer than in titschacki, extending over basal 
two segments of antennal club. 

DESCRIPTION 

HEAD (fig. 16): Helmet comb of 8 - 9 spines, its base slightly convex, not 
markedly sinuate; the ventral spine separated from ventral margin of helmet 
by at least the width of its base. Posterior margin of helmet above comb with 
row of small bristles. Small bristles present on helmet posterior to upper two 
helmet spines. Postantennal area with five rows of bristles. First antennal 
segment with row of about six medium-sized bristles; second antennal segment 
with apical flange extending over basal two segments of club and with apical 
row of long bristles extending well beyond apex of club. Genal comb of six 
long, apically rounded spines; genal process above comb of varying size and 
shape, about as long as comb spines. Labial palpus two-thirds length of procoxa. 
Maxillary palpus with basal segment approximately two times as long as second 
segment. 

THORAX (fig. 19): Pronotum (fig. 16, PRN.) with two rows of bristles, first 
row irregular, plus some anterior bristles; pronotal comb with 25-29 spines in 
all (holotype with 29 spines, paratypes with 25, 26 and 27 spines). Mesonotum 


Dec., 1954] 


Johnson: Fleas 


197 


(MSN.) with five rows of bristles; first four rows very irregular; three or four 
dorsal pseudosetse present under flange. Mesepisternum (MPS.) and mesepimere 
(MPM.) with approximately 30 bristles in all. Metanotum (MTN.) with three 
rows of bristles, first two rows scattered. Lateral metanotal area (L.M.) with 
6-8 small and large bristles. Metepisternum (MTS.) with one large bristle. 
Metepimere (MTM.) with three scattered rows of bristles. 

LEGS: Protibia with seven dorsal notches, including apical, bearing bristles as 
follows (base to apex): 2-2-2-4-4-4-4 (holotype); 2-2-2(3)-4(3) -4(5)-3 (4,5)-4 
(5) (paratypes). Mesotibia with eight dorsal notches containing bristles as 
follows: 2-2-3-3-3 -4-4-4 (holotype); 2-2-2 ( 1 ) -3(4)-4 (3)-4-4(3)-4 (para- 
types). Metatibia also with eight dorsal notches containing bristles as follows 
2-2-2-3-3-4-4-4 (holotype); 2-2-2-3(4)-3(4)-4(3)-4(3)-4 (paratypes). 
ABDOMEN: First tergum (fig. 19, IT.) with three rows of bristles, first short; 
terga 2 -6 with two rows of bristles, second row always extending below spir- 
acle; seventh tergum with three rows, first row short. Basal sternum with clump 
of 5 - 6 ventral subapical bristles. Other unmodified sterna with one row of 
bristles, at times plus one or two anteroventral bristles. Holotype and two para- 
types with two antesensilial bristles on each side, one paratype with two such 
bristles on one side, one on other. 

MODIFIED SEGMENTS (fig. 17): Seventh sternum (7S.) with two rows of bristles; 
its posterior margin lacking sinus. Eighth tergum (8T. ) lacking bristles above 
spiracle; an irregular row of bristles from just below spiracle to level of bursa 
copulatrix (B.C.); ventrally with two scattered rows of bristles and with a thick 
patch of dark subspiniform bristles apically, ventrad to ventral anal lobe; no 
more than one bristle present laterally between apical clump and anterior row. 
Dorsal and ventral anal lobes (D.A.L. and V.A.L.) with many small bristles. Anal 
stylet (A.S.) about two times as long as broad, with two or three short apical bris- 
tles, one of which may be longer than others. Spermatheca (SP. and fig. 15) with 
tail at least one and one-half times as long as body; body usually sharply rounded 
dorsally near insertion of tail; body and apical half of tail pigmented. Bursa 
copulatrix (B.C. ) sinuate, narrow; ductus obturatus (D.O.) with basal third 
as thick as bursa, apical two-thirds narrow. 

LENGTH: 5.0mm. 

Tiarapsylla titschacki Wagner, 1937 
(figs. 14, 18) 

Tiarapsylla titschacki Wagner, 1937, Zeits. Parasit. 9:709, figs. 9 - 15. 

Wagner, 1939, Aphanipt.:76, fig. 76. 

TYPE DATA. - Type series: one male, two females ex "vizchaca”, Peru: 
Tayapampa (Dept, of La Libertad, Tayabamba?), about 4,Q00m., 13 
April 1936, E. Titschack collector. 

new records. - One female ex Lagidium peruanum subsp., Peru: Dept, 
of Puno, Picotani, 14 Sept. 1941, C. C. Sanborn collector; in the collec- 


198 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


tion of Robert Traub. One female ibid, but ex Lagidium peruanum 
inca, Dept, of Junin, Capillsa, 22 kilom. from Carhuamayo, 16,000 ft., 
19 Feb. 1946; in the collections of the Chicago Natural History Museum. 
DIAGNOSIS. - Separable from Tiarapsylla argentina Jordan, 1942 by 
lacking complete lateral row of mesonotal pseudosetas and by presence 
of long bristles apically on second antennal segment. Distinct from 
T. bella n. sp. by characters given above in the diagnosis of the species. 


HEAD (fig. 14) : Helmet comb with markedly sinuate margin; the spines num- 
bering 10-12 (11-12 in the type specimens; present specimen from Puno 
with 11 spines on one side, 10 on the other; Junin specimen with 12 spines on 
both sides). Most ventral spine of helmet comb set very near ventral margin 
of helmet, distance from this margin to ventral comb spine less than one-half 
width of base of this spine. Small bristles posterior to helmet comb present 
opposite dorsal three or four spines of helmet comb. Genal comb of five or 
six spines, the spines proportionately shorter and more squared apically than 
in T. bella n. sp. Flange of second antennal segment not covering more than 
basal segment of club. 

THORAX: Pronotal comb of 22 - 24 spines in all (specimens at hand with 22 - 
23 spines). Remainder of thorax as in T. bella n. sp.; generally with somewhat 
fewer bristles. 

LEGS and ABDOMEN with chaetotaxy similar to T. bella n. sp. 

MODIFIED SEGMENTS, FEMALE: very similar to T. bella n. sp. Two or three 
antesensilial bristles (Puno specimen with three on both sides; Junin specimen 
with three on one side, two on the other.). Eighth tergum with vertical row 
of bristles below spiracle doubled part of its length and with several bristles 
scattered over an area between this row and the apical clump of bristles present 
on posterior margin just ventrad to vental anal lobe. Spermatheca body (fig. 18) 
with dorsal margin broadly rounded or somewhat concave near insertion of tail; 
tail not more than one and one-half times as long as body. 

LENGTHS. - Junin female 3.7mm.; Puno female 4.4mm. 


DESCRIPTION 


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 


A.A.R. Aedeagal apodemal rod 

A.B. Antesensilial bristle. 

AE. A. Aedeagal apodeme. 

A. S. Anal stylet, female. 

B. C. Bursa copulatrix. 

CR. Crochet. 

P. A.L. Dorsal anal lobe. 


PL.A. Pleural arch. 
P.R. Penis rod. 

PRN. Pronotum. 

PS.S. Pseudosetas. 

SN. Sensilium. 


SP. D. Spermathecal duct. 

SQ. Squamulum. 


Dec., 1954] 


Johnson: Fleas 


199 


D.A.9 

Distal arm of ninth ster- 
num, male. 

D.O. 

Ductus obturatus, female. 

E.F. 

Proepisternal flange. 

EP.R. - 1 

Mesepisternal rod. 

F. 

Movable finger of clasp- 
er, male. 

FU. -I 

Mesosternal furca. 

L.M. 

Lateral metanotal area. 

MB. 

Manubrium of clasper, 
male. 

MPM. 

Mesepimere. 

MPS. 

Mesepisternum. 

MSN. 

Mesonotum. 

MST. 

Mesosternum. 

MTM. 

Metepimere. 

MTN. 

Metanotum. 

MTS. 

Metepisternum. 

MTT. 

Metasternum. 

P. 

Immovable process of 
clasper, male. 

PEG. 

Peg of crochet, aedeagus. 


T.AP.9 

Tergal apodeme of 

seg- 

V.A.L. 

IT. 

ment nine, male. 
Ventral anal lobe. 

First abdominal tergum. 

2T. 

Second abdominal 

ter- 

3T. 

gum. 

Third abdominal tergum. 

4T. 

Fourth abdominal 

ter- 

7S. 

gum. 

Seventh abdominal 

ster- 

7T. 

num. 

Seventh abdominal 

ter- 

8S. 

gum. 

Eighth abdominal 

ster- 

8T. 

num. 

Eighth abdominal 

ter- 

9S. 

gum. 

Ninth abdominal 

ster- 

9T. 

num. 

Ninth abdominal 

ter- 


gum. 


200 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


PLATE VII 

Fig. 1 Myodopsylla setosa n. sp.: Head and prothorax, holotype 
Fig. 2 Ibid.: Distal arm of ninth sternum and crochet, holotype. 

Fig. 3 M. wolff sohni subsp.: Abdominal terga 1-3, male. 

Fig. 4 Ibid.: Distal arm of ninth sternum and crochet, male. 

Fig. 5 M. isidori (Weyenbergh, 1881): Abdominal terga 1-3, male. 

Fig. 6 M. setosa n. sp.: Abdominal terga 1-4, holotype. 

Fig. 7 M. isidori (Weyenbergh, 1881): Distal arm of ninth sternum and 
crochet, male. 

Fig. 8 M. setosa n. sp. : Meso - and metathorax, holotype. 


'W\\ 


Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol LXII 


Plate VII 



-MTT. 


202 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


PLATE VIII 

Fig. 9 Myodopsylla isidori (Wegenberg, 1881): Process and movable finger 
of clasper, male. 

Fig. 10 M. setosa n. sp.: Modified segments, holotype. 

Fig. 11 M. wolffsohni subsp.: Process and movable finger of clasper, male. 
Fig. 12 M. setosa n. sp.: Modified segments, allotype. 

Fig. 13 Ibid.: Process and movable finger of clasper, holotype. 


Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. LXII 


Plate VIII 



rs. 


12 


13 


204 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


PLATE IX 


Fig. 14 Tiarapsylla titschacki Wagner, 1937 : Head and prothorax, female 
Fig. 15 T. bella n. sp.: Spermatheca, holotype. 

Fig. 16 Ibid.: Head and prothorax, holotype. 

Fig. 17 Ibid.: Modified segments, holotype. 

Fig. 18 T. titschacki Wagner, 1937: Spermatheca. 

Fig. 19 T. bella n. sp. : Meso - and metathorax, holotype. 


Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. LXII 


Plate IX 



206 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


THE SOUTHWESTERN RESEARCH STATION 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OE NATURAL HISTORY 

The American Museum of Natural History has announced the 
establishment of The Southwestern Research Station. It is located on 
the eastern slope of the Chiricahua Mountains, near Portal, Cochise 
County, in southeastern Arizona. The property is within the limits of 
the Coronado National Forest at an elevation of 5400 feet. 

The station was established for the purpose of making available 
research facilities for scientists and students in all branches of science, 
who have problems that can be investigated through the utilization of 
the faunal, floral and geological features of the area. It will be open 
during the entire year. 

It is operated by the American Museum of Natural History, Central 
Park West at 79th Street, New York 24, New York and under the 
direction of Dr. Mont A. Cazier, Chairman and Curator of the Depart- 
ment of Insects and Spiders, to whom all inquiries should be addressed. 
Anyone interested in the station should write to the above named 
individual for the booklet which gives the details of the operation and 
a general description of the area. — F. A. S. 


207 


Dec., 1954] De La Torre: Rhopalocera 

AN ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BUTTERFLIES AND 
SKIPPERS OF CUBA (LEPIDOPTERA, RHOPALOCERA) 

By Salvador Luis de la Torre y Callejas 
Professor of Zoology 

Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba 

(Continued from Vol. LXII, No. 3) 

108. marpesia MARIUS (Cramer) 

Paptlio marius Cramer, (not Stoll), 1779 (See Brown, 1941: 130). 
Marpesia chiron : Gundlach, 1881: 35; Comstock, 1944: 463; Avinoff 
& Shoumatoff, 1946: 280; Munroe, 1951: 56. 

Athena ( Timetes ) chiron : Hoffmann, 1933: 236. 

Athena chiron : Bates, 1935: 171; Field, 1938b: 93; Holland, 1942. 

162; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 23, 39. 

Timetes chiron : Hoffmann, 1940c: 687; Brown, 1945: 42. 

Marpesia marius : d’Almeida, 1941: 312; S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 

190 . 

We adopt the name Marpesia marius Cr. seeing that Papilio chiron 
Fabr., 1775, is homonymous with Papilio chiron Rott., 1775. 
Illustrations. — Bates, 1935: f. 2, (outline of wing); Holland, 1942: 
pi. XXI, f. 4; Comstock, 1944: pi. 7, f. 7; Oiticica Filho, 1946: 
f. 8, 9, (genital). 

109. MARPESIA ELEUCHEA ELEUCHEA Hiibner 
Marpesia eleuchea Hiibner, 1818; Comstock, 1944: 462. 

Marpesia eleucha : Gundlach, 1881: 35. 

Timetes eleucha\ Holland, 1916: 493. 

Athena eleuchea eleuchea : Bates, 1935: 172; Bruner, Scaramuzza & 
Otero, 1945: 76, 78. 

Megalura eleucha\ Hall, 1936: 277. 

Genus Hypolimnas Hiibner 
Hypolimnas Hiibner, 1821. 

Diadema Boisduval, 1832; preoccupied in Crustacea. 

Genotype: Papilio pipleis Linnaeus, 1758 (= S Papilio pandarus L, 
1758). 


208 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


110. hypolimnas MISIPPUS (Linnaeus) 

Papilio misippus Linnaeus, 1764. 

Hypolimnas misippus : Gundlach, 1881: 42; Bates, 1935: 172; Hall, 
1936: 277; Holland, 1942: 145; Comstock, 1944: 463; J. A. Ramos, 
1946: 53; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 282. 

Hypolimnas missipus : M. Sanchez Roig & G. S. Villalba, 1934b: 33. 
Hypolimnas missippus : Beatty, 1944: 156. 

Hypolimnas misippus misippus: Munroe, 1951: 56. 

Illustrations. — M. Sanchez Roig. & G. S. Villalba, 1934b: f. 5; Holland, 
1942: pi. XXI, f. 9, 10; Comstock, 1944: pi. 7, f. 4, ( $ ), f. 13, 
( d). 

Genus Historis Hiibner 
Hist oris Hiibner, 1819: 35. 

Coea Hiibner, 1819: 48. 

Aganisthos Boisduval & Leconte, 1836?. 

Genotype: Papilio odius Fabricius, 1775. 

111. HISTORIS ODIUS ODIUS (Fabricius) 

Papilio odius Fabricius, 1775. 

Aganisthos odius : Gundlach, 1881: 68; Holland, 1916: 493. 

Historis odius odius: Bates, 1935: 173; Comstock, 1944: 464; Bru- 
ner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 35; S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 64. 
Historis odius: Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 282. 

Illustration. — Comstock, 1944: pi. 8, f. 1. 

112. HISTORIS ACHERONTA SEMELE (Bates) 

Coea acheronta semele Bates, 1939: 4. 

Megistanis acheronta: Gundlach, 1881: 36. 

Coea acheronta: Bates, 1935: 173. 

Historis acheronta semele: Comstock, 1944: 467; S. L. de la Torre, 
1952: 64. 

This subspecies was described by Marston Bates in 1939 (See 
Memorias Sociedad Cubana de Hist. Nat., vol. XIII, p. 4). 
Illustration. — Comstock, 1944: pi. 6, f. 2. 

Genus Colobura Billberg 
Colobura Billberg, 1820. 

Gynoecia Doubleday, 1844. 


Dec., 1954] 


De La Torre: Rhopalocera 


209 


Gynaecia Doubleday, 1850. 

Genotype: Papilio clirce Linnasus, 1758. 

113. COLOBURA DIRCE CLEMENTI Comstock 

Colobura dirce Clementi W. P. Comstock, 1942d: 284; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1949c: 184. 

Gynaecia dirce : Gundlach, 1881: 48; id., 1891: 448. 

Colobura dirce : Bates, 1935: 174; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 
35; Alayo, 1950: 97. 

This subspecies was described by Wm. P. Comstock in 1942 (See 
Journal N. Y. Ent. Soc., vol. L, p. 284). 

Illustration. — Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: pi. V, f. 3, (larva). 
Genus Lucinia Hiibner 

Lucinia Hiibner, 1823. 

Genotype: Lucinia sida Hiibner, 1823. 

114. LUCINIA SIDA Hiibner 

Lucinia sida Hiibner, 1823; Gundlach, 1881: 69; Bates, 1935: 175; 

Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 70. 

Lucinia cadma : Holland, 1916: 492; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 
281. 

Genus Eunica Hiibner 

Evonyme Hiibner, 1819: 61. 

Eunica Hiibner, 1819: 61. 

Eaunia Poey, 1847; preoccupied in Diptera. 

Genotype: Papilio monima Stoll, 1784. 

The name Evonyme precedes Eunica on page 61 of Hiibner’s Ver- 
zeichniss, but we use the second name considering that this name has 
been used during a century in almost all books upon butterflies. 

115. EUNICA TATILA TATILISTA Kaye 

Eunica tatila tatilista Kaye, 1926; Comstock, 1942d: 287; id., 1944: 
469; Beatty, 1944: 156; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 280; S. L. 
de la Torre, 1952: 69. 

Eunica tatila : Gundlach, 1881: 50; Holland, 1942: 158. 


210 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


Eunica tatila tatila : Bates, 1935: 176. 

Illustrations. — Holland, 1942: pi. LIX, f. 29; Comstock, 1944: pi. 
7, f. 2. 

116. EUNICA MONIMA (Stoll) 

Papilio monima Stoll (not Cramer), 1784 (See Brown, 1941: 130). 
Eunica monima : Gundlach, 1881: 51; Hoffmann, 1940c: 684; Hol- 
land, 1942: 158; Comstock, 1944: 469; Brown, 1945: 39; J. A. 
Ramos, 1946: 53; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 280; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1952: 69. 

Eunica monima modesta : Hoffmann, 1933: 237. 

Eunica monima habanae : Bates, 1935: 176. 

Evonyme monima : Orfila, 1951: 52. 

According to Comstock (1944: 469), there are no important dif- 
ferences among the specimens of Mexico, Central- America, Venezuela, 
Brazil, Porto Rico, Hispaniola and Cuba, so that we must not divide 
the species monima into subspecies. 

Illustrations.— Holland, 1942: pi. XXI, f. 7, 8; Comstock, 1944: pi. 
7, f. 3. 

117. EUNICA PUSILLA FAIRCHILDI Bates 

Eunica pusilla fairchildi Bates, 1935: 177; Bruner, 1947: 28. 

118. EUNICA MACRIS HERACLITUS EschscholtZ 
Eunica heraclitus : Gundlach, 1881: 52. 

Eunica macris heraclitus : Bates, 1935: 177. 

Genus Dynamine Hiibner 
Dynamine Hiibner, 1819. 

Genotype: Papilio mylitta Cramer, 1779. 

119. DYNAMINE EGJEA CALAIS Bates 

Dynamine egcea Calais Bates, 1936: 226; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 
1945: 142. 

Dynamine serina: Gundlach, 1881: 47. 

Dynamine egcea zetes?\ Bates, 1935: 178. 

This subspecies was described by Marston Bates in 1936 (See Mem. 
Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat, vol. IX, p. 226). 


Dec, 1954] 


De La Torre: Rhopalocera 


211 


120. DYN AMINE MYLITTA BIPUPILLATA Rober 
Dynamine mylitta ab. bipupillata Rober in Seitz, 1915. 

Dynamine postvertcr. Gundlach, 1881: 46. 

Dynamine mylitta bipupillata : Bates, 1935: 179. 

Genus Hamadryas Hiibner 

Hamadryas Hiibner, 1806. 

Ageronia Hiibner, 1819. 

Genotype: Papilio amphinome Linnaeus, 1767. 

121. HAMADRYAS AMPHINOME MEXICAN A (Lucas) 

Peridromia mexicana Lucas, 1853. 

Ageronia amphinome mexicana : Hoffmann, 1933: 239; id, 1940c: 
686; Bates, 1936: 227; Brown, 1945: 42; Bruner, 1947: 27. 
Hamadryas amphinome mexicana : S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65. 

This species was reported by M. Bates in 1936 (See Memorias 
Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat, vol. IX, p. 227). 

Illustration. — Bates, 1936: f. 1. 

122. HAMADRYAS ferox diasia ( Fruhstorfer ) 

Ageronia ferox diasia Fruhstorfer, 1916. 

Ageronia februa? : Hoffmann, 1933: 238; id, 1940c: 685. 

Ageronia ferentina diasia : Bates, 1936: 228; Bruner, 1947: 27. 
Ageronia februa februa ?: Berger, 1939: 199. 

Ageronia feronia: Holland, 1942: 161. 

Hamadryas ferox diasia : Comstock, 1944: 471; J. A. Ramos, 1946: 
53; S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65. 

This species was reported by M. Bates, in 1936 (See Memorias 
Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat, vol. IX, p. 228). 

Illustrations.— Holland, 1942: pi. XXIV, f. 4; Comstock, 1944: pi. 
6, f. 10. 

Genus Doxocopa Hiibner 

Doxocopa Hiibner, 1819. 

Chlorippe "Boisduval” Doubleday, 1844. 

Genotype: Papilio agathina Cramer, 17 — . 

123. doxocopa laure druryi (Hiibner) 


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New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


Catargyria druryi Hiibner, 182 — . 

Apatura druryi : Gundlach, 1881: 61. 

Doxocopa laure druryi : Bates, 1935: 180; Bruner, Scaramuzza & 
Otero, 1945: 31; S. L. de la Torre, 1946b: 121. 

Genus Limenitis Fabricius 

Najas Hiibner, 1806. 

Limenitis Fabricius, 1807. 

Limonetes Billberg, 1820. 

Nymph alus Boitard, 1828. 

Nymph a Krause, 1839. 

Basilarchia Scudder, 1872. 

Parathyma Moore, 1898. 

Genotype: Papilio populi Linnaeus, 1758. 

The name Najas Hbn., which was published in the "Tentamen” in 
1806, is invalid in Opinion 97 of the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature. 

According to R. Chermock (1950: 536), Adelpha Hbn., 1819, is 
a subgenus of Limenitis, and the name Heterochroa Boisd., 1836, is 
considered as a synonym of Adelpha. 

12 4. limenitis (limenitis) archippus floridensis (Strecker) 
? archippus floridensis Strecker, 1878. 

Basilarchia floridensis : J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 
173; Holland, 1942: 165. 

Basilarchia archippus floridensis : Field, 1938b: 58. 

Limenitis archippus floridensis : R. L. Chermock, 1947: 1; id., 1950: 
566; S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65; id., 1949c: 181. 

This species was captured by Mr. Jose Cabrera in Cotorro, Havana 
province, on August 7, 1933, and reported in March, 1934, under 
the name Basilarchia missippus (L.) (See Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat., 
vol. VIII, p. 34). 

Illustrations. — J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: pi. XXVIII, 
f. 4; Holland, 1942: pi. LXXIII, f. 1, 2; Chermock, 1950: f. 30, 
(genital) . 


Dec., 1954] 


De La Torre: Rhopalocera 


213 


125. limenitis (adelpha) iphicla iphimedia ( Fruhstorfer ) 

Adelpha iphicla iphimedia Fruhstorfer, 1915; Bates, 1935: 180; Bru- 
ner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 27. 

Adelpha basilea : Gundlach, 1881: 29. 

Adelpha iphicla : Holland, 1916: 493. 

Genus Asterocampa Rober 

Asterocampa Rober, 1916. 

Celtiphaga Barnes & Lindsey, 1922. 

Genotype: Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte, 1833). 

126. ASTEROCAMPA ARGUS IDYJA (Geyer) 

Doxocopa idyja Geyer, 1828; Gundlach, 1881: 62. 

Asterocampa lycaon idyja : Bates, 1935: 181; Bruner, Scaramuzza & 
Otero, 1945: 126. 

Asterocampa argus idyja : Comstock, 1944: 473; S. L. de la Torre, 
1952: 64. 

Illustration. — Comstock, 1944: pi. 7, f. 9. 

Genus Prepona Boisduval 
Prepona Boisduval, 1836. 

Genotype: Nymphalis demodice Godart, 1821 (= Morpho omphale 
Hbn., 1819) 

127. PREPONA ANTIMACHE CRASSINA Fruhstorfer 

Prepona antimache crassina Fruhstorfer, 1904; Bates, 1935: 182; 

Comstock, 1944: 475. 

Prepona amphitoe : Gundlach, 1881: 33. 

Genus Siderone Hiibner 

Siderone Hiibner, 1823. 

Genotype: Siderone ide Hiibner, 1823. 

128. SIDERONE NEMESIS (Illiger) 

Papilio nobilis nemesis Illiger, 1801. 

Siderone nemesis : Gundlach, 1881: 32; Hoffmann, 1933: 240; id., 


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1940c: 691; Comstock, 1944: 475. 

Siderone ide\ Holland, 1916: 493. 

Sdierone nemesis nemesis'. Bates, 1935: 182; Bruner, Scaramuzza & 
Otero, 1945: 31; Bruner, 1947: 28; Munroe, 1951: 56. 

Illustration. — Comstock, 1944: pi. 7, f. 10. 

Genus Hypna Hiibner 

Hypna Hiibner, 1819. 

Genotype: Papilio clytemnestra Cramer, 1779. 

According to Johnson and Comstock (See Journal N. Y. Ent. Soc., 
vol. XLIX, p. 331), we separate the genera Hypna and Anaea on 
account of the differences that exist in the genitals of their species. 

129. HYPNA CLYTEMNESTRA IPHIGENIA Lucas 

Hypna clytemnestra var. iphigenia Lucas, 1857; Gundlach, 1881: 33. 
Hypna iphigenia : Hall, 1917: 173. 

Anaea clytemnestra iphigenia : Bates, 1935: 183. 

Hypna clytemnestra iphigenia : Johnson & Comstock, 1941: 331; S. 
L. de la Torre, 1952: 64. 

Genus Ancea Hiibner 

Paphia Fabricius, 1807; preoccupied in Mollusca. 

Ancea Hiibner, 1819. 

Memphis Hiibner, 1819. 

Corycia Hiibner, 1825; preoccupied in the family Noctuidae. 

Cymato gramma Doubleday, 1849. 

Pyrrh anaea Schatz, 1892. 

Genotype: Papilio troglodyta Fabricius, 1775. 

130. AN/EA AIDEA CUBANA (Druce) 

Perrhancea cuhana Druce, 1905. 

Ancea troglodyta : Gundlach, 1881: 30. 

Ancea troglodyta cubana : Bates, 1935: 183. 

Ancea aidea cubana\ Johnson & Comstock, 1941: 307; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1952: 64. 

Illustrations. — Johnson & Comstock, 1941: pi. IX, f. 8, 9, (genital), 
pi. XII, Map 1. 


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215 


131. ANJEA ECHEMUS (Westwood & Hewitson) 

Cymatogramma echemus Westwood & Hewitson, 1850 (See Brown, 

1941: 133). 

Ancea echemus'. Gundlach, 1881: 31; Johnson & Comstock, 1941: 
328; S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 64. 

Ancea echemus'. Gundlach, 1881: 31; Johnson & Comstock, 1941: 
328; S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 64. 

Ancea verticordia echemus'. Bates, 1935: 185. 

Illustrations. — Bates, 1935: f. 13, (venation); Johnson & Comstock, 
1941: pi. XI, f. 42, 43, (genital), pi. XII, Map 3; S. L. de la Torre, 
1951c: f. 2, p. 337. 

132. an/ea echemus f. aguayoi S. L. Torre 

Anaea echemus f. aguayoi S. L. de la Torre, 1951c: 336; id., 1952: 
64. 

This form was described by the writer in 1951 (See Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Washington, vol. 53, p. 336). 

Illustration. — S. L. de la Torre, 1951c: f. 1, p. 337. 

Family LlBYTHEIDAi 
Subfamily LlBYTHElNAE 

Genus Libytheana Michener 

Libytheana Michener, 1943: 1. 

Genotype: Libythea bachmanii Kirtland, 1852. 

New genus created by Dr. C. D. Michener in 1943 for the Ameri- 
can species of the family Libytheidce, which heretofore had been 
placed, together with the species of the Old World, into the genus 
Libythea Fabricius, 1807 (See American Museum Novitates, No. 
1232 ). 

133. libytheana motya (Hiibner) 

Hecaerge motya Hiibner, 1823. 

Libythea terena\ Gundlach, 1881: 70. 

Libythea carinenta motya-. Bates, 1935: 186; S. L. de la Torre, 1946: 
106. 

Libythea motya\ Field, 1938b: 130. 


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Libytheana motya : Michener, 1943b: 1; Comstock, 1944: 483; S. L. 
de la Torre, 1949c: 179. 

Illustrations. — Bates, 1935: f. 14, (venation); S. L. de la Torre, 
1946: pi. 10, f. 63-67, (scales). 

134. LIBYTHEANA BACHMANII BACHMANII (Kirtland) 

Libythea bachmanir. Clark, 1932: 128; Garth, 1950: 29. 

Libythea carinenta bachmani : M. Sanchez Roig & G. S. Villalba, 1934: 
110; id., 1934b: 33. 

Libythea bachmani'. Fazzini, 1934: 36. 

Hypatus bachmanir. J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 210. 
Libythea bachmanii bachmanir. Field, 1938: 124; id., 1938b: 131. 
Libythea bachmannr. Holland, 1942: 210. 

Libytheana bachmanir. Michener, 1943b: 1; Comstock, 1944: 482. 
Libytheana bachmanii bachmanii'. Breland, 1948: 128; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1949: 65; id., 1949c: 179. 

This species was captured in June, 1933 by Dr. M. Sanchez Roig 
and G. S. Villalba in "La Lisa”, Havana prov. (See Mem. Soc. Cub. 
Hist. Nat., vol. VIII, p. 110). 

Illustrations. — Clark, 1932: pi. 6, f. 2, 3; Fazzini, 1934: p. 26, fig. 
not numbered; M. Sanchez Roig & Villalba, 1934b: f. 4; J. H. 
Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: text fig. 38; Holland, 1942: 
pi. V, f. 23, 24, (chrysalis), pi. XXVIII, f. 1, 2; Michener, 1943b: 
f. 4-6, (chrysalis). 


Family RlODiNIM 
Subfamily RiODlNlN^ 

Genus Apodemia Felder & Felder 

Apodemia Felder & Felder, 1865. 

Genotype: Lemonias tnormo Felder & Felder, 1859. 

135. APODEMIA CARTERI RAMSDENI (Skinner) 
Mesosemia remsdeni Skinner, 1912. 

Apodemia carteri ramsdenr. Bates, 1935: 187. 
Illustration. — Comstock, 1944: text fig. 12, (venation). 


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Family Lycaenidae 

Subfamily Theclin^e 

Genus Eum^eus Hiibner 

Etimceus Hiibner, 1819. 

Eumenia Godart, 1824. 

Genotype: Rusticus Adolescens minijas Hiibner, 1809. 

136. EUMzEUS ATALA ATALA (Poey) 

Eumenia atala Poey, 1832. 

Eumaeus atala : Gundlach, 1881: 80; Holland, 1916: 494; Showalter, 
1927: 111; Bates, 1935: 189; Dethier, 1941: 75; Bruner, Scara- 
muzza & Otero, 1945: 63, 111, 188. 

Eumceus atala atala : Comstock & Huntington, 1943: 59. 

Illustrations. — Poey: 3 figs, not numbered; Showalter, 1927: pi. 7, 
f. 2; Dethier, 1941: pi. V, f. 4, (head of larva), pi. VI, f. 9, 10, 
(Clypeus of larva); Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: pi. VI, f. 
6, (larva), pi. VIII, f. 1. 

Genus Thecla Fabricius 
Theda Fabricius, 1807. 

Genotype: Papilio betulce Linnaeus, 1758. 

The species Theda favonius ( —Strymon favonius) , included by 
Bates (1935: 193) and by Holland (1916: 495), and Theda tollus 
(=Strymon tollus ) noted by Bates on page 237 as doubtful, are not 
found in Cuba. 

137. THECLA cgelebs Herrich-Schaffer 

Theda coelebs Herrich-Schaffer, 1862; Gundlach, 1881: 74; Comstock 
& Huntington, 1943: 61; Comstock, 1944: 485; S. L. de la Torre, 
1949c: 187. 

Strymon coelebs : Bates, 1935: 192; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 
1945: 176. 

Strymon tollus : Bates, 1935: 237. 

138. THECLA martialis Herrich-Schaffer 

Theda martialis Herrich-Schaffer, 1864; Gundlach, 1881: 76: Holland, 
1916: 495; id., 1942: 236; Showalter, 1927: 111; Comstock & 


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Huntington, 1943: 68; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 285; S. L. 
de la Torre, 1949c: 187. 

Strymon martialis : Bates, 1935: 192. 

Illustration. — Showalter, 1927: pi. VII, f. 11. 

139. THECLA ACIS CASASI Comstock & Huntington 

Tbecla acis casasi Comstock & Huntington, 1943: 66; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1949c: 187. 

Strymon acts : Bates, 1935: 192. 

This subspecies was described by Comstock and Huntington in 
1943 (See Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci, vol. XLV, p. 66). 

Illustration. — Comstock & Huntington, 1943: pi. I, f. 1. 

140. THECLA SIM^THIS SIM^THIS (Drury) 

Papilio simcethis Drury, 1770. 

Thecla simcethis: Gundlach, 1881: 79; Hoffman, 1940c: 716; Holland, 
1942: 232. 

Strymon simcethis'. Bates, 1935: 193; Hall, 1936: 277. 

Theda simcethis simcethis'. Berger, 1939: 202; Comstock & Hunting- 
ton, 1943: 73; Comstock, 1944: 488; Beatty, 1944: 157; S. L. de 
la Torre, 1949c: 187. 

Illustrations. — Comstock & Huntington, 1943: pi. I, f. 6; Comstock, 
1944: pi. 9, f. 12. 

141. THECLA MA3SITES m^esites Herrich-Schaffer 
Theda mce sites Herrich-Schaffer, 1864; Gundlach, 1881: 80. 
Strymon mce sites : Bates, 1935: 194; Clench, 1941: 1. 

Theda mcesites mcesites\ Comstock & Huntington, 1943: 72; Comstock, 
1944: 487; S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 187. 

Illustration. — Comstock, 1944: pi. 9, f. 6. 

142. THECLA CELIDA CELIDA Lucas 
Theda celida Lucas, 1857; Gundlach, 1881: 79. 

Strymon celida : Bates, 1935: 194. 

Theda celida celida: Comstock & Huntington, 1943: 75; Comstock, 
1944: 489; S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 187. 

143. THECLA COLUMELLA CYBIRA HewitSOn 
Thecla cyhira Hewitson, 1874; Gundlach, 1881: 77. 


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Thecla columella : Holland, 1916: 495. 

Strymon columella : Bates, 1935: 194 (in part). 

Thecla columella cybira : Comstock & Huntington, 1943: 81; Avinoff 
& Shoumatoff, 1946: 285; S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 187. 
Illustrations. — Bates, 1935: f. 15, (venation); Comstock & Huntington, 
1943: pi. I, f. 15. 

144. THECLA LIMENIA Hewitson 

Thecla limenia Hewitson, 1868; Gundlach, 1881: 77; Comstock & 
Huntington, 1943: 86; Comstock, 1944: 491; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 
1946:285; S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65; id. 1949c: 187. 

Strymon columella : Bates, 1935: 194 (in part). 

Illustration. — Comstock, 1944: pi. 9, f. 8. 

145. THECLA ANGELIA ANGELIA Hewitson 
Thecla angelia Hewitson, 1874; Gundlach, 1881: 78. 

Strymuon angelia: Bates, 1935: 195. 

Strymon favonius : Bates, 1935: 193. 

Thecla angelia angelia: Comstock & Huntington, 1943: 68; Corn- 
stock, 1944: 487; S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 187. 

146. THECLA BAZOCHII GUNDLACHIANUS (Bates) 

Strymon gundlachianus Bates, 1935: 195. 

Thecla sp.: Gundlach, 1881: 441. 

Thecla bazochii gundlachianus: Comstock & Huntington, 1943: 89; 
S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 187. 

Subfamily Plebejince 
Genus Hemiargus Hiibner 
Hemiargus Hiibner, 1818. 

Genotype: Hemiargus antibubastus Hiibner, 1818 ( = Hemiargus hanno 
antibubastus Hiibner). 

147. HEMIARGUS HANNO FILENUS (Poey) 

Polyommatus filenus Poey, 1832. 

Cupido hanno: Gundlach, 1881: 71. 

Lycaena hanno: Holland, 1916: 495. 

Hemiargus filenus: Bates, 1935: 196: Dethier, 1940: 24. 


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Hemiargus hanno filenus : Comstock & Huntington, 1943: 108; 
Comstock, 1944: 498. 

Illustrations. — Poey, 1832: 3 figs, not numbered; Bates, 1935: f. 16, 
(venation). 

148. HEMIARGUS AMMON AMMON (Lucas) 

Lycaena ammon Lucas, 1857; Holland, 1916: 495. 

Cupido ammon : Gudlach, 1881: 72. 

Hemiargus ammon-. Bates, 1935: 197; Clench, 1941b: 407; Bruner, 
Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 24. 

Hemiargus ammon ammon\ Comstock & Huntington, 1943: 95; Com- 
stock, 1944: 495. 

Illustration. — Comstock & Huntington, 1943: pi. 1, f. 22. 

Genus Brephidium Scudder 

Brephidium Scudder, 1876. 

Genotype: Lyccena exilis Boisduval, 1852. 

149. brephidium exilis isqphthalma (Herrich-Schaffer) 
Lyccena isophthalma Herrich-Schaffer, 1862. 

Cupido isophthalma : Gundlach, 1881: 74. 

Brephidium isophthalma-. Bates, 1935: 198; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 
1946: 287 

Brephidium exilis isophthalma : Comstock & Huntington, 1943: 110. 
Genus Leptotes Scudder 

Leptotes Scudder, 1876. 

Genotype: Lyccena theonus Lucas, 1857. 

150. LEPTOTES CASSIUS THEONUS (Lucas) 

Lyccena theonus Lucas, 1857; Holland, 1916: 495. 

Cupido cassius: Gundlach, 1881: 73. 

Leptotes cassius-. Bruner, 1935: 41. 

Leptotes theonus : Bates, 1935: 198; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 
1945: 93, 135. 

Lycaena theona’. Holland, 1942: 272. 

Leptotus cassius theonus-. Clench, 1942: 244; Comstock & Huntington, 
1943: 92; Comstock, 1944: 493; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946:286. 


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221 


Illustrations. — Bruner, 1935: pi. 2, f. 6; Comstock & Huntington, 
1943: pi. 1, f. 26, 27; Comstock, 1944; text fig. 15, (venation), 
pi. 9, f. 16. 

Superfamily HESPERIOIDEA 

Family HESPERIKXE 
Subfamily PYRGIN/E 

Genus Phocides Hiibner 

Phocides Hiibner, 1819: 103. 

Erycides Hiibner, 1819: 110. 

Dysenius Scudder, 1872: 67. 

Genotype: Phocides cruentus Hiibner, 1819 {—Papilio p demon 
Cramer, 1777; homonym of Papilio palaemon Pallas, 1771). 

151. PHOCIDES BATABANO BATABANO (Lucas) 

Eudamus hatahano Lucas, 1857. 

Erycides hatahano : Gundlach, 1881: 171. 

Phocides hatahano : Holland, 1916: 501; id., 1942: 327; Sinner & 
Ramsden, 1923: 308. 

Phocides hatahano hatahano : Bates, 1935: 202. 

Illustrations. — Holland, 1942: text fig. 163, (neuration), pi. XLIX, 
f. 1. 

Genus Chioides Lindsey 
Chioides Lindsey, 1921. 

Genotype: Eudamus alhofasciatus Hewitson, 1867. 

152. CHIOIDES MARMOROSA (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Goniurus marmorosa Herrich-Schaffer, 1865; Gundlach, 1881: 171; 
Bates, 1935: 203. 

Eudamus marmorosa'. Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 308. 

Chioides marmorosa'. S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 182. 

Genus Urhanus Hiibner 

Urhanus Hiibner, 1807. 

Goniurus Hiibner, 1819. 

Eudamus Swainson, 1831. 

Genotype: Papilio proteus Linnaeus, 1758. 


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153. URBANUS DORANTES SANTIAGO (Lucas) 

Eudam,us Santiago Lucas, 1857; Holland, 1916: 500; Skinner & 
Ramsden, 1923: 308. 

Goniurus Santiago : Gundlach, 1881: 170. 

Goniurus dor antes Santiago : Bates, 1935: 204. 

Goniurus dor antes: Dethier, 1942: 4. 

Urbanus dorantes Santiago : Comstock, 1944: 547: S. L. de la Torre, 
1949c: 181. 

Illustration. — Holland, 1916: pi. 31, f. 6. 

154. urbanus proteus (Linnaeus) 

Papilio proteus Linnaeus, 1758. 

Goniurus proteus : Gundlach, 1881: 169; Showalter, 1927: 113; 
Clark, 1932: 252; Fazzini, 1934: 59; Bates, 1935: 204; Bruner, 
1935: 40; d’Almeida, 1944c: 50. 

Eudamus proteus : Holland, 1916: 500; id., 1942: 331; Skinner & 
Ramsden, 1923: 308; J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 292. 
Goniurus ( Eudamus ) proteus : Hoffmann, 1933: 242. 

Urbanus proteus proteides : Hall, 1936: 277. 

Eudamus proteus proteus : Berger, 1939: 203. 

Urbanus proteus proteus : Schweizer & Webster Kay, 1941: 20. 
Urbanus proteus: Hoffmann, 1941: 242; Comstock, 1944: 545; 
Beatty, 1944: 158; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 132, 136; 
Bell, 1946: 78; J. A. Ramos, 1946: 54; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 
1946: 287; S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 181; Miles Moss, 1949: 40; 
Munroe, 1951: 55. 

Illustrations. — Showalter, 1927: pi. 8, f. 10; Clark, 1932: pi. 50, 
f. 1, 2; Fazzini, 1934: p. 59, fig. not numbered; Bruner, 1935: 
pi. 2, f. 8; J. H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: pi. XLIV, 
f. 1; Holland, 1942: pi. II, f. 34, pi. VI, f. 23, pi. XLV, f. 6; 
d’Almeida, 1944c: pi. 3, f. 4, (larva); Miles Moss, 1949: pi. Ill, 
f. 12, (larva). 

Genus Proteides Hiibner 
Proteides Hiibner, 1819: 104. 

Epargyreus Hiibner, 1819: 105. 

Dicranaspis Mabille, 1872. 

Genotype: Papilio mercurius Fabricius, 1787. 


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155. PROTEIDES (epargyreus) exadeus maysi (Lucas) 

Eudamus maysi Lucas, 1857. 

Goniloba maysi: Gundlach, 1881: 156. 

Epargyreus maysi: Holland, 1916: 501; Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 
309. 

Proteides exadeus maysi: Bates, 1935: 205. 

Proteides exadetis: Bell, 1946: 88. 

Proteides ( Epargyreus ) exadeus maysi: S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 65. 

Mr. Bell does not consider maysi a subspecies of exadeus and thinks 
that maysi and exadeus should be studied separately. 

Illustrations.— Holland, 1916: pi. 31, f. 11, 12. 

156. PROTEIDES (PROTEIDES) MERCURIUS SAN ANTONIO (Lucas) 

Eudamus sanantonio Lucas, 1857. 

Goniloba san antonio: Gundlach, 1881: 156. 

Proteides idas var. san antonio: Holland, 1916: 502. 

Proteides san-antonio: Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 309. 

Proteides mercurius sanantonio: Bates, 1935: 206; Comstock, 1944: 
544; Bell & Comstock, 1948: 3. 

Proteides ( Proteides ) mercurius sanantonio: S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 65. 
Illustrations. — Holland, 1916: pi. 31, f. 1, 2. 

Genus Aguna Williams 
Aguna Williams, 1927. 

Genotype: Eudamus camagura Williams, 1926. 

157. AGUNA asander (Hewitson) 

Eudamus asander Hewitson, 1867. 

Epargyreus asander: Holland, 1916: 502; Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 
309. 

Proteides asander: Bates, 1935: 206; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 
288. 

Aguna asander: Hoffmann, 1941: 244; Bell, 1946: 83; Freeman, 1949: 
41; S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 65. 

Genus Polygonus Hiibner 
Polygonus Hiibner, 1825. 

Acolastus Scudder, 1872; preoccupied in Coleoptera. 


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New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


Nennius Kirby, 1902. 

Genotype: Polygonus lividus Hiibner, 1825. 

158. POLYGONUS LIVIDUS savigny (Latreille) 

Hesperia savigny Latreille, 1822. 

Goniloba amyntas : Gundlach, 1881: 159; id., 1891: 458. 

Nennius amyntas'. Holland, 1916: 502; Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 309. 
Acolastus amyntas : Riley, 1926: 233; Hall, 1936: 278. 

Polygonus lividus : Bates, 1935: 207; Dethier, 1942: 5; Beatty, 1944: 

158; Bell, 1946: 89; Bell & Comstock, 1948: 5. 

Polygonus amyntas'. Holland, 1942: 328; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 
1946: 289. 

Polygonus lividus savigny. Comstock, 1944: 542. 

Illustrations. — Bates, 1935: f. 17a, (antenna), f. 18, (venation); 
Holland, 1942: text fig. 165, (neuration), pi. XLIX, f. 5; Bell 
& Comstock, 1948: f. 2, (genital). 

Genus Astraptes Hiibner 
Astraptes Hiibner, 1819: 103. 

Telegonus Hiibner, 1819: 104. 

Creteus Westwood, 1852. 

Euthymele Mabille, 1878. 

Genotype: Papilio narcosius Stoll, 1791 ( =Papilio aulestes Cramer, 
1780; homonym of Papilio aulestes Cramer, 1777). 

159. astraptes talus (Cramer) 

Papilio talus Cramer, 1779. 

Goniloba talus : Gundlach, 1881: 158. 

Goniurus talus'. Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 309. 

Telegonus talus : Bates, 1935: 208; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 
27, 85, 177. 

Astraptes talus'. Hoffmann, 1941: 246; Comstock, 1944: 549; Bell, 
1946: 85; S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 67. 

160. ASTRAPTES ANAPHUS ANAUSIS (Godman & Salvin) 
Telegonus auausis Godman & Salvin, 1896; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 

1941: 317. 

Telegonus alpistus cubana : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 310. 


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Telegonus anaphus race cub ana : Williams & Bell, 1934: 19. 
Telegonus anaphus cubanus : Bates, 1935: 210. 

Astraptes anaphus anausis : Berger, 1939: 205; Comstock, 1944: 548; 

S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 67. 

Telegonus roysi Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1941: 316. 

161. ASTRAPTES CRETELLUS (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Eudamus cretellus Herrich-Schaffer, 1869. 

Aethilla jariba Butler, 1870. 

Goniloba cassander : Gundlach, 1881: 155. 

Telegonus geronce Holland, 1916: 503. 

Telegonus jariba : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 311; Williams & Bell, 
1933: 71. 

Telegonus jariba jariba : Bates, 1935: 210. 

Telegonus cretellus : Williams & Bell, 1934: 22. 

Astraptes cretellus : S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 67. 

Illustration. — Williams & Bell, 1934: pi. I, f. 10, (genital). 

162. ASTRAPTES XAGUA (Lucas) 

Eudamus xagua Lucas, 1857. 

Goniloba jagua : Gundlach, 1881: 157. 

Telegonus xagua : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 310; Bates, 1935: 211. 
Astraptes xagua : S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 67. 

163. ASTRAPTES HABANA HABANA (Lucas) 

Eudamus habana Lucas, 1857. 

Goniloba habana : Gundlach, 1881: 158; id., 1891: 457. 

Telegonus habana: Holland, 1916: 503; Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 
310; Williams & Bell, 1933: 79. 

Telegonus alardus habana : Bates, 1935: 211; Bruner, Scaramuzza & 
Otero, 1945: 72. 

Astraptes habana habana : S. L. de la Torre, 1952: 67. 

Mr. E. Bell annotates the following distribution for Astraptes 
alardus : Mexico, Central America, South America to Argentina, not 
pointing the Antilles. 

Illustration. — Bates, 1935: f. 19, (venation). 


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Genus Cabares Godman & Salvin 

Cab ares Godman & Salvin, 1894. 

Genotype: Thanaos potrillo Lucas, 1857. 

164. CABARES POTRILLO POTRILLO (Lucas) 

' Thanaos potrillo Lucas, 1857. 

Nisoniades potrerillo : Gundlach, 1881: 141; id., 1891: 456. 

Cabares potrillo : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 313; Dethier, 1940: 24; 
Hoffmann, 1941: 251; Holland, 1942: 338; Bell, 1946: 95; Avinoff 
& Shoumatoff, 1946: 291. 

Cabares potrillo potrillo : Bates, 1935: 212. 

Illustrations. — Dethier, 1940: pi. Ill, f. 7, 8, (micropyle rosette of 

egg)- 

Genus Echelatus Godman & Salvin 

Echelatus Godman & Salvin, 1894. 

Genotype: Anastrus varius Mabille, 1883. 

165. ECHELATUS SEMPITERNUS DILLONI Bell & Comstock 

Echelatus sempiternus dilloni Bell & Comstock, 1948: 8; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1950: 72; id., 1952: 63. 

Pellicia simplicior Moschler, 1876 (female). 

Echelatus simplicior : Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 290. 

Moschler, in his description of simplicior, stated that his type ma- 
terial was a male from Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana, and a female from 
Cuba. As he did not designate either as the type, Bell and Comstock 
(1948: 9) select the male from Paramaribo as the lectotype of sim- 
plicior, and suppose that the female, which Moschler possessed, from 
Cuba apparently belongs to the Antillean subspecies, dilloni. 
Illustrations,— Bell & Comstock, 1948: f. 3, 4, 6, 7, (genital). 

Genus Achlyodes Hiibner 

Achlyodes Hiibner. 1819. 

Eantis Boisduval, 1836. 

Sebaldia Mabille, 1903. 

Genotype: Papilio busirus Cramer, 1779. 


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227 


166. ACHLYODES PAPINIANUS PAPINIANUS (Poey) 

Hesperia papinianus Poey, 1832. 

Achlyodes papinianus : Gundlach, 1881: 145; id., 1891: 457. 

Eantis papinianus : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 314. 

Achlyodes thraso papinianus : Bates, 1935: 212; Bruner, Scaramuzza 
& Otero, 1945: 50, 188. 

Achlyodes papinianus papinianus : Comstock, 1944; 554; Bell & 
Comstock, 1948: 9. 

Achlyodes thraso: Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 291. 

Mr. Bell annotates the following distribution for Achlyodes thraso : 
Texas and Mexico in North America, Central America, and in South 
America from Venezuela to Brazil; not mentioning the Antilles (See 
"A Catalogue of the Hesperioidea of Venezuela”: 1946: 119). 
Illustrations. — Poey, 1832: 7 figs, not numbered; Bates, 1935: f. 
17b, (antenna), f. 20, (venation); Holland, 1942: text fig. 175, 
(neuration of Eantis thraso ); Comstock, 1944: pi. 2, f. 2, (genital 
of A. thraso). 

Genus Ephyriades Hiibner 

Ephyriades Hiibner, 1819. 

Oileides Hiibner, 1825. 

Brachycoryne Mabille, 1883. 

Melanthes Mabille, 1904. 

Genotype: Papilio areas Drury, 1770 (= Papilio otreus Cramer, 1780). 

167. EPHYRIADES brunnea brunnea (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Nisoniades brunnea Herrich-Schaffer, 1864; Gundlach, 1881: 142. 
Melanthes otreus var. brunnea : Holland, 1916: 504. 

Ephyriades otreus : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 312. 

Ephyriades zephodes zephodes : Bates, 1935: 215; Bruner, Scaramuzza 
& Otero, 1945: 105. 

Melanthes brunnea : Holland, 1942: 348. 

Ephyriades brunnea : Comstock, 1944: 556. 

Ephyriades brunnea brunnea : Bell & Comstock, 1948: 17; S. L. de 
la Torre, 1949c: 183. 

Illustrations. — Holland, 1916: pi. 31, f. 3-5, Comstock, 1944: pi. 4, 
f. 1, 2, (genital). 


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168. EPHYRIADES ARC AS ARC AS (Drury) 

Papilio areas Drury, 1773. 

Antigonus areas'. Gundlach, 1881: 147. 

Brachycorene areas : Holland, 1916: 506. 

Brachycoryne areas : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 312. 

Ephyriades areas : Bates, 1935: 215; Comstock, 1944: 554; Beatty, 
1944: 158; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 70; Bell, 1946: 
132; J. A. Ramos, 1946: 54; Bell & Comstock, 1948: 17. 

The subspecies that inhabits Jamaica is Ephyriades areas jamai- 
censis Moeschler, according to Avinoff and Shoumatoff (See Ann. 
Carnegie Museum, vol. XXX, p. 290). 

Illustrations. — Comstock, 1944: pi. 3, f. 1, 2, (genital), pi. 11, f. 6. 

169. EPHYRIADES CUBENSIS Skinner 

Ephyriades cubensis Skinner, 1913; Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 312; 
Bates, 1935: 216. 

Genus Burca Bell & Comstock 
Burca Bell & Comstock, 1948: 10. 

Genotype: Nisoniades concolor Herrich-Schaffer, 1864. 

This genus was established by Bell and Comstock in 1948 (See 
Am. Mus. Novitates, No. 1379, p. 10). 

170. BURCA CONCOLOR (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Nisoniades concolor Herrich-Schaffer, 1864; Gundlach, 1881: 144. 
Bolla concolor. Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 313. 

Pholisora concolor'. Bates, 1935: 216; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 
1945: 93. 

Burca concolor : Bell & Comstock, 1948: 10; S. L. de la Torre, 1949t: 
182. 

Illustration. — Bell & Comstock, 1948: f. 13, (genital). 

171. BURCA BRACO (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Nisoniades braco Herrich-Schaffer, 1864; Gundlach, 1881: 141. 
Bolla braco: Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 314. 

Pholisora braco: Bates, 1935: 216; Bell, 1946: 185. 

Burca braco: Bell & Comstock, 1948: 10; S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 182. 
Illustration. — Bell & Comstock, 1948: f. 11, (genital). 


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Genus Chiomara Godman & Salvin 
Chiomara Godman & Salvin, 1899. 

Genotype: Achlyodes mithrax Moschler, 1878. 

172. CHIOMARA MITHRAX (Moschler) 

Achlyodes mithrax Moschler, 1878. 

Cyclogypha gundlachi Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 314. 

Chiomara mithrax'. Bates, 1935: 217; Hoffmann, 1941: 264; Bell, 
1946: 131; Miles Moss, 1949: 67. 

Illustrations. — Miles Moss, 1949: pi. V, f. 11, (head of larva), f. 14, 
(larva). 

Genus Erynnis Schrank 
Erynnis Schrank, 1801. 

Thymele Fabricius, 1807. 

Thy male Oken, 1815. 

Astycus Hiibner, 1822. 

Thanaos Boisduval, 1834. 

Genotype: Papilio tages Linnaeus, 1758. 

173. ERYNNIS gesta (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Thanaos gesta Herrich-Schaffer, 1863; Holland, 1942: 349. 
Nisoniades gesta : Gundlach, 1881: 145; id, 1891: 456. 

Chiomara gesta : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 315; Avinoff & Shouma- 
toff, 1946: 291; Miles Moss, 1949: 67. 

Erynnis gesta : Bates, 1935: 218; Hoffmann, 1941: 264; Bruner, 
Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 93; Bell, 1946: 133. 

Erynnis gesta gesta : Schweizer & Webster, 1941: 22. 

Illustration.— Holland, 1942: pi. LI, f. 1, 2. 

174. ERYNNIS ZARUCCO (Lucas) 

Thanaos zarucco Lucas, 1857; Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 314. 
Nisoniades jaruco: Gundlach, 1881: 143. 

Erynnis zarucco : Bates, 1935: 218; Comstock, 1944: 556. 

Illustration. — Bates, 1935: f. 21, (venation). 

Genus Pyrgus Hiibner 

Pyrgus Hiibner, 1819. 

Syrichtus Boisduval, 1834. 


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Scelotrix Rambur, 1858. 

Genotype: Papilio malvae Linnaeus, 1758 (= Papilio alveolus Hbn., 
1802). 

175. PYRGUS SYRICHTUS (Fabricius) 

Papilio syrichtus Fabricius, 1775. 

Pyrgus syrichtus : Gundlach, 1881: 139; Williams & Bell, 1930: 
135; Hoffmann, 1933: 244; id., 1936: 262; id, 1941: 260; Bates, 
1935: 220; Hall, 1936: 278; Dethier, 1940: 24; id, 1942: 6; 
Comstock, 1944: 550; Beatty, 1944: 158; J. A. Ramos, 1946: 
54; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 291; Miles Moss, 1949: 68. 
Hesperia syrichtus Holland, 1916: 506; id, 1942: 341; Skinner & 
Ramsden, 1923: 315. 

Hesperia syrichtus syrichtus: Berger, 1939: 205. 

Illustrations. — Williams & Bell, 1930: pi. VIII, f. 1, (genital), f. 2, 
(costal portion of hindwing); Dethier, 1940: pi. Ill, f. 4, 
(branched hair); Holland, 1942: pi. L, f. 16, 17; Comstock, 1944: 
pi. 12, f. 4; Miles Moss, 1949: pi. V, f. 12, (larva). 

176. PYRGUS CRISIA CRISIA Herrich-Schaffer 

Pyrgus crisia Herrich-Schaffer, 1864; Gundlach, 1881: 140; Bates, 
1935: 220. 

Hesperia crisia : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 315. 

Pyrgus crisia crisia : Comstock, 1944: 551. 

Subfamily Hesperiin^e 
Genus Ancyloxypha Felder 
Ancyloxypha Felder, 1862. 

Genotype: Hesperia numitor Fabricius, 1793. 

177. ANCYLOXYPHA NANUS (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Thymelicus nanus Herrich-Schaffer, 1865; Gundlach, 1881: 148. 
Ancyloxypha nanus : Holland, 1916: 506; Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 

316; Bates, 1935: 220. 

Genus Thymelicus Htibner 
Thymelicus Hiibner, 1819. 

Adopcza Billberg, 1820. 

Thymelinus Stephens, 1835. 


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Pelion Kirby, 1858. 

Genotype: Papilio act eon Rottemberg, 1775. 

178. THYMELICUS magdalia (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Pamphila magdalia Herrich-Schaffer, 1863; Gundlach, 1881: 153. 
Adopaea magdalia : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 316; Bates, 1935: 221. 
Thymelicus magdalia : S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 188. 

Genus Hylephila Billberg 
Hylephila Billberg, 1820. 

Euthymus Scudder, 1872; preoccupied in Hymenoptera. 

Genotype: Papilio phyleus Drury, 1770. 

179. HYLEPHILA PHYLEUS (Drury) 

Papilio phyleus Drury, 1770. 

Pamphila philceus : Gundlach, 1881: 150 and XIX (Fe de errata). 
Hylephila phykeus : Holland, 1916: 507; id., 1942: 377; Skinner & 
Ramsden, 1923: 316; Clark, 1932: 220; Hall, 1936: 278; Field, 
1938b: 247; Hoffmann, 1941: 267; Schweizer & Webster, 1941: 
22; Dethier, 1942b: 167; Bell, 1946: 137; Garth, 1950: 41. 
Hylephila phyleus : Bates, 1935: 221; Comstock, 1944: 557; Avinoff 
& Shoumatoff, 1946: 292; Miles Moss, 1949: 69; Munroe, 1951: 
55. 

Hylephila phylceus phylceus : Berger, 1939: 206. 

Illustrations.— Clark, 1932: pi. 53, f. 13, 14; Holland, 1942: pi. VI, 
f. 39, (chrysalis), pi. XLVI, f. 18, 19, pi. XLVII, f. 40; Comstock, 
1944: pi. II, f. 9. 

Genus Atalopedes Scudder 
Atalopedes Scudder, 1872: 78. 

Pansy dia Scudder, 1872: 81. 

Genotype: Hesperia campestris Boisduval, 1852 ( —Hesperia huron 
Edwards, 1863). 

180. ATALOPEDES MESOGRAMMA MESOGRAMMA (Godart) 
Hesperia mesogramma Godart, 1822 (See Brown, 1941: 131); Poey, 

1832. 

Pamphila alameda : Gundlach, 1881: 148. 

Atalopedes cunaxa : Holland, 1916: 507. 


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Atalopedes mesogramma : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 316; Riley, 
1926: 239; Bates, 1935: 222. 

Atalopedes mesogramma mesogramma'. Comstock, 1944: 560; Bell & 
Comstock, 1948: 21. 

Illustrations. — Poey, 1832: 3 figs, not numbered; Holland, 1916: pi. 
31, f. 14; Bates, 1935: f. 17c, (antenna), f. 22, (venation). 

Genus Polites Scudder 
Polites Scudder, 1872: 78. 

Hedone Scudder, 1872: 79. 

Limochores Scudder, 1872: 80. 

Pyrrhosidia Scudder, 1874. 

Genotype: Hesperia peckius Kirby, 1837. 

181. POLITES BARACOA (Lucas) 

Hesperia baracoa Lucas, 1857. 

Pamphila baracoa : Gundlach, 1881: 152. 

Limochores baracoa : Holland, 1916: 507. 

Polites baracoa : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 316; Bates, 1935: 224; 

Holland, 1942: 381; Dethier, 1942b: 167. 

Illustration. — Holland, 1916: pi. 31, f. 15. 

Genus W alien grenia Berg 
W alien grenia Berg, 1897. 

Catia Godman, 1900. 

Genotype: Hesperia premnas Wallengren, I860. 

182. WALLENGRENIA OTHO MISERA (Lucas) 

Hesperia mis era Lucas, 1857. 

Pamphila mis era: Gundlach, 1881: 153. 

Catia misera: Holland, 1916: 507; Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 317; 

Bates, 1935: 224; Dethier, 1942b: 167. 

Wallengrenia otho misera : Watson, 1937: 3; Comstock, 1944: 562; 
S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 189. 

Genus Atrytone Scudder 
Atrytone Scudder, 1872: 77. 

Euphyes Scudder, 1872: 80. 

Par atrytone Godman & Salvin, 1900. 


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Anatrytone Dyar, 1905. 

Genotype: Hesperia arogos Boisduval & Leconte, 1833 ( =HeSperia 
iowa Scudder, 1872). 

183. ATRYTONE singularis singularis (Herrich-Schaffer) 
Goniloba singularis Herrich-Schaffer, 1865; Gundlach, 1881: 168; 

Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 318; Bates, 1935: 238. 

Atrytone singularis : Bell, 1947b: 2. 

Ax.tr y tone singularis singularis : S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65; id., 1949c: 
180. 

Bates cites this species as doubtful, but Mr. Pastor Alayo collected 
many specimens in Oriente province. 

Illustration. — Bell, 1947: f. 1, (genital). 

184. ATRYTONE CORNELIUS (Godart) 

Hesperia Cornelius Godart, 1822 (See Brown, 1941: 131). 

Goniloba Cornelius : Gundlach, 1881: 167. 

Amblyscirtes insulae-pinorum. ' Holland, 1916: 508. 

Lerema Cornelius : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 317; Bates, 1935: 226; 

Dethier, 1942b: 167; id., 1942c: 177, 178. 

Euphyes Cornelius : Riley, 1926: 238. 

Atrytone Cornelius : S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 181. 

Illustrations. — Holland, 1916: pi. 31, f. 7, 8; Dethier, 1942c: pi. 27, 
f. 1-3, (head of larva). 

Genus Ch or ant bus Scudder 
Choranthus Scudder, 1872. 

Genotype: Hesperia radians Lucas, 1857. 

185. CHORANTHUS RADIANS (Lucas) 

Hesperia radians Lucas, 1857. 

Pamphila radians: Gundlach, 1881: 151. 

Choranthus radians: Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 319; Holland, 1942: 
370; Comstock, 1944: 565; S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 182. 

Poanes radians: Bates, 1935: 225; Dethier, 1942b: 167. 

Illustration. — Holland, 1942: pi. LI, f. 47. 

186. CHORANTHUS RADIANS F. AMMONIA (Plotz) 

Hesperia ammonia Plotz, 1883- 


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Choranthus radians f. ammonia'. Comstock, 1944: 565; S. L. de la 
Torre, 1949c: 182. 

Choranthus radians ammonia'. S. L. de la Torre, 1949: 65. 

Mr. Pastor Alayo captured several specimens of ammonia form 
in Rancho Mundito, Pinar del Rio province, in June, 1947, which 
were identified by Mr. Ernest L. Bell. 

Genus C alp odes Hiibner 
C alp odes Hiibner, 1819. 

Genotype: Papilio ethlius Stoll, 1784. 

187. CALPODES ETHLIUS (Stoll) 

Papilio ethlius Stoll, 1784 (See Brown, 1941: 130). 

Goniloha ethlius : Gundlach, 1881: 160; id., 1891: 457. 

Calpodes ethlius: Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 319; Showalter, 1927: 
113; Clark, 1932: 233; Fazzini, 1934: 58; Bates, 1935: 228; J. 
H. Comstock & A. B. Comstock, 1936: 285; Hall, 1936: 278; Field, 
1938b: 267; Hoffmann, 1941: 273; Dethier, 1942d: 203; Holland, 
1942: 399; Comstock, 1944: 567; Beatty, 1944: 158; Bruner, 
Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 27, 109; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 
294; Bell, 1946: 144; Miles Moss, 1949: 69. 

Calpodes ethlius ethlius : Schweizer & Webster, 1941: 24. 
Illustrations. — Showalter, 1927: pi. 8, f. 9; Clark, 1932: pi. 50, f. 7, 
8; Fazzini, 1934: p. 58, f. not numbered; J. H. Comstock & A. B. 
Comstock, 1936: pi. XLII, f. 2; Holland, 1942: pi. VI, f. 48, 
(chrysalis), pi. XLV, f. 3; Miles Moss, 1949: pi. V, f. 4, (larva). 

Genus Panoquina Hemming 
Panoquina Hemming, 1934. 

Prenes Scudder, 1872; preoccupied in fishes. 

Genotype: Hesperia panoquirt Scudder, 1863. 

188. panoquina sylvicola sylvicola (Herrich-Schaffer) 
Goniloha sylvicola Herrich-Schaffer, 1865; Gundlach, 1881: 166. 
Prenes nerol\ Holland, 1916: 509. 

Prenes sylvicola : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 320. 

Prenes nero sylvicola'. Bates, 1935: 229; Dethier, 1942b: 167, 172; 
Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 125, 163, 173. 


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Panoquina sylvicola sylvicola : Watson, 1937: 7; Berger, 1939: 206; 

Comstock, 1944: 569; S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 189. 

Panoquina sylvicola : Hoffmann, 1941: 273; Dethier, 1942d: 203; 
Bell, 1946: 145. 

Illustrations. — Bates, 1935: f. 23, (venation); Dethier, 1942d: f. 1, 
(section of a larva). 

189. PANOQUINA OCOLA (Edwards) 

Hesperia ocola Edwards, 1863. 

Prenes ocola : Holland, 1916: 509; id., 1942: 398; Skinner & Ramsden, 
1923: 319; Clark, 1932: 233; Bates, 1935: 231. 

Panoquina ocola : Field, 1938 b: 269; Hoffmann, 1941: 273; Comstock, 
1944: 570; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 295; S. L. de la Torre, 
1949c: 189. 

Calpodes ocola : Schweizer & Webster, 1941: 24. 

Illustrations.— Holland, 1942: pi. XLVI, f. 34, pi. LIV, f. 22; Comstock, 
1944: pi. 12, f. 5. 

190. PANOQUINA PANOQUINOIDES PANOQUINOIDES (Skinner) 
Pamphila panoquinoides Skinner, 1891. 

Prenes panoquinoides : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 319; Bates, 1935: 
231; Holland, 1942: 398. 

Panoquina panoquinoides panoquinoides : Comstock, 1944: 571; 

Beatty, 1944: 158; S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 189. 

Illustrations. — Holland, 1942: pi. LIV, f. 23; Comstock, 1944: pi. 
12, f. 8. 

191. PANOQUINA nyctelia coscinia (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Goniloba coscinia Herrich-Schaffer, 1865. 

Goniloba brettus : Gundlach, 1881: 164. 

Prenes ares: Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 320. 

Prenes nyctelius coscinia : Bates, 1935: 231; Dethier, 1942b: 167, 
170; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 123, 125, 163. 

Panoquina nyctelius : Schweizer & Webster, 1941: 24; Bell, 1947: 
139. 

Panoquina vala: Bell, 1946: 145 (See Corrections of errata by the 
author, 1947: 139). 


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Panoquina nyctelia : Comstock, 1944: 568; Beatty, 1944: 158; J. A. 

Ramos, 1946: 54; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 295. 

Panoquina nyctelia coscinia : L. S. Dillon, 1947: 102; S. L. de la Torre, 
1949c: 189. 

Illustrations. — Dethier, 1942b: pi. 26, f. 10, 11, (head of larva); 
Comstock, 1944: pi. 12, f. 1; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 
pi. VIII, f. 2. 

192. panoquina nero corrupta (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Goniloba corrupta Herrich-Schaffer, 1865; Gundlach, 1881: 165. 
Prenes corrupta : Holland, 1916: 509; Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 
320; Bates, 1935: 232. 

Panoquina nero corrupta : Watson, 1937: 6; Comstock, 1944: 569; 

S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 189. 

Panoquina corrupta : Bell, 1942: 4. 

Illustration. — Holland, 1916: pi. 31, f. 13. 

Genus Asbolis Mabille 

Asbolis Mabille, 1904. 

Genotype: Eudamus capucinus Lucas, 1857. 

193. ASBOLIS CAPUCINUS (Lucas) 

Eudamus capucinus Lucas, 1857. 

Goniloba capucinus : Gundlach, 1881: 163. 

Asbolis sandarac : Holland, 1916: 509. 

Asbolis capucinus : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 320; Bates, 1935: 232; 

Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 55, 67, 155, 156. 

Illustration. — Holland, 1916: pi. 31, f. 9. 

Genus Pyrrho calles Mabille 
Pyrrho cables Mabille, 1904. 

Genotype: Pamphila antiqua Herrich-Schaffer, 1863. 

194. PYRRHOCALLES ANTIQUA ANTIQUA (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Pamphila antiqua Herrich-Schaffer, 1863; Gundlach, 1881: 150. 
Phemiades antiqua\ Holland, 1916: 509; Munroe, 1951: 55. 


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237 


Pyrrhocalles antiqua : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 318. 

Pyrrhocalles orientis : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 319. 

Phemiades antiqua antiqua’. Bates, 1935: 226. 

Pyrrhocalles antiqua antiqua’. S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 188. 
Illustration. — Holland, 1916: pi. 31, f. 10. 

Genus Lerodea Scudder 

Lerodea Scudder, 1872: 80. 

Cymaenes Scudder, 1872: 82. 

Megistias Godman, 1900. 

Genotype: Hesperia eufala Edwards, 1869. 

195. LERODEA EUFALA (Edwards) 

Hesperia eufala Edwards, 1869. 

Cobalus dispersus : Gundlach, 1881: 154. 

Lerodea eufala : Holland, 1916: 508; id., 1942: 396; Skinner & Rams- 
den, 1923: 317; Bates, 1935: 227; Field, 1938b: 266; Schweizer & 
Webster, 1941: 23; Hoffmann, 1941: 280; Dethier, 1942b: 167; 
Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 122; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 
1946: 294. 

Illustration.— Holland, 1942: pi. XLVI, f. 33. 

196. LERODEA TRIPUNCTA TRIPUNCTA (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Cobalus tripunctus Herrich-Schaffer, 1865; Gundlach, 1881: 154. 
Lerodea tripuncta : Holland, 1916: 508; Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 
317; Bates, 1935: 228; Comstock, 1944: 566; Beatty, 1944: 158; 
Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 19, 163; J. A. Ramos, 1946: 54. 
Lerodea tripunctus : Bell, 1941: 6; id., 1946: 166; Dethier, 1942b: 
167, 168; id., 1942d: 203. 

In Jamaica the subspecies Lerodea tripuncta jamaca Schaus is very 
common according with Avinoff and Shoumatoff (1946: 293). 
Illustrations. — Dethier, 1942b: pi. 26, f. 1-9, (head of larva); Com- 
stock, 1944: pi. 12, f. 9. 

Genus Paracarystus Godman 
Paracarystus Godman, 1900. 

Genotype: Cobalus hypargyra Herrich-Schaffer, 1869. 


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197. PARACARYSTUS CUB ANA (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Goniloba cubana Herrich-Schaffer, 1863; Gundlach, 1881: 166; id., 
1891: 458. 

Paracarystus cubana: Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 320; Bates, 1935: 
235; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 28. 

Genus Synapte Mabille 

Synapte Mabille, 1904. 

Godmania Skinner & Ramsden, 1923; preoccupied in Hemiptera. 
Genotype: Hesperia silius Latreille, 1822 (= Carystus salenus Mabille). 

198. synapte malitiosa (Herrich-Schaffer) 

Goniloba malitiosa Herrich-Schaffer, 1865; Gundlach, 1881: 165. 
Godmania malitiosa : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 321; Bates, 1935: 
235; Watson, 1937: 10; Hoffmann, 1941: 281. 

Synapte malitiosa : S. L. de la Torre, 1949c: 190; Freeman, 1949: 41. 

Genus Callimormus Scudder 

Callimormus Scudder, 1872. 

Genotype: Callimormus juventus Scudder, 1872. 

199. CALLIMORMUS RADIOLA (Mabille) 

Ancyloxypha radiola Mabille, 1878. 

Callimormus filata : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 321; Bates, 1935: 
237. 

Callimormus radiola: Bell, 1946: 176. 

This species is cited by Bates as doubtful, since there are no new 
records after the specimens described under the name Apaustus filata 
by Plotz in 1884. 


Genus Thracides Hiibner 


Thracides Hiibner, 1819. 

Genotype: Papilio phidon Cramer, 1779. 


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239 


200. THRACIDES TELEGONUS (Esper) 

Papilio Plebeius Urbanus Telegonus Esper, 1780. 

Thracides longirostris : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 321; Hoffmann, 
1933: 245; id, 1941: 283; Miles Moss, 1949: 78. 

Thracides telegonus : Bates, 1935: 236. 

Illustration. — Miles Moss, 1949: pi. V, f. 3, (larva). 


Genus Perichares Scudder 
Perichares Scudder, 1872. 

Genotype: Hesperia phocion Fabricius, 1793 ( =Papilio coridon Fab, 
1775). 

201. perichares phocion phocion (Fabricius) 

Hesperia ( Urbicolae ) phocion Fabricius, 1793. 

Goniloba corydon : Gundlach, 1881: 162. 

Perichares coridon : Skinner & Ramsden, 1923: 320; Hoffmann, 1941: 
283; Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946: 295. 

Perichares corydon : Hoffmann, 1933: 245. 

Perichares coridon coridon : Bates, 1935: 233; Dethier, 1942b: 167, 
174; Bruner, Scaramuzza & Otero, 1945: 17, 19, 123, 125, 163. 
Perichares phocion phocion : Comstock, 1941: 371; id, 1944: 571; 

Munroe, 1951: 55. 

Perichares phocion'. Bell, 1946: 183. 

The name Papilio coridon Fabricius, 1775, is preoccupied by Papilio 
coridon Poda, 1761, in the family Lycaenidae, and so we must adopt 
the name Hesperia phocion Fabricius for this species. 

Illustrations. — Bates, 1935: f. 24, (venation); Comstock, 1944: text 
fig. 29, (venation), pi. 11, f. 13. 


240 


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244 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


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246 


New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii 


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Klots, Alexander Barret. 1928. A revision of the genus Eurema (Lep. 
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Kremky, Jerzy. 1925. Neotropische Danaididen in der Sammlung des Pol- 
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Lathy, Percy I. 1899. A monograph of the genus Calisto Hiibn., Trans. 

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LlCHY Rene. 1943. Documents pour servir a l’etude des Lepidopteres de la 
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MlCHENER, Charles Duncan- 1942. A generic revision of the Heliconiinae. 
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. 1942b. A review of the subspecies of Agraulls vanillce (Linnaeus). 

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. 1943. A review of the genus Calisto. (Lep. Satyrinae). Ibid., No. 

1236, pp. 1-6, 2 figs. 

. 1943b. Some systematic notes on the Libytheidae (Lep.). Ibid., 

No. 1232, pp. 1-2, 6 figs. 

. 1949. Sympatric species of Calisto in Cuba. (Lep. Satyrinae). Ibid., 

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Dec., 1954] 


De La Torre: Rhopalocera 


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MILES Moss, A. 1949. Biological notes on some "Hesperiidse” of Para and 
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MUNROE, EUGENE G. 1942. The Caribbean races of Anartia jatrophce 
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. 1947. Four new Pieridas from the West Indies. Ibid., No. 1362, 

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. 1950b. The systematics of Calisto (Lep. Satyrinae), with remarks 

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. 1951. The de Rabie paintings of Lepidoptera in the Blacker Li- 
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. 1922. Ibid., Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat. 4, pp. 211-212. 

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Hist. Nat. 8, No. 2, pp. 108-110. 

. 1934b. Ibid., Rev. Agric. Ano XV, No. 55, 15, July, 1934, pp. 

31-34, 5 figs. 

SCARAMUZZA, L. C. 1945. See Bruner, S. C., L. C. Scaramuzza & A. R. 
Otero. \ 

Schwarz, Rudolf. 1949. Motyli. Denni. 2. Praha, pp. I-LXIX, 48 pi. 
not numbered with 505 figs. 

Schweizer, F. & R. G. Webster Kay. 1941. Lepidopteros del Uruguay. 
II. Catalogo sistematico. Parte 1 : Rhopalocera & Grypocera. Anales 
Museo Hist. Nat. Montevideo. (2d. Serie). 5, No. 3, pp. 4-24, 1 map. 

Shoumatoff, Nicholas. 1941. See Avinoff, A. & N. Shoumatoff 

. 1946. Ibid. 

Showalter, sc. d., William Joseph. 1927. Strange habits of familiar 
moths and butterflies. Nat. Geogr. Mag., 52, No. 1, pp. 77-127, pi. 
I-XVI, 28 text figs. 

Sierra, Juan T. 1949. See Torre y Callejas, S. L. de la & J. T. Sierra 

Skinner, Henry & Charles Ramsden. 1923. Annotated list of the 
Hesperiidae of Cuba. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci., Philad., 75, pp. 307-321. 

Torre y Callejas, Salvador Luis de la. 1943. Dos nuevas especies de 
mariposas diurnas para Cuba. (Lep. Rhop.). Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat., 
17, No. 2, pp. 139-140, 1 pi. 

. 1946. Importancia de las escamas en la clasificacion de los Le- 
pidopteros. Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat., 18, No. 1, pp. 103-106, 1 pi. 

. 1946b. Notas sobre las escamas de los Lepidopteros. Ibid., 18, No. 1, 

pp. 107-122, 3 pi. 

. 1947. Revision de las especies cubanas del genero Danaus, con la 

adicion de dos nuevas subespecies para Cuba. Ibid., 19, No. 1, pp. 17-21, 
2 pi. 

. 1947b. Revision de las especies cubanas de la familia Papilionidae. 

(Lep. Rhop.). Rev. Inst. Matanzas, Ano 1, No. 1, pp. 22-43, 4 pi., 
text figs. 1-3. 

. 1949. A list supplementing Bates’ "Butterflies of Cuba”. The Lepi- 

dopterists’ News, 3, No. 6, p. 65. 

. 1949b. Generos y especies de la subfamilia Heliconiinae hallados 

en Cuba. (Lep. Nymphalidae). (Adiciones y Correcciones al Catalogo 
de Cuba). Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat., 19, No. 2, pp. 191-194. 

. 1949c. Datos taxonomicos sobre Lepidopteros, con notas sobre al- 

gunas especies cubanas. Ibid., pp. 177-190. 


Dec., 1954] De La Torre: Rhopalocera 249 

. 1949d. Estudio de las subespecies cubanas de Ascia monuste. (Lep. 

Pieridse). Ibid., pp. 171-174, 1 pi. 

. 1950. Additions to "A list supplementing Bates’ Butterflies of Cuba”. 

The Lepidopterists’ News, 4, Nos. 6-7, p. 72. 

. 1951. Notas suplementarias a nuestro trabajo sobre el genero Danaus 

(Lep. Rhop.). Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat. 20, No. 2, pp. 93-103- 

. 1951b. Sobre una nueva forma de Nathalis iole Boisduval (Lep. 

Pieridse ) . Ibid., 20, No. 2, pp. 89-92, pi. XLIV, figs. 1-2. 

. 1951c. A new butterfly from Cuba. (Lep. Nymphalidae) . Proc. 

Ent. Soc. Washington, 53, No. 6, pp. 336-337, text fig. 1, 2. 

. 1952. Datos taxonomicos sobre Lepidopteros, con notas sobre al- 

gunas especies cubanas. Segunda Parte. Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat., 21, 
No. 1, pp. 61-70. 

Torre y Callejas, S. L. de la & J. T. Sierra. 1949. Sobre la presencia 
en Cuba de Papilio ( Pterourus ) troilus ilioneus J. E. Smith. (Lep. 
Rhop.). Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat. 19, No. 2, pp. 195-196. 

Torre y Callejas, S. L. de la & Pastor Alayo Dalman. 1953. Una 
lista de las Eurema de America, con notas sobre las especies colectadas 
en Cuba. (Lep. Pieridae). 

Torre Y MADROZO, Ricardo de la. 1936. Sobre una nueva forma de 
Papilio andnemon. Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat. 10, No. 5, pp. 333-334, 
1 pi. 

VAZQUEZ, Leonila. 1947. Papilios nuevos de Mexico. Anales Inst. Biol. 18, 
No. 1, pp. 249-256, 5 figs. 

. 1948. Papilios nuevos de Mexico. Ibid., 19, No. 1, pp. 233-240, 

3 figs. 

. 1948b. Observaciones sobre Pieridos mexicanos con descripciones 

de algunas formas nuevas. Ibid., 19, No. 2, pp. 469-484, 4 figs. 

. 1953. Ibid., IV. 23, Nos. 1-2, pp. 257-267, 2 figs. 

VlLLALBA, GASTON S. 1934. See Sanchez Roig, Mario & G. S. Villalba. 
WARREN, B. C. S. 1947. Some principles of classification in Lepidoptera, 
with special reference to the butterflies. The Entomologist, 80, No. 1012, 
pp. 208-217, and No. 1013, pp. 235-241. 

WASTON, Frank Edward. 1937. New Hesperiidas from the Antilles. (Lep. 

Rhop.). Am. Mus. Nov., No. 906, pp. 1-10. 

Weiss, Harry B. & William M. Boyd. 1950. Insect feculae. Journ. N. Y. 

Ent. Soc., 58, No. 3, pp. 154-165, pi. XIV-XVI. 

Williams, jr. Roswell C. & Ernest L. Bell. 1930. Short studies in 
American Hesperiidse. (Lep. Rhop.). Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., 56, pp. 
133-138, 1 pi. 

. 1933. Studies in the American Hesperioidea. (Lep.). Paper I. Ibid., 

59, pp. 69-84, 1 pi. 

. 1934. Studies in the American Hesperioidea. (Lep.). Paper II. On 

the Synonymy and genitalia of some species. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 60, 
pp. 17-30, 1 pi. 



INDEX TO NAMES OF INSECTS AND PLANTS IN 
VOLUME LXII 


Generic names begin with capital letters. New genera, subgenera, species, 
varieties and new names are printed in italics. 


Achlyodes, 226 

papinianus papinianus, 227 
Aeshna 

canadensis, 179 
clepsydra, 179 
tuberculifera, 179 
umbrosa, 179 
verticalis, 179 
Agraulis, 123 
vanillas 

insularis, 124 
nigrior, 124 

Agrion maculatum, 175 
Aguna, 223 

asander, 223 

Amphiagrion saucium, 177 
Anaea, 214 

aidea cubana, 214 
echemus, 215 
/. aguayoi, 215 
Anartia, 191 

jatrophae guantanamo, 191 
lytrea ehrysopelea, 191 
Anax 

junius, 178 
longipes, 167, 178 
Aneyloxypha, 230 
nanus, 230 
Andromeda, 173 
Anetia, 118 

cubana, 119 
numidia briarea, 118 
pantherata clarescens, 118 
Anomalagrion hastatum, 178 
Anteos, 22 

clorinde, 23 
mserula mserula, 23 
Apodemia, 216 

carteri ramsdeni, 216 
Appias, 9 

drusilla, 9 

poeyi /. peregrina, 10 


Arachisothrips 
boneti, 101 
millsi, 100 
seticornis, 99 
Aramigus fulleri, 187 
Argia 

moesta, 176 
violacea, 176 
Asbolis, 236 

capucinus, 236 
Ascia, 7 

mencise, 8 
monuste 
eubotea, 8 
monuste, 7 
phileta, 8 

protodice protodice, 9 
Asterocampa, 213 
argus idyja, 213 
Astraptes, 224 

anaphus anausis, 224 
cretellus, 225 
habana habana, 225 
talus, 224 
xagua, 225 
Atalopedes, 231 

mesogramma mesogramma, 231 
Atarba 

(Atarba) 
macraeantha, 139 
scabrosa, 139 
(Ischnothrix) 
obtusiloba, 139 
rectangularis, 145 
Atrytone, 232 

Cornelius, 233 
singularis singularis, 233 

Baccliaris halimifolia, 134 
Basiaeschna janata, 179 
Bombus fervidus, 91 
Bombyx mori, 27 


v 


VI 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


Boyeria vinosa, 179 
Brasenia, 173 
Brephidium, 220 

exilis isophthalma, 220 
Burea, 228 

braeo, 228 
concolor, 228 

Cabares, 226 

potrillo potrillo, 226 
sempiternus dilloni, 226 
Calisto, 120 

bruneri, 120 
lierophile 

herophile, 120 
parsonsi, 120 
smintheus 
bradleyi, 121 
muripetens, 121 
smintheus, 121 
Callimormus, 238 
radiola, 238 

Calliphora erythrocephala, 28 
Calpodes, 234 
ethlius, 234 

Cediopsylla simplex, 161 
Celithemis 
elisa, 182 
eponina, 182 
martha, 182 
monomelaena, 182 
ornata, 182 
Chioides, 221 

marmorosa, 221 
Chiomara, 229 
mithrax, 229 
Chlosyne, 126 

perezi perezi, 127 
Choranthus, 233 
radians, 233 
/. ammonia, 233 
Chromagrion conditum, 178 
Clusia nemorosa, 130 
Colobura, 208 

dirce elementi, 209 
Corythuca, 101 
Ctenocephalides f. felis, 161 


Ctenophthalmus p. pseudagyrtes, 162: 
Cypherotylus californicus, 48 

Dacne 

calif ornica, 52 
cyclochilus, 51 
picea, 51 

quadrimaeulata, 52 
Danaus, 113 
eresimus 

montezuma, 117 
tethys, 117 
gilippus 

berenice, 115 
gilippina, 116 
strigosa, 116 
plexippus 
menippe, 113 
plexippus, 114 
portoricensis, 115 
Decadon, 173 
Didymops transversa, 179 
Diseothyrea 

antarctica, 108 
bidens, 108 
borni, 107 
clavicornis, 108 
crassicornis, 108 
denticulata, 107 
globus, 107 
sauteri, 108 
hewitti, 107 
humilis, 107 
icta, 107 
isthmica, 107 
leas, 108 
neotropiea, 107 
oculata, 107 
sculptior, 107 
patrizzi, 107 
remingtoni, 108 
testacea, 105 
traegaordhi, 107 
turtoni, 108 
Dismorphia, 25 
cubana, 25 

Boratopsylla blarinae, 162 
Doroeordulia lepida, 180 


1954] 


Index — Vol. LXII 


Doxocopa, 211 

laure druryi, 211 
Dromogomphus spinosus, 178 
Dryas, 123 

iulia cillene, 123 
Dynamine, 210 

egaea Calais, 210 
mylitta bipupillata, 211 

Eehinothrips caribeanus , 135 
Elephantomyia (Elephantomyia) 
boliviensis, 139 
Enallagma 

cyathigerum, 176 
doubledayi, 176 
durum, 176 
exsulans, 176 
geminatum, 176 
hageni, 176 
laterale, 176 
minuseulum, 177 
pictum, 177 
recurvatum, 177 
signatum, 177 
vesperum, 177 

Enneotbrips (Enneothripiella) 
flaviceps, 137 
subtilis, 136 
Ephriades, 227 

areas areas, 228 
brunnea brunnea, 227 
cubensis, 228 
Epieordulia princeps, 179 
Episinus, 65 
amcenus, 68 
bruneoviridis, 70 
chiapensis, 76 
cognatus, 71 
colima, 76 
dominions, 77 
erythrophthalmus, 74 
gratiosus, 71 
juarezi, 74 
nadleri, 77 
panamensis, 73 
truncatus, 67 
Epitedia wenmanni, 162 


Erioptera 

(Empeda) 

austronymphica, 139 
boliviana, 140 
percupida, 140 
(Erioptera) 
andina, 140 
multiannulata, 140 
urania, 140 
Erynnis, 229 
gesta, 229 
zarucco, 229 

Erythemis simplicicollis, 181 
Erythrina, 136 
Erythrodiplax berenice, 181 
Eumgeus, 217 

atala atala, 217 
Euniea, 209 

macris heraclitus, 210 
monima, 210 
pusilla fairehildi, 210 
tatila tatilista, 209 
Euphorbia brasiliensis, 136 
Euponera gilva, 106 
Euptoieta, 124 
claudia, 125 
hegesia hegesia, 124 
Eurema, 10 
amelia, 19 
boisduvaliana, 19 
conjungens, 16 
daira palmira, 17 
/. ebriola, 17 
dina dina, 12 
f. citrina, 13 
elathea elathea, 18 
f. eubana, 18 
large, 13 
f. racardi, 13 
lisa euterpe, 14 
lucina lucina, 16 
f. fornsi, 16 
messalina messalina, 15 
/. gnathene, 15 
neda, 14 
nicippe, 11 
nise, 14 


New York Entomological Society 


[VOL. LXII 


viii 


proterpia proterpia, 11 
/. gundlachia, 12 

Gastrophilus intestinalis, 28 
Gibbium psylloides, 26 
Gnophomyia (Gnophomyia) toler- 
anda, 148 

GomphaBschna furcillata, 179 
Gomphus 

abbreviates, 178 
exilis, 178 
spicatus, 178 
Gonomyia 

(Paralipophleps) heteromera, 
139 

(Lipophleps) 
projecta, 139 
senaria, 139 

Haematochiton elateroides, 48 
Hamadryas, 211 

amphinome mexicana, 211 
ferox diasia, 211 
Heliconius, 121 
charithonius 
punctatus, 122 
rams deni, 122 
cleobaea cleobaea, 122 
Hemiargus, 219 

ammon ammon, 220 
hanno filenus, 219 
Hetaerina americana, 175 
Heterothrips 
cacti, 131 
clusice, 130 
trinidadensis, 132 
Historis, 208 

acheronta semele, 208 
odius odius, 208 
Hylephila, 231 
phyleus, 231 
Hymenitis, 119 
cubana, 119 
Hypanartia, 189 
paullus, 189 
Hypna, 214 

elytemnestra iphigenia, 214 
Hypolimnas, 207 


misippus, 208 

Hystrichopsylla tahavuana, 161 

Ischyrus 

aleator, 46 
chiasticus, 43 
quadripunctatus, 39 
A., 39 
alabamae, 39 
antedivisa, 39 
grapliicus, 41 
quadripunctatus, 39 
Iris versicolor, 170 
Ischnura kellicotti, 177 
posita, 178 
ramburii, 178 
verticalis, 178 

Juncus, 173 
Junonia, 189 
evarete 
ecenia, 189 
zonalis, 190 

/. constricta, 191 
/. incarnata, 190 

Kricogonia, 23 
cabrerai, 24 
lyside, 23 

Ladona 

deplanata, 181 
exusta, 181 
Leptotoes, 220 

cassius theonus, 220 
Lerodea, 237 
eufala, 237 

tripuncta tripuncta, 237 
Lestes 

congener, 175 
disjunctus, 175 
dry as, 175 
eurinus, 175 
forcipatus, 175 
inequalis, 175 
reetangularis, 175 
unguiculatus, 175 
vigilax, 175 


1954] 


Index — Vol. LXII 


ix 


Leucorrliinia 
frigida, 182 
intaeta, 182 
Libellula 

auripennis, 180 
eyanea, 180 
incesta, 180 
luctuosa, 180 
needhami, 180 
pulcliella, 180 
quadrimaculata, 180 
semifasciata, 180 
vibrans, 180 
Libytheana, 215 

bachmanii bachmanii, 216 
motya, 215 
Limenitis, 212 

arehippus floridensis, 212 
iphicla iphimedia, 213 
Limonia 

(Dicranomyia) 
labecula, 139 
subandicola, 139 
(Geranomyia) 
aequalis, 139 

carunculata manabiana, 139 
stoica, 139 
neanthina, 142 
(Limonia) 
bimucronata, 139 
brachyacantha, 139 
(Khipidia) proseni, 141 
Lobelia dortmanna, 170 
Loxostege stieticolis, 28 
Lucilia sericata, 28 
Lucinia, 209 
sida, 209 
Lyeorea, 117 

ceres demeter, 118 
Lysimachia terrestris, 170 

Machaerium purpura scens, 138 
Macromia illinoiensis, 179 
Malaeosoma americana, 28 
Marpesia, 192 

eleuebea eleuchea, 207 
marius, 207 

Megabothris a. asio, 164 


Melanoplus atlantis, 27 
Melete, 10 

salacia cubana, 10 
Melitaea, 125 

pelops pelops, 125 
Metamorpha, 192 

stelenes insularis, 192 
/. lavinia, 192 
Mimosa, 135 
Molophilus (Molophilus) 
piger, 140 
sponsus, 150 
tucumanus, 140 

Mycotretus nigromanicatus, 48 
Myodopsylla setosa, 193 
Myriophyllum, 173 

Nannothemis bella, 181 
Nathalis, 24 
iole, 24 

f. alayoi, 25 

Nearetopsylla genalis laurentina, 162 
Nehalennia 

gracilis, 177 
irene, 177 
Nymphsea, 173 

Orchopeas 

h. howardii, 163 
leucopus, 163 

Orimarga (Orimarga) subcostata, 
144 

Paehydiplax longipennis, 182 
Panoquina, 234 

nero corrupta, 236 
nyctelia coscinia, 235 
oeola, 235 

panoquinoides panoquinoides, 
235 

sylvicola sylvicola, 234 
Pantala flavescens, 182 
Papilio, 3 

andrsemon 
andraemon, 5 
bernandezi, 5 
androgeus epidaurus, 6 
aristodemus temenes, 5 


X 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXII 


caiguanabus, 5 
celadon, 7 
cresphontes, 4 
devilliers, 3 
gundlachianus, 3 
oxynius, 7 
palamedes, 6 
pelaus atkinsi, 6 
polydamus cubensis, 3 
polyxenes polyxenes, 4 
thoas oviedo, 4 
troilus ilioneus, 6 
Paracarystus, 237 
cubana, 238 
Parthenothrips, 101 
Perichares, 239 

phocion phocion, 239 
Perithemis tenera, 181 
Peromyscopsylla scotti, 161, 164 
Philaethria, 123 
dido, 123 
Phocides, 221 

batabano batabano, 221 
Phcebis, 19 

agarithe antiilia, 21 
argante minuscula, 20 
avellaneda, 20 
neleis, 22 
orbis orbis, 22 
philea thalestris, 20 
sennse sennae, 19 
statira cubana, 21 
Phyeiodes, 125 

frisia frisia, 126 
phaon pbaon, 126 
/. hiemalis, 126 
Polites, 232 

baracoa, 232 
Polygonia, 127 

interrogationis /. fabricii, 127 
Polygonus, 223 

lividus savigny, 224 
Popillia japonica, 27 
Plathemis lydia, 181 
Prepona, 213 

antimache crassina, 213 
Progomphus obseurus, 178 


Proteides, 222 

exadeus maysi, 223 
mercureus sanantonio, 223 
Pyrgus, 229 

crisia erisia, 230 
syriehtus, 230 
Pyrrhoealles, 236 

antiqua antiqua, 236 

Eetithrips, 101 
Rhexia, 173 

Sagittaria, 173 
Siderone, 213 
nemesis, 213 

Scseother carbonarius, 48 
Sericothrips 

mimosce, 134 
vicenarius, 133 
Shannonomyia sopora, 139 
Spintharus, 78 
flavidus, 79 
hentzi, 83 

Stenoponia americana, 162 
Strumigenys, 55 
borgmeieri, 57 
liindenburgi, 62 
marginiventris, 62 
saliens, 55 
trinidadensis, 59 
Sympetrum 

corruptum, 182 
costiferum, 182 
obtrusum, 182 
rubieundulum, 182 
semicinctum, 182 
vicinum, 182 
Synapte, 238 

malitiosa, 238 

Tenebrio molitor, 27 
Tetragoneuria cynosura, 180 
Teucholabis (Teucholabis) 
analis, 146 
cybele, 147 
duealis, 139 


1954] 


Index — Vol. LXII 


xi 


Thecla, 217 

acis casasi, 218 
angelia angelia, 219 
bazochii gundlaehianus, 219 
celida eelida, 218 
ccelebs, 217 
columella cybira, 218 
limenia, 219 
msesites nuesites, 218 
martialis, 217 
Thracides, 238 
telegonus, 239 
Tiarapsylla 
bella, 195 
titschacki, 197 
Tipula (Eumicrotipula) 
conspieillata, 139 
longurioides, 140 
Thymelicus, 230 
magdalia, 231 
Toxorhina (Ceratoeheilus) 
revulsa, 151 


macrorhyncha, 152 

Tramea Carolina, 183 

Urbanus, 221 

dorantes Santiago, 222 
proteus, 222 

Utricularia, 173 

Vaccinium, 173 

Vanessa, 127 

atalanta italica, 128 
eardui carduelis, 128 
virginiensis iole, 128 

Wallengrenia, 232 
otho misera, 232 

Xyris, 173 

Zerene, 24 

cesonia eesonia, 24 
























































































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Volume LXIII 


1955 

Journal 

of the 

New York Entomological Society 


Devoted to Entomology in General 

Editor Emeritus HARRY B. WEISS 



Edited by FRANK A, SORACI 


Publication Committee 

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CONTENTS 


Stanley Willard Bromley, 1899-1954 

By Harry B. Weiss .'...a 1 

Proceedings of the New York Entomological Society 8 

Changes in the Concentration of Reducing Substances during the Meta- 
morphosis of the Housefly (Musca domestica Linnaeus) 

By Bobert J. DelVecchio 9 

Change in Publication Arrangements 15 

Observations on Pseudomyrmex elongata Mayr ( Hymenoptera : Formi- 
cidae) 

By Wm. S. Creighton 17 

Growth and Polymorphism in the Larva of the Army Ant (Eciton (E.) 
Hamatum Fabricius) 

By John E. Tafuri 21 

The Effect of Submerged Pine Needles on the Oviposition and De- 
velopment of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say 

By J. D. De Coursey 43 

A Preliminary Study of Pennsylvania Mecoptera 

By S. W. Frost and Joanne Pepper Brown 53 

The Spider Genera Chrysso and Tidarren in America (Araneae: Theri- 
diidae) 

By Herbert W. Levi 59 

Serological Relationships Among Orthopteroid Insects as Determined 
by Their Whole “Blood” 

By Ludwig K. Pauly 83 

A New Name for Argynnis lais Edwards ( Lepidoptera, Rhopaiocera) 

By Cyril Franklin dos Passos and Lionel Paul Grey 95 

The Neotropical Species of the Ant Genus Strumigenys Fr. Smith: 
Group of Cultriger Mayr and S. Tococae Wheeler 

By William L. Brown, Jr 97 

Fleas on Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) in New Jersey 

By Paul P. Burbutis and Elton J. Hansens 103 

Determination of Glycogen Content during the Metamorphosis of the 
Mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus 

By Paul Gerald BousIell 107 

Records and Descriptions of Neotropical Crane-Flies (Tipulidae, Dip- 
teral, XXIX 

By Charles P. Alexander Ill 

Studies on the Effect of Decompression on Certain Insects, with Special 
Reference to Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say and Aedes sollicitans 
Walker 

By J. D. De Coursey and A. P. Webster 123 

The Genus Cryphula Stal, with the Descriptions of Two New Species 
( Heteroptera : Lygaeidae ) 

By Harry G. Barber 135 

Notes on Some Rare or Little-Known New York Siphonaptera 

By Allen H. Benton 139 

Changes in the Distribution of Nitrogen during Growth and Meta- 
morphosis of the Housefly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus) 

By Bobert J. DelVecchio 141 

New Missouri Chilopod Records with Remarks Concerning Geographi- 
cal Affinities 

By Balph E. Crabill, JB. 153 

The Activity of Succinic Dehydrogenase during Diapause and Meta- 
morphosis of the Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) 

By Daniel Ludwig and Mary C. Barsa 161 

Robert J. Sim, 1881-1955 

By Harry B. Weiss 166 


NOTICE: Volume LXII, Number 4, of the Journal 
of the New York Entomological Society was 
Published on October 15, 1956 


Published Quarterly for the Society 
By Business Press, Inc. 

Lancaster, Pa. 

Subscriptions should be sent to the Treasurer, J. Huberman, American Museum of 
Natural History, New York 24, N. Y. 


•Journal 

of the 

New York 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Devoted to Entomology in General 


VOLUME LXIII 


Published by the Society 
New York, N. Y. 



Business Press, Inc. 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania 


CONTENTS OF VOLUME LXIII 


PAGE 

Alexander, Charles P. 

Records and Descriptions of Neotropical Crane-Flies 
(Tipulidae, Diptera), XXIX Ill 

Barber, Harry G. 

The Genus Cryphula Stal, with the Descriptions of Two 
New Species (Heteroptera : Lygaeidae) 135 

Benton, Allen H. 

Notes on Some Bare or Little-Known New York 

Siphonaptera 139 

Book Notices 182, 183, 184 

Brown, William L., Jr. 

The Neotropical Species of the Ant Geiins Strumigenys 
Fr. Smith : Group of Cultriger Mayr and S. Tococae 
Wheeler 97 

Burbutis, Paul P. and Elton J. Hansens 

Fleas on Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) in New Jersey 103 

Change In Publication Arrangements 15 

Crabill, Ralph E. Jr. 

New Missouri Chilopod Records with Remarks Con- 
cerning Geographical Affinities 153 

Creighton, Wm. S. 

Observations on Pseudomyrmex elongata Mayr (Hy- 
menoptera: Formicidae) 17 

De Course y, J. D. 

The Effect of Submerged Pine Needles on the Oviposi- 
tion and Development of Anopheles quadrimaculatus 
Say 43 

De Coursey, J. D. and A. P. Webster 

Studies on the Effect of Decompression on Certain 
Insects, with Special Reference to Anopheles quadri- 
maculatus Say and Aedes sollicitans Walker 123 


XV 


DelVecchio, Robert J. 

Changes in the Concentration of Reducing Substances 
during the Metamorphosis of the Housefly (Musca 
domestica Linnaeus) 9 

Changes in the Distribution of Nitrogen during Growth 
and Metamorphosis of the Housefly, (Musca domestica 
Linnaeus) 141 

dos Passos, Cyril Franklin and Lionel Paul Grey 

A New Name for Argynnis lais Edwards (Lepidoptera, 
Rhopalocera) 95 

Frost, S. W. and Joanne Pepper Brown 

A Preliminary Study of Pennsylvania Mecoptera 53 


Ludwig, Daniel and Mary C. Bars a 

The Activity of Succinic Dehydrogenase during Dia- 
pause and Metamorphosis of the Japanese Beetle 


(Popillia japonica Newman) 161 

Levi, Herbert W. 

The Spider Genera Chrysso and Tidarren in America 
(Araneae: Theridikbe) 59 

Pauly, Ludwig K. 

Serological Relationships Among Orthopteroid Insects 
as Determined by Their Whole “ Blood’ ’ 83 

Proceedings Of The New York Entomological Society 8 


Rousell, Paul Gerald 

Determination of Glycogen Content during the Meta- 
morphosis of the Mealworm Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus 107 

Tafuri, John F. 

Growth and Polymorphism in the Larva of the Army 


Ant (Eciton (E.) Hamatum Fabricius) 21 

Weiss, Harry B. 

Stanley Willard Bromley, 1899-1954 1 

Robert J. Sim, 1881-1955 166 


XVI 


Journal of the 

OF THE 

New York Entomological Society 

Vol. LXIII 1955 


STANLEY WILLARD BROMLEY, 1899-1954 

Dr. Bromley, one of the past presidents of the New York Ento- 
mological Society, a contributor to its “ Journal,’ ’ and well- 
known to the entomological world, was born December 7, 1899 
at Sunny Valley Farm, close to Charlton, Worcester County, 
Massachusetts. He was the only son of James Willard and Lizzie 
Knowles Bromley. After graduating from high school in 1918, 
he entered the then Massachusetts Agricultural College where he 
majored in entomology under Dr. H. T. Fernald and Dr. G. C. 
Crampton. He graduated in 1922 with his B.S. degree and re- 
ceived his M.S. degree from the same institution in 1924 after 
completing his graduate work. From Ohio State University he 
received the Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1934. 

Dr. Bromley became interested in natural history at an early 
age. His first paper, “Asilids and their prey” written at the age 
of 13, appeared in “ Psyche,” 21: 192-198, in 1914. Thirty-two 
years afterward, the late Professor C. T. Brues referred to this 
paper in his chapter on Predatory Insects in his book “ Insect 
Dietary” published in 1946. It is quite unusual for entomol- 
ogists to get into print so young and have their early work re- 
ferred to after such a long time. In the paper in question, 18 
species of Asilidse are recorded with 463 records of capture. 
Early in life, the author exhibited a degree of patience and a 
keenness of observation that were to characterize all his later 
works. It was not until nine years later that his second paper 
was published in “Psyche” on the feeding habits of robber flies. 
The Asilidse upon which he was an authority occupied part of 
Dr. Bromley’s attention for the remainder of his life, his last 
paper being a description of 32 new species. 


2 


New York Entomological Society 


[VOL. LXIII 


During the summer of 1922 he worked on fruit insects at Wal- 
lingford, Connecticut for the Federal Bureau of Entomology. 
The American Cyanamid Company employed him between 1923 
and 1928 in connection with the development of cyanogas for the 
control of insect pests and rodents and liquid hydrocyanic acid 
gas for fumigation work in warehouses. At this time his office 
was in New York City. 

In January of 1929, he became associated with the F. A. Bart- 
lett Tree Expert Company, later the Bartlett Tree Research 
Laboratories of Stamford, Connecticut, as chief entomologist, 
where he investigated insecticides and the life histories of nurs- 
ery and forest insect pests, and where he taught various courses 
at the Bartlett School of Tree Surgery. He also built up a collec- 
tion of tree and shrub insects, with specimens of their injury. 
Dr. Bromley remained with the firm until he retired, December 
31, 1951, on account of illness. 

During Dr. Bromley’s work on the taxonomy of the Asilidae, 
on which he published around 50 papers, he built up a collection 
of well over 35,000 Diptera specimens, nearly 28,000 of which 
are Asilidae. Type specimens numbered 1,868. This collection 
is now in the Smithsonian Institution. ‘ ‘ Index VII to the Litera- 
ture of American Economic Entomology, 1940 to 1944” was ed- 
ited by Dr. Bromley with the help of his wife, Dr. Helen B. 
Bromley, an authority on the taxonomy of fresh-water algae. 
This was published in 1948 by the American Association of Eco- 
nomic Entomologists. 

Dr. Bromley kept in touch with many entomologists and be- 
longed to the Entomological Society of America of which he was 
a fellow, to the American Association of Economic Entomologists, 
the Ecological Society of America, the New York Entomological 
Society of which he was vice president in 1945 and president in 
1946, to the entomological societies of Washington, Brooklyn and 
Cambridge, and to the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. At the time of his death he was a member of 
the board of governors of the National Shade Tree Conference 
and a member of the Connecticut Tree Protective Association. 

His death occurred in the Stamford Hospital on February 16, 
1954, after a long illness characterized by high blood pressure. 
He was buried in Long Ridge Union Cemetery, Stamford, Con- 


1955] 


Weiss: Stanley Willard Bromley 


3 


necticut. At Columbus, Ohio, in 1935 he was married to Dr. 
Helen Jean Brown, who at that time was on the staff of the de- 
partment of botany of the Ohio State University. He is survived 
by his wife, to whom I am indebted for most of the above infor- 
mation, by his son James Robert, born at Stamford on April 9, 
1936 and now a student at Yale, and by his mother. In the 
obituary of Dr. Bromley by Charles P. Alexander that appeared 
in the Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 47, 
No. 2, June, 1954, it is stated that in 1910, when he was 11 years 
of age he visited the museum of the Boston Society of Natural 
History and became acquainted with the late Charles W. John- 
son, a dipterologist of note with whom Dr. Bromley was friendly 
until Johnson died in 1932. It is further stated that “Mr. and 
Mrs. Johnson were so impressed by the personality and poten- 
tialities of the youngster that they took the preliminary steps to 
legally adopt him, a course that proved impossible. ’ ’ Mrs. Helen 
J. Bromley has advised me that Dr. Bromley’s mother who is 
still living denies that such a course was ever considered. 

The following bibliography was supplied by Mrs. Helen J. 
Bromley. It was prepared except for the last three titles, by Dr. 
Bromley who apparently considered that it represented his most 
important writings, and except for twenty-two titles that I have 
been able to add on shade trees and shade tree pests in order to 
show 7 the scope of his interests. During the years that I knew 
Dr. Bromley and during our meetings, usually in connection 
wfith the meetings of the New York Entomological Society and 
the Eastern Branch of the American Association of Economic 
Entomologists, I was always impressed by his serious and deep 
interest in entomology, by his desire to be helpful and by his 
friendliness. He always merited the scientific and personal 
esteem in which we held him. — Harry B. Weiss 

The Writings of Stanley Willard Bromley* 

1914. Asilids and their prey. Psyche. 21: 192-198. 

1923. Observations on the feeding habits of robber flies. Psyche. 30(2): 

41-45. 

1924. A bird in a spider web. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 19(2) : 52-53. 

1924. Radial venation in the Brachycera. Raymond C. Shannon and S. W. 

Bromley. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus. 12(7-9) : 137-140. 

* This may not be complete because an extended search has not been made. 


4 


New York Entomological Society 


[VOL. LXIII 


1924. Controlling chinch bugs in Missouri with calcium cyanide. L. Hase- 
man and S. W. Bromley. Jour. Econ. Ent. 17: 324. 

1924. New robber flies. Occas. papers Boston Soc. of Nat. History 
5: 125-127 

1924. A new Ophiogomphus from Massachusetts. Ent. News. 35: 343-344. 

1925. The Bremus-resembling Mallophorse of the Southeast United States. 

Psyche. 32(3) : 190-194. 

1926. The external anatomy of the black horse-fly. Annals Ent. Soc. Amer. 

19(4): 440-460. 

1926. The cyanogas calcium cyanide treatment for the Cuban leaf-cutting 

ant. S. W. Bromley and S. C. Bruner. Research in Development 
of Cyanogas Calcium Cyanide. Sept. 30. 

1927. The genus Microstylum in Madagascar. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 53: 

201-207. 

1927. Some North American Asilidae: their models and their prey. Proc. 

Ent. Soc. London. 2: 33. 

1928. Cyanogas calcium cyanide for the fumigation of flour mills. Re- 

search in Development of Cyanogas Calcium Cyanide. Feb. 15. 

1928. The monarch butterfly wintering in the everglades. Ent. News. 39: 
96-97. 

1928. A dragon fly ovipositing on a paved highway. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 
23(2): 69. 

1928. Notes on the genus Proctacanthus. Psyche. 35(1) : 12-15. 

1928. New neotropical Erax. Amer. Museum Novitates. No. 334, Nov. 10. 

1928. New Asilidae from China. Amer. Museum Novitates. No. 336, 

Dec. 13. 

1929. New Asilidae from Mexico. Psyche. 36(1) : 45-47. 

1929. The Asilidae of Cuba. Annals. Ent. Soc. Amer. 22(2) : 272-295. 

1929. Notes on the Asilid genera Bombomima and Laphria. Canad. Ent. 

61: 157-161. 

1930. Bee-killing robber flies. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 38: 159-177. 

1930. A review of the genus Proagonistes. Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History. Ser. 10, 6: 209-225. 

1930. New robber flies from Madagascar. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 25(5) : 
283-290. 

1930. Shade tree insects in 1929. E. P. Felt and S. W. Bromley. Jour. 
Econ. Ent. 23(1): 137-142. 

1930. Shade tree problems. (With E. P. Felt). Proc. Ann. Meet. Nat. 

Shade Tree Conf. p. 13. 

1931. Hornet habits. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 39: 123-129. 

1931. Developing resistance or tolerance to insect attacks. (With E. P. 

Felt). Jour. Econ. Ent. 24: 437. 

1931. New neotropical Andrenosoma. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 57: 129-134. 
1931. New Asilidae, with a revised key to the genus Stenopogon. Annals 
Ent. Soc. Amer. 24(2) : 427-435. 

1931. Tests with nicotine activators. E. P. Felt and S. W. Bromley. Jour. 
Econ. Ent. 24(1) : 105-111. 


1955] 


Weiss: Stanley Willard Bromley 


5 


1931. Observations on shade tree insects. E. P. Pelt and S. W. Bromley. 
Jour. Econ. Ent. 24(1): 157-162. 

1931. Insecticide investigations during 1930. E. P. Felt and S. W. 
Bromley. Jour. Econ. Ent. 24(1): 232-240. 

1931. A preliminary annotated list of the robber flies of Ohio. Ohio State 

Mus. Science Bull. 1(2). 19 p. 4 plates. 

1932. Insecticides on shade trees and ornamentals. (With E. P. Felt). 

Jour. Econ. Ent. 25: 298. 

1932. Observations on shade tree insects. (With E. P. Felt). Jour. Econ. 
Ent. 25: 39. 

1932. Asilidae: Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile. Part Y — Fasc. 3: 
261-282. Figures 23-28. 

1932. Observations on the Chinese mantid, ParatenocTera sinensis Saussare. 

Bull. Brook Ent. Soc. 27(4): 196-201. 

1933. Corrections in nomenclature (Diptera, Asilidae). Ent. News. 44: 15. 

1933. The sting of a tarantula wasp. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 28 (5) : 192. 

1933. Additions to the Ohio list of robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae). Ohio 

Jour, of Science. 33(3). 

1933. Cicadas in Texas. Psyche. 40(4). 

1933. Courting and mating performances of an Asilid fly, Heteropogon 

lautus. Psyche. 40(4). 

1934. The robber flies of Texas (Diptera: Asilidae). Annals Ent. Soc. of 

Amer. 27(1): 74-113. 2 plates. 

1934. Additions to the Ohio list of robber flies II. Ohio Jour. Sci. 34(3) : 
163. 

1934. Two new Dasypogonine robber flies from the Southwest. Jour. N. Y. 
Ent. Soc. 42: 225-226. 

1934. The Laphriine robber flies of North America (unpublished). Ab- 

stracts of Doctor’s Dissertation. No. 14. O. S. U. Press. 1934. 

1935. A note on the validity of Proagonistes athletes. Ann. & Magazine of 

Natural History. Ser. 10. 15: 398. 

1935. New Asilidae from the Belgian Congo (Diptera). Rev. Zool. Bot. 
Africa. 26(4): 404-415. 

1935. New Asilidae from India (Insecta: Diptera). Records of the Indian 
Museum. 36(2): 219-230. Calcutta. 

1935. Two new South American Asilidae (Diptera). Arbeiten. Morph, 
taxon. Ent. Berlin-Dahlem. 2(2): 109-112. 

1935. The original forest types of Southern New England. Ecological 

Monographia 5: 61-89. 

1936. Studies in South African Asilidae. Ann. of Transvaal Museum. 

38(2): 125-146. 

1936. Asilids feeding on bumblebees in New England. Psyche. 43(1). 

1936. The genus Diogmites in U. S. of America with descriptions of new 
species. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 44: 225-237. 

1936. Oil effects on shade trees. (With E. P. Felt). Jour. Econ. Ent. 
29(2): 357-360. 


<6 


New York Entomological Society 


iVOL. LXIII 


1936. Shade tree insect developments. (With E. P. Felt). Jour. Econ. 

Ent. 29: 223. 

1937. The genus Stenopogon Loew in the U. S. of America. Jour. N. Y. 

Ent. Soc. 45: 291-309. 

1937. Observations on shade tree insects and their control. (With E. P. 

Felt). Jour. Econ. Ent. 30(1): 71-75. 

1938. Shade tree insects and sprays, 1937. (With E. P. Felt). Jour. 

Econ. Ent. 31(2) : 173-176. 

1939. New and little-known Utah Diptera with notes on the taxonomy of 

the Diptera. Utah Acad. Sci. Arts & Letters. 14: 99-109. 

1939. New Asilidse from India, II. Indian Jour. Agr. Sci. 8(6) : 863-868. 
Delhi. 

1939. Hurricane of Sept. 21, 1938. (With E. P. Felt). Scientific Tree 
Topics. No. 1. 1939. 

1939. Factors influencing tree destruction during the New England Hurri- 

cane. Science. 90. No. 2323. p. 1516. 

1940. Pine Aphids. Sci. Tree Topics. 1(4) : 30-31. 

1940. New insecticides and spreaders on shade trees. (With E. P. Felt). 
Jour. Econ. Ent. 33: 244-249. 

1940. Insecticides and their use. (With E. P. Felt). Sci. Tree Topics. 
1(4): 26-27. 

1940. New U. S. A. robber flies (Diptera: Asilidse). Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 
35(1): 13-21. 

1940. Some unusual pines at the laboratories. Sci. Tree Topics. 1(3) : 23. 

1940. Three unsightly oak galls. Sci. Tree Topics. 1(4) : 28-30. 

1941. New and unusual shade tree pests. (With E. P. Felt). Jour. Econ. 

Ent. 34(3) : 383. 

1941. Elm leaf beetle probabilities in 1941. Sci. Tree Topics. 1(7) : 54-55. 

1941. Trees and shrubs attractive to birds. Sci. Tree Topics. 1(6) : 43-44. 

1942. Madagascar robber flies with descriptions of new species. Trans. Am. 

Ent. Soc. 48: 11-21. 

1942. Bee-killing Asilids in New England. Psyche. 49(3-4) : 81-83. 

1942. The increasing importance of coleopterous borers in shade trees. 

(With E. P. Felt). Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 50(2) : 169. 

1942. The shade tree insects of 1941. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 50: 212. 

1944. Ephraim Porter Felt, 1868-1943. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 52: 223-236. 

1945. Insect enemies of the house fly, Musca domestica L. Jour. N. Y. 

Ent. Soc. 53: 145-152. 

1945. The robber flies and bee-killers of China (Diptera: Asilidse). Ling- 
nan Science Jour. 21(1-4) : 87-105. China. 

1945. An Indian relic area. Scientific Monthly. 60: 153-154. 

1946. John Watson Angell, 1885-1946. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 54: 290. 
1946. Bee-killing Asilidse of the Southeastern states (Diptera). Proc. Ent. 

Soc. Wash. 48(1) : 16-17. 

1946. The robber flies of Brazil (Asilidse: Diptera). Livro de homenagem 
a R. F. d ’Almeida. No. 8: 103-120. 19 de julho. 


1955] 


Weiss: Stanley Willard Bromley 


7 


1946. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part YI. The Diptera or true 
flies of Connecticut, Asilidae, Third Fascicle. State of Conn. 
State Geological & Natural History Survey. Bull. No. 69. 
Hartford. 

1946. The death of a tree. Arborists’ News. 2(6). 

1946. Wheel-bug vs. Japanese beetle. Ent. News. 57(1). 

1947. The last few years (Address of retiring pres., N. Y. Ent. Soc.). 

Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 55: 207-214. 

1947. New South African Asilidae (Diptera). Annals of Durban Museum. 
3(8) : 109-117. Africa. 

1947. Ohio robber flies IV. Ohio Jour. Sci. 47(2) : 67-68. 

1947. Insect cycles. Museum News. 8(1). 

1947. The lumber shortage. Arborists’ News. February. 

1948. Woodland Improvement. Arborists’ News. November. 

1948. Insect predators of mosquitoes. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 50(9). 

1948. Some of the more important insect pests of pine. Sci. Tree Topics. 

1(9) : 69-72. 

1948. Honey-bee predators. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 56: 195-199. 

1948. 1 1 Specialization ” in new organic insecticides. Agricultural Chem- 

icals. December. 

1949. But how do you pronounce it? American Forests. February. 

1949. The Missouri bee-killer, Proctachanthus milbertii. Bull. Brook. Ent. 

Soc. 44(1) : 21-28. 

1949. African bee-killing Asilidae. Trans, of Rhodesian Sci. Ass’n. 42: 

63-67. Africa. 

1950. Plant white pines. Horticulture Magazine. May. 

1950. Florida Asilidae (Diptera) with description of one new species. Ann. 

Ent. Soc. Am. 43(2) : 227-239. 

1950. Ohio robber flies V. Ohio Jour. Sci. 50(5) : 229-234. 

1950. Records and descriptions of Asilidae in the collection of University of 
Michigan Museum of Zoology (Diptera). Occas. Papers of Mus. 
of Zool. N. 527. June. 

1950. Dragon fly feeding on cankerworms. Jour. Econ. Ent. 43(3). 

1950. Mosquitoes and DDT. Arborists’ News. June. 

1950. The elm leaf beetle. (Tree Pest Leaflets). New England Section 

Soc. of American Forestors. Hillsboro, N. H. 

1951. Trees and tree insects, with special reference to the Dutch elm dis- 

ease. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 59(4). 

1952. Asilid notes (Diptera) with descriptions of thirty-two new species. 

Am. Mus. Novitates. No. 1532. 1-36. 


8 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII; 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NEW YORK 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

The last Proceedings of the Society to appear in the Journal 
were in Vol. 56, No. 3, Sept. 1953, which issue was published Nov. 
20, 1953. Failure of the Proceedings to appear in subsequent 
issues must be blamed on the failure of the Secretary to provide 
complete minutes to the Editor, even to the present time, Janu- 
ary, 1957. On many occasions during the three year interval, 
the Editor, the Officers and the Executive Committee have re- 
quested the Secretary to give proper attention to this duty of 
his office, but without the desired result. 

The Journal can no longer delay publication of its proceed- 
ings and although minutes for a number of 1953, 1954 and 1955 
meetings have not been submitted, we publish herewith the mate- 
rial available with the understanding that the remaining min- 
utes will be published at later date, if and when they are received. 

— F. A. Soraci. 


Meeting of October 7, 1952 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. There were 13 members and seven guests present. The 
Secretary received a letter dated October 6, 1952 advising that Albro T. 
Gaul had vacated the post of President of the Society by resignation. 
Therefore in accordance with Article Y, Section 2 of the By-Laws, Vice- 
President Dr. Lucy Clausen occupied the Chair. The minutes of the pre- 
vious meeting were read and approved. 

The Secretary informed the Society of the death of one of its Life Mem- 
bers and past President, Mr. Andrew J. Mutchler. President Clausen ap- 
pointed a committee composed of J. D. Sherman, Jiv and H. B. Weiss to pre- 
pare a biographical note to be published in the Journal. 

Dr. Hagan reported on a visit to the Olsens at Nyack, N. Y. and com- 
mented upon the success of the Olsen family in a radio quiz program held 
in New York City. He also told the membership that Mr. Olsen is now 
preparing a giant model of a lampyrid beetle; this will be his second giant 
model of a beetle. 

Dr. Vishniac then introduced the speaker of the evening, Dr. Collins, 
Entomologist of the State of New York who spoke on “The tick problem 
on Long Island. ” 

In his address Dr. Collins pointed out the unreliability of the legend of 
the introduction of the ticks on Long Island by Theodore Boosevelt’s Bough 
{Continued on page 16 ) 


1955] 


DelVecchio: Reducing Substances 


9 


CHANGES IN THE CONCENTRATION OF REDUCING 
SUBSTANCES DURING THE METAMORPHOSIS 
OF THE HOUSEFLY (MUSCA DOMESTICA 
LINNAEUS)* 

By Robert J. DelVecchio 
Department of Blology, Fordham University 

Frew (1929) studied changes in the glucose content during 
metamorphosis of the blowfly (species not given). His results in- 
dicate that glucose increases in concentration just prior to pupa- 
tion, and decreases rapidly immediately afterward. He also re- 
ported the occurrence of sudden increases in glucose content for 
definite points during pupal life. These results have been inter- 
preted as indicating that a synthesis of glucose occurs during 
metamorphosis. Frew suggests that the glucose is derived from 
protein during the first half and from fat the last half of the 
pupal period. Courtois-Drilhon (1931) reported an increase in 
the glucose content of the early pupae of three species of Lepidop- 
tera ( Attacus pernyi, Sphinx ligustri and Saturnia pyri). This 
increase continued from the time of pupation in August, until 
December, and was followed by a steady decrease until emergence 
the following April. Crescitelli and Taylor (1935) studied the 
bee-moth, Galleria mellonella , and found that the period of spin- 
ning (prepupal stage) is one during which increasing concentra- 
tions of reducing substances are found. During pupal life, which 
lasted for seven days at 30° C., the concentration of reducing sub- 
stances decreases at first, then rises. A final drop in concentra- 
tion occurs just prior to the emergence of the adult. Ludwig 
and Rothstein (1949) found that in the Japanese beetle, Popillia 
japonica, the glucose content decreased from 0.52 per cent in the 
3rd instar larva to 0.42 per cent in the early prepupa, but in- 
creased in the newly-molted pupa to 0.79 per cent. During the 
first day of pupal life, at 25° C., there was a small but significant 

* Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of 
Master of Science at Fordham University 

The author is indebted to Professor Daniel Ludwig under whose direction 
this investigation was carried out, and to Doctor Bertram A. Sacktor, from 
whom the insects were obtained. 


10 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


drop to 0.68 per cent. It remained constant for about 2 days and 
then increased slowly throughout the remainder of the pupal 
stage, reaching a value of 0.86 per cent in the 9-day pupa. Emer- 
gence was associated with an actual loss of glucose but, because 
of the loss of weight which occurs at that time, the percentage 
value increased. The increase in glucose and glycogen which was 
observed at the time of pupation was considered by the authors 
to be the result of a breakdown of insoluble proteins which occurs 
at that time, the degradation products being temporarily stored 
as carbohydrates. 

This review indicates that the concentrations of reducing com- 
pounds may vary greatly in different insects during metamorpho- 
sis. In some forms there is an actual loss of this constituent;: 
whereas in other forms its concentration increases significantly. 
Because of this variation, it was decided to study the changes in 
reducing compounds during the growth, metamorphosis and’ 
imaginal life of the housefly, Musca domestica. 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The larvae of the housefly were raised on whole milk. A finger- 
bowl containing cotton saturated with whole milk served as the 
feeding medium. Twenty-four hours after the eggs were laid on 
this saturated cotton, they were transferred to a humidifier regu- 
lated at approximately 30° C. and a humidity near saturation. 
The eggs hatched in approximately 24 hours under these condi- 
tions, and the time of hatching was recorded. In this manner 
carefully timed records, within 24 hours, were obtained for each 
group of experimental animals. Headings on glucose were made 
on groups of five larvae at the following stages : one, two, three, 
four, five and six days after hatching ; on groups of four pupae, 
one, two, three and four days after puparium formation ; and on 
groups of two newly-emerged adults and groups of two old-adults 
(7 to 10 days after emergence). 

Determinations of reducing substances, expressed as glucose,, 
were made by the Hagedorn and Jensen procedure (see Hawk, 
Oser and Summerson, 1947, p. 528). 

OBSERVATIONS 

The results of the glucose determinations are given in Table 1. 
The table contains the average weights of the insects and the aver- 


1955] 


DelVecchio: Eeducing Substances 


II 


age percentages (by weight) of glucose present at each day of 
growth and metamorphosis. These values are averages obtained 
from ten determinations. Since the amount of glucose is greater 
in the larger insects, the percentage values at different stages are 
considered more reliable than those for weights. There is no dif- 
ference in the amount of glucose present in the one- and two-day 
larva. However, between the second and third days there is a 
decrease from 0.36 to 0.23 per cent. This decrease is followed by 
an increase in concentration in the four-day larva to 0.26 per cent. 


TABLE 1 


Stage in 
development 

Number of 
insects 

Average 
weight in mg. 
per group 

Average 
weight of 
glucose in 
mg per 
group 

Glucose as 
per cent 
weight and 
standard 
errors 

1-day larvae 

50 

25. 

9.0 

0.36 ±.0085 

2-day larvae 

50 

72. 

25.7 

0.36 ±.0289 

3-day larvae 

50 

124. 

28.0 

0.23 ±.0066 

4-day larvae 

50 

89. 

23.4 

0.26 ±.0106 

5-day larvae 

50 

33. 

5.5 

0.17 ±.0069 

6- day larvae 

50 

75. 

20.6 

0.27 ±.0117 

1-day pupae 

40 

53. 

19.5 

0.37 ±.0142 

2-day pupae 

40 

54. 

21.0 

0.39 ±.0157 

3-day pupae 

40 

53. 

21.3 

0.40 ±.0174 

4-day pupae 

40 

40. 

16.9 

0.42 ±.0177 

newly-emerged 





adults 

20 

37. 

31.2 

0.84 ±.0108 

old adults 

20 

17. 

20.4 

1.20 ±.0075 


A second drop to 0.17 per cent occurs in the five-day larva, fol- 
lowed by an increase in the six-day larva to 0.27 per cent. The 
glucose then rises to its former value of 0.37 per cent following 
puparium formation. There is a steady increase in the concen- 
tration of glucose in the pupal stage reaching a high of 0.42 per 
cent in the four-day pupa. There is an increase in weight ex- 
hibited by the newly emerged adults, within the first 24 hours 
after emergence. This increase may be explained by the fact that 
these adults had already fed. However, as the adult ages, it loses 
weight resulting in a further increase in the percentage value of 


12 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


glucose. Glucose increases in the adult stage from 0.84 in the 
newly-emerged to 1.20 per cent in the old adult. 

In Table 2 is given a statistical analysis of these results. Begin- 
ning with the second day, there are significant changes between 
successive days of the larval period. In the pupal period, the 


TABLE 2 


Stages 

compared 

Difference 

between 

means 

Standard 
error of 
difference 

Difference 
Standard 
error of 
difference 

LARVAE 




1 and 3 day 

0.13 

± .0107 

12.0 

3 and 4 day 

0.03 

±.0125 

2.4 

4 and 5 day 

0.09 

±.0126 

7.1 

6 and 1 day 

0.10 

±.0184 

5.4 

pupa 




PUPAE 




1 and 2 day 

0.02 

±.0211 

0.9 

2 and 3 day 

0.01 

± .0234 

0.4 

3 and 4 day 

0.02 

± .0248 

0.8 

1 and 4 day 

0.05 

±.0231 

2.1 

ADULTS 




newly-emerged 




and old adults 

0.36 

±.0131 

27.5 


only statistical significance observed is that found when the one 
and four-day pupae are compared. A significant change is also 
found between the newly-emerged and old adults. 


DISCUSSION 

The irregular increases and decreases in the concentration of 
glucose throughout growth may have significance when correlated 
with the physiological activities of the organism. Thus, for ex- 
ample, an increase in the percentage of glucose from 0.37 per cent 
in the one-day pupa to 1.20 per cent in the old adult may be in- 
dicative of an endogenous synthesis of glucose, or other reducing 
compounds. Moreover, decreases in the concentration of glucose 
can similarly be associated with carbohydrate utilization. 

The results indicate a gradual increase in the concentration of 
reducing compounds during the pupal period. Similar increases 


CONTENTS OF VOLUME LXIII 


PAGE 

Alexander, Charles P. 

Records and Descriptions of Neotropical Crane-Flies 
(Tipulidae, Diptera), XXIX Ill 

Barber, Harry G. 

The Genus Cryphula Stal, with the Descriptions of Two 
New Species (Heteroptera : Lygaeidae) 135 

Benton, Allen H. 

Notes on Some Rare or Little-Known New York 

Siphonaptera 139 

Book Notices 182, 183, 184 

Brown, William L., Jr. 

The Neotropical Species of the Ant Genus Strumigenys 
Fr. Smith: Group of Cultriger Mayr and S. Tococae 
Wheeler 97 

Burbutis, Paul P. and Elton J. Hansens 

Fleas on Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) in New Jersey 103 

Change In Publication Arrangements 15 

Crabill, Ralph E. Jr. 

New Missouri Chilopod Records with Remarks Con- 
cerning Geographical Affinities 153 

Creighton, Wm. S. 

Observations on Pseudomyrmex elongata Mayr (Hy- 
menoptera: Formicidae) 17 

De Course y, J. D. 

The Effect of Submerged Pine Needles on the Oviposi- 
tion and Development of Anopheles quadrimaculatus 
Say 43 

De Coursey, J. D. and A. P. Webster 

Studies on the Effect of Decompression on Certain 
Insects, with Special Reference to Anopheles quadri- 
maculatus Say and Aedes sollicitans Walker 123 


XV 


DelVecchio, Robert J. 

Changes in the Concentration of Reducing Substances 
during the Metamorphosis of the Housefly (Musca 
domestica Linnaeus) 9 

Changes in the Distribution of Nitrogen during Growth 
and Metamorphosis of the Housefly, (Musca domestica 
Linnaeus) 141 

dos Passos, Cyril Franklin and Lionel Paul Grey 

A New Name for Argynnis lais Edwards (Lepidoptera, 
Rhopalocera) 95 

Frost, S. W. and Joanne Pepper Brown 

A Preliminary Study of Pennsylvania Mecoptera 53 


Ludwig, Daniel and Mary C. Barsa 

The Activity of Succinic Dehydrogenase during Dia- 
pause and Metamorphosis of the Japanese Beetle 


(Popillia japonica Newman) 161 

Levi, Herbert W. 

The Spider Genera Chrysso and Tidarren in America 
(Araneae: Theridiidae) 59 

Pauly, Ludwig K. 

Serological Relationships Among Orthopteroid Insects 
as Determined by Their Whole “ Blood ’ ’ 83 

Proceedings Of The New York Entomological Society 8 


Rousell, Paul Gerald 

Determination of Glycogen Content during the Meta- 
morphosis of the Mealworm Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus 107 

Tafuri, John F. 

Growth and Polymorphism in the Larva of the Army 


Ant (Eciton (E.) Hamatum Fabricius) 21 

Weiss, Harry B. 

Stanley Willard Bromley, 1899-1954 1 

Robert J. Sim, 1881-1955 166 


XVI 


Journal of the 

OF THE 

New York Entomological Society 

Vol. LXIII 1955 


STANLEY WILLARD BROMLEY, 1899-1954 

Dr. Bromley, one of the past presidents of the New York Ento- 
mological Society, a contributor to its “ Journal,’ ’ and well- 
known to the entomological world, was born December 7, 1899 
at Sunny Valley Farm, close to Charlton, Worcester County, 
Massachusetts. He was the only son of James Willard and Lizzie 
Knowles Bromley. After graduating from high school in 1918, 
he entered the then Massachusetts Agricultural College where he 
majored in entomology under Dr. H. T. Fernald and Dr. G. C. 
Crampton. He graduated in 1922 with his B.S. degree and re- 
ceived his M.S. degree from the same institution in 1924 after 
completing his graduate work. From Ohio State University he 
received the Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1934. 

Dr. Bromley became interested in natural history at an early 
age. His first paper, “Asilids and their prey” written at the age 
of 13, appeared in “Psyche,” 21: 192-198, in 1914. Thirty-two 
years afterward, the late Professor C. T. Brues referred to this 
paper in his chapter on Predatory Insects in his book “Insect 
Dietary” published in 1946. It is quite unusual for entomol- 
ogists to get into print so young and have their early work re- 
ferred to after such a long time. In the paper in question, 18 
species of Asilidae are recorded with 463 records of capture. 
Early in life, the author exhibited a degree of patience and a 
keenness of observation that were to characterize all his later 
works. It was not until nine years later that his second paper 
was published in ‘ ‘ Psyche ’ ’ on the feeding habits of robber flies. 
The Asilidae upon which he was an authority occupied part of 
Dr. Bromley’s attention for the remainder of his life, his last 
paper being a description of 32 new species. 


2 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


During the summer of 1922 he worked on fruit insects at Wal- 
lingford, Connecticut for the Federal Bureau of Entomology. 
The American Cyanamid Company employed him between 1923 
and 1928 in connection with the development of cyanogas for the 
control of insect pests and rodents and liquid hydrocyanic acid 
gas for fumigation work in warehouses. At this time his office 
was in New York City. 

In January of 1929, he became associated with the F. A. Bart- 
lett Tree Expert Company, later the Bartlett Tree Research 
Laboratories of Stamford, Connecticut, as chief entomologist, 
where he investigated insecticides and the life histories of nurs- 
ery and forest insect pests, and where he taught various courses 
at the Bartlett School of Tree Surgery. He also built up a collec- 
tion of tree and shrub insects, with specimens of their injury. 
Dr. Bromley remained with the firm until he retired, December 
31, 1951, on account of illness. 

During Dr. Bromley’s work on the taxonomy of the Asilidae, 
on which he published around 50 papers, he built up a collection 
of well over 35,000 Diptera specimens, nearly 28,000 of which 
are Asilidae. Type specimens numbered 1,868. This collection 
is now in the Smithsonian Institution. 1 ‘ Index YII to the Litera- 
ture of American Economic Entomology, 1940 to 1944” was ed- 
ited by Dr. Bromley with the help of his wife, Dr. Helen B. 
Bromley, an authority on the taxonomy of fresh-water algae. 
This was published in 1948 by the American Association of Eco- 
nomic Entomologists. 

Dr. Bromley kept in touch with many entomologists and be- 
longed to the Entomological Society of America of which he was 
a fellow, to the American Association of Economic Entomologists, 
the Ecological Society of America, the New York Entomological 
Society of which he was vice president in 1945 and president in 
1946, to the entomological societies of Washington, Brooklyn and 
Cambridge, and to the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. At the time of his death he was a member of 
the board of governors of the National Shade Tree Conference 
and a member of the Connecticut Tree Protective Association. 

His death occurred in the Stamford Hospital on February 16, 
1954, after a long illness characterized by high blood pressure. 
He was buried in Long Ridge Union Cemetery, Stamford, Con- 


1955] 


Weiss: Stanley Willard Bromley 


3 


necticut. At Columbus, Ohio, in 1935 he was married to Dr. 
Helen Jean Brown, who at that time was on the staff of the de- 
partment of botany of the Ohio State University. He is survived 
by his w T ife, to whom I am indebted for most of the above infor- 
mation, by his son James Robert, born at Stamford on April 9, 
1936 and now a student at Yale, and by his mother. In the 
obituary of Dr. Bromley by Charles P. Alexander that appeared 
in the Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 47, 
No. 2, June, 1954, it is stated that in 1910, when he was 11 years 
of age he visited the museum of the Boston Society of Natural 
History and became acquainted with the late Charles W. John- 
son, a dipterologist of note with whom Dr. Bromley was friendly 
until Johnson died in 1932. It is further stated that “Mr. and 
Mrs. Johnson were so impressed by the personality and poten- 
tialities of the youngster that they took the preliminary steps to 
legally adopt him, a course that proved impossible. ’ ’ Mrs. Helen 
J. Bromley has advised me that Dr. Bromley’s mother who is 
still living denies that such a course was ever considered. 

The following bibliography was supplied by Mrs. Helen J. 
Bromley. It was prepared except for the last three titles, by Dr. 
Bromley who apparently considered that it represented his most 
important writings, and except for twenty-two titles that I have 
been able to add on shade trees and shade tree pests in order to 
show the scope of his interests. During the years that I knew 
Dr. Bromley and during our meetings, usually in connection 
with the meetings of the New York Entomological Society and 
the Eastern Branch of the American Association of Economic 
Entomologists, I was always impressed by his serious and deep 
interest in entomology, by his desire to be helpful and by his 
friendliness. He always merited the scientific and personal 
esteem in which we held him. — Harry B. Weiss 

The Writings of Stanley Willard Bromley* 

1914. Asilids and their prey. Psyche. 21: 192-198. 

1923. Observations on the feeding habits of robber flies. Psyche. 30(2): 

41-45. 

1924. A bird in a spider web. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 19(2) : 52-53. 

1924. Badial venation in the Brachycera. Baymond C. Shannon and S. W. 

Bromley. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus. 12(7-9) : 137-140. 

* This may not be complete because an extended search has not been made. 


4 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. lxiii 


1924. Controlling chinch bugs in Missouri with calcium cyanide. L. Hase- 
man and S. W. Bromley. Jour. Eeon. Ent. 17: 324. 

1924. New robber flies. Occas. papers Boston Soc. of Nat. History 
5: 125-127 

1924. A new Ophiogomphus from Massachusetts. Ent. News. 35: 343-344. 

1925. The Bremus-resembling Mallophorae of the Southeast United States. 

Psyche. 32(3) : 190-194. 

1926. The external anatomy of the black horse-fly. Annals Ent. Soc. Amer. 

19(4): 440-460. 

1926. The cyanogas calcium cyanide treatment for the Cuban leaf-cutting 

ant. S. W. Bromley and S. C. Bruner. Research in Development 
of Cyanogas Calcium Cyanide. Sept. 30. 

1927. The genus Microstylum in Madagascar. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 53: 

201-207. 

1927. Some North American Asilidae: their models and their prey. Proc. 

Ent. Soc. London. 2: 33. 

1928. Cyanogas calcium cyanide for the fumigation of flour mills. Re- 

search in Development of Cyanogas Calcium Cyanide. Feb. 15. 

1928. The monarch butterfly wintering in the everglades. Ent. News. 39: 
96-97. 

1928. A dragon fly ovipositing on a paved highway. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 
23(2): 69. 

1928. Notes on the genus Proctacanthus. Psyche. 35(1) : 12-15. 

1928. New neotropical Erax. Amer. Museum Novitates. No. 334, Nov. 10. 

1928. New Asilidae from China. Amer. Museum Novitates. No. 336, 

Dec. 13. 

1929. New Asilidae from Mexico. Psyche. 36(1) : 45-47. 

1929. The Asilidae of Cuba. Annals. Ent. Soc. Amer. 22(2) : 272-295. 

1929. Notes on the Asilid genera Bombomima and Laphria. Canad. Ent. 

61: 157-161. 

1930. Bee-killing robber flies. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 38: 159-177. 

1930. A review of the genus Proagonistes. Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History. Ser. 10, 6: 209-225. 

1930. New robber flies from Madagascar. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 25(5) : 
283-290. 

1930. Shade tree insects in 1929. E. P. Felt and S. W. Bromley. Jour. 
Econ. Ent. 23(1): 137-142. 

1930. Shade tree problems. (With E. P. Felt). Proc. Ann. Meet. Nat. 

Shade Tree Conf. p. 13. 

1931. Hornet habits. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 39: 123-129. 

1931. Developing resistance or tolerance to insect attacks. (With E. P. 

Felt). Jour. Econ. Ent. 24: 437. 

1931. New neotropical Andrenosoma. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 57: 129-134. 
1931. New Asilidae, with a revised key to the genus Stenopogon. Annals 
Ent. Soc. Amer. 24(2) : 427-435. 

1931. Tests with nicotine activators. E. P. Felt and S. W. Bromley. Jour. 
Econ. Ent. 24(1): 105-111. 


1955] Weiss: Stanley Willard Bromley 5 

1931. Observations on shade tree insects. E. P. Felt and S. W. Bromley. 
Jour. Econ. Ent. 24(1): 157-162. 

1931. Insecticide investigations during 1930. E. P. Felt and S. W. 
Bromley. Jour. Econ. Ent. 24(1) : 232-240. 

1931. A preliminary annotated list of the robber flies of Ohio. Ohio State 

Mus. Science Bull. 1(2). 19 p. 4 plates. 

1932. Insecticides on shade trees and ornamentals. (With E. P. Felt). 

Jour. Econ. Ent. 25: 298. 

1932. Observations on shade tree insects. (With E. P. Felt). Jour. Econ. 
Ent. 25: 39. 

1932. Asilidae: Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile. Part V — Fasc. 3: 
261-282. Figures 23-28. 

1932. Observations on the Chinese mantid, Paratenodera sinensis Saussare. 

Bull. Brook Ent. Soc. 27(4) : 196-201. 

1933. Corrections in nomenclature (Diptera, Asilidae). Ent. News. 44: 15. 

1933. The sting of a tarantula wasp. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 28 (5) : 192. 

1933. Additions to the Ohio list of robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae). Ohio 

Jour, of Science. 33(3). 

1933. Cicadas in Texas. Psyche. 40(4). 

1933. Courting and mating performances of an Asilid fly, Heteropogon 

lautus. Psyche. 40(4). 

1934. The robber flies of Texas (Diptera: Asilidae). Annals Ent. Soc. of 

Amer. 27(1): 74-113. 2 plates. 

1934. Additions to the Ohio list of robber flies II. Ohio Jour. Sci. 34(3) : 
163. 

1934. Two new Dasypogonine robber flies from the Southwest. Jour. N. Y. 
Ent. Soc. 42: 225-226. 

1934. The Laphriine robber flies of North America (unpublished). Ab- 

stracts of Doctor’s Dissertation. No. 14. O. S. U. Press. 1934. 

1935. A note on the validity of Proagonistes athletes. Ann. & Magazine of 

Natural History. Ser. 10. 15: 398. 

1935. New Asilidae from the Belgian Congo (Diptera). Rev. Zool. Bot. 
Africa, 26(4): 404-415. 

1935. New Asilidae from India (Insecta: Diptera). Records of the Indian 
Museum. 36(2) : 219-230. Calcutta. 

1935. Two new South American Asilidae (Diptera). Arbeiten. Morph, 
taxon. Ent. Berlin-Dahlem. 2(2) : 109-112. 

1935. The original forest types of Southern New England. Ecological 

Monographia 5: 61-89. 

1936. Studies in South African Asilidae. Ann. of Transvaal Museum. 

38(2) : 125-146. 

1936. Asilids feeding on bumblebees in New England. Psyche. 43(1). 

1936. The genus Diogmites in U. S. of America with descriptions of new 
species. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 44: 225-237. 

1936. Oil effects on shade trees. (With E. P. Felt). Jour. Econ. Ent. 
29(2): 357-360. 


6 


New York Entomological Society 


..Vol. LXIII 


1936. Shade tree insect developments. (With E. P. Felt). Jour. Econ. 

Ent. 29: 223. 

1937. The genus Stenopogon Loew in the U. S. of America. Jour. N, Y. 

Ent. Soc. 45: 291-309. 

1937. Observations on shade tree insects and their control. (With E. P. 

Felt). Jour. Econ. Ent. 30(1): 71-75. 

1938. Shade tree insects and sprays, 1937. (With E. P. Felt). Jour. 

Econ. Ent. 31(2) : 173-176. 

1939. New and little-known Utah Diptera with notes on the taxonomy of 

the Diptera. Utah Acad. Sci. Arts & Letters. 14: 99-109. 

1939. New Asilidae from India, II. Indian Jour. Agr. Sci. 8(6) : 863-868. 
Delhi. 

1939. Hurricane of Sept. 21, 1938. (With E. P. Felt). Scientific Tree 
Topics. No. 1. 1939. 

1939. Factors influencing tree destruction during the New England Hurri- 

cane. Science. 90. No. 2323. p. 1516. 

1940. Pine Aphids. Sci. Tree Topics. 1(4) : 30-31. 

1940. New insecticides and spreaders on shade trees. (With E. P. Felt). 
Jour. Econ. Ent. 33: 244-249. 

1940. Insecticides and their use. (With E. P. Felt). Sci. Tree Topics. 
1(4): 26-27. 

1940. New U. S. A. robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae). Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 
35(1): 13-21. 

1940. Some unusual pines at the laboratories. Sci. Tree Topics. 1(3) : 23. 

1940. Three unsightly oak galls. Sci. Tree Topics. 1(4) : 28-30. 

1941. New and unusual shade tree pests. (With E. P. Felt). Jour. Econ. 

Ent. 34(3) : 383. 

1941. Elm leaf beetle probabilities in 1941. Sci. Tree Topics. 1(7) : 54-55. 

1941. Trees and shrubs attractive to birds. Sci. Tree Topics. 1(6) : 43-44. 

1942. Madagascar robber flies with descriptions of new species. Trans. Am. 

Ent. Soc. 48: 11-21. 

1942. Bee-killing Asilids in New England. Psyche. 49(3-4) : 81-83. 

1942. The increasing importance of coleopterous borers in shade trees. 

(With E. P. Felt). Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 50(2) : 169. 

1942. The shade tree insects of 1941. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 50: 212. 

1944. Ephraim Porter Felt, 1868-1943. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 52: 223-236. 

1945. Insect enemies of the house fly, Musca domestica L. Jour. N. Y. 

Ent. Soc. 53: 145-152. 

1945. The robber flies and bee-killers of China (Diptera: Asilidae). Ling- 
nan Science Jour. 21(1-4) : 87-105. China. 

1945. An Indian relic area. Scientific Monthly. 60: 153-154. 

1946. John Watson Angell, 1885-1946. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 54: 290. 
1946. Bee-killing Asilidae of the Southeastern states (Diptera). Proc. Ent. 

Soc. Wash. 48(1) : 16-17. 

1946. The robber flies of Brazil (Asilidae: Diptera). Livro de homenagem 
a R. F. d ’Almeida. No. 8: 103-120. 19 de julho. 


1955] 


Weiss: Stanley Willard Bromley 


7 


1946. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part VI. The Diptera or true 
flies of Connecticut, Asilidae, Third Fascicle. State of Conn. 
State Geological & Natural History Survey. Bull. No. 69. 
Hartford. 

1946. The death of a tree. Arborists’ News. 2(6). 

1946. Wheel-bug vs. Japanese beetle. Ent. News. 57(1). 

1947. The last few years (Address of retiring pres., N. Y. Ent. Soc.). 

Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 55: 207-214. 

1947. New South African Asilidae (Diptera). Annals of Durban Museum. 
3(8): 109-117. Africa. 

1947. Ohio robber flies IV. Ohio Jour. Sci. 47(2) : 67-68. 

1947. Insect cycles. Museum News. 8(1). 

1947. The lumber shortage. Arborists’ News. February. 

1948. Woodland Improvement. Arborists’ News. November. 

1948. Insect predators of mosquitoes. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 50(9). 

1948. Some of the more important insect pests of pine. Sci. Tree Topics. 

1(9): 69-72. 

1948. Honey-bee predators. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 56: 195-199. 

1948. ‘ ‘ Specialization ” in new organic insecticides. Agricultural Chem- 

icals. December. 

1949. But how do you pronounce it? American Forests. February. 

1949. The Missouri bee-killer, Proctachanthus milbertii. Bull. Brook. Ent. 

Soc. 44(1) : 21-28. 

1949. African bee-killing Asilidae. Trans, of Bhodesian Sci. Ass’n. 42: 

63-67. Africa. 

1950. Plant white pines. Horticulture Magazine. May. 

1950. Florida Asilidae (Diptera) with description of one new species. Ann. 

Ent. Soc. Am. 43(2) : 227-239. 

1950. Ohio robber flies V. Ohio Jour. Sci. 50(5) : 229-234. 

1950. Becords and descriptions of Asilidae in the collection of University of 
Michigan Museum of Zoology (Diptera). Occas. Papers of Mus. 
of Zool. N. 527. June. 

1950. Dragon fly feeding on cankerworms. Jour. Econ. Ent. 43(3). 

1950. Mosquitoes and DDT. Arborists’ News. June. 

1950. The elm leaf beetle. (Tree Pest Leaflets). New England Section 

Soc. of American Forestors. Hillsboro, N. H. 

1951. Trees and tree insects, with special reference to the Dutch elm dis- 

ease. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 59(4). 

1952. Asilid notes (Diptera) with descriptions of thirty-two new species. 

Am. Mus. Novitates. No. 1532. 1-36. 


8 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NEW YORK 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

The last Proceedings of the Society to appear in the Journal 
were in Vol. 56, No. 3, Sept. 1953, which issue was published Nov. 
20, 1953. Failure of the Proceedings to appear in subsequent 
issues must be blamed on the failure of the Secretary to provide 
complete minutes to the Editor, even to the present time, Janu- 
ary, 1957. On many occasions during the three year interval, 
the Editor, the Officers and the Executive Committee have re- 
quested the Secretary to give proper attention to this duty of 
his office, but without the desired result. 

The Journal can no longer delay publication of its proceed- 
ings and although minutes for a number of 1953, 1954 and 1955 
meetings have not been submitted, we publish herewith the mate- 
rial available with the understanding that the remaining min- 
utes will be published at later date, if and when they are received. 

— F. A. Soraci. 


Meeting of October 7, 1952 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. There were 13 members and seven guests present. The 
Secretary received a letter dated October 6, 1952 advising that Albro T. 
Gaul had vacated the post of President of the Society by resignation. 
Therefore in accordance with Article Y, Section 2 of the By-Laws, Vice- 
President Dr. Lucy Clausen occupied the Chair. The minutes of the pre- 
vious meeting were read and approved. 

The Secretary informed the Society of the death of one of its Life Mem- 
bers and past President, Mr. Andrew J. Mutchler. President Clausen ap- 
pointed a committee composed of J. D. Sherman, Jr. and H. B. Weiss to pre- 
pare a biographical note to be published in the Journal. 

Dr. Hagan reported on a visit to the Olsens at Nyack, N. Y. and com- 
mented upon the success of the Olsen family in a radio quiz program held 
in New York City. He also told the membership that Mr. Olsen is now 
preparing a giant model of a lanlpyrid beetle; this will be his second giant 
model of a beetle. 

Dr. Vishniac then introduced the speaker of the evening, Dr. Collins, 
Entomologist of the State of New York who spoke on “The tick problem 
on Long Island.” 

In his address Dr. Collins pointed out the unreliability of the legend of 
the introduction of the ticks on Long Island by Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough 
( Continued on page 16 ) 


1955] 


DelVecchio: Reducing Substances 


9 


CHANGES IN THE CONCENTRATION OF REDUCING 
SUBSTANCES DURING THE METAMORPHOSIS 
OF THE HOUSEFLY (MUSCA DOMESTICA 
LINNAEUS)* 

By Robert J. DelVecchio 
Department of Blology, Fordham University 

Frew (1929) studied changes in the glucose content during 
metamorphosis of the blowfly (species not given). His results in- 
dicate that glucose increases in concentration just prior to pupa- 
tion, and decreases rapidly immediately afterward. He also re- 
ported the occurrence of sudden increases in glucose content for 
definite points during pupal life. These results have been inter- 
preted as indicating that a synthesis of glucose occurs during 
metamorphosis. Frew suggests that the glucose is derived from 
protein during the first half and from fat the last half of the 
pupal period. Courtois-Drilhon (1931) reported an increase in 
the glucose content of the early pupae of three species of Lepidop- 
tera ( Attacus pernyi, Sphinx ligustri and Saturnia pyri). This 
increase continued from the time of pupation in August, until 
December, and was followed by a steady decrease until emergence 
the following April. Crescitelli and Taylor (1935) studied the 
bee-moth, Galleria mellonella, and found that the period of spin- 
ning (prepupal stage) is one during which increasing concentra- 
tions of reducing substances are found. During pupal life, which 
lasted for seven days at 30° C., the concentration of reducing sub- 
stances decreases at first, then rises. A final drop in concentra- 
tion occurs just prior to the emergence of the adult. Ludwig 
mid Rothstein (1949) found that in the Japanese beetle, Popillia 
japonica, the glucose content decreased from 0.52 per cent in the 
3rd instar larva to 0.42 per cent in the early prepupa, but in- 
creased in the newly-molted pupa to 0.79 per cent. During the 
first day of pupal life, at 25° C., there was a small but significant 

* Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of 
Master of Science at Fordham University 

The author is indebted to Professor Daniel Ludwig under whose direction 
this investigation was carried out, and to Doctor Bertram A. Sacktor, from 
whom the insects were obtained. 


10 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. lxiii 


drop to 0.68 per cent. It remained constant for about 2 days and 
then increased slowly throughout the remainder of the pupal 
stage, reaching a value of 0.86 per cent in the 9-day pupa. Emer- 
gence was associated with an actual loss of glucose but, because 
of the loss of weight which occurs at that time, the percentage 
value increased. The increase in glucose and glycogen which was 
observed at the time of pupation was considered by the authors 
to be the result of a breakdown of insoluble proteins which occurs 
at that time, the degradation products being temporarily stored 
as carbohydrates. 

This review indicates that the concentrations of reducing com- 
pounds may vary greatly in different insects during metamorpho- 
sis. In some forms there is an actual loss of this constituent; 
whereas in other forms its concentration increases significantly. 
Because of this variation, it was decided to study the changes in 
reducing compounds during the growth, metamorphosis and 
imaginal life of the housefly, Musca domestica. 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The larvae of the housefly were raised on whole milk. A finger- 
bowl containing cotton saturated with whole milk served as the 
feeding medium. Twenty-four hours after the eggs were laid on 
this saturated cotton, they were transferred to a humidifier regu- 
lated at approximately 30° C. and a humidity near saturation. 
The eggs hatched in approximately 24 hours under these condi- 
tions, and the time of hatching was recorded. In this manner 
carefully timed records, within 24 hours, were obtained for each 
group of experimental animals. Readings on glucose were made 
on groups of five larvae at the following stages: one, two, three,, 
four, five and six days after hatching; on groups of four pupae,, 
one, two, three and four days after puparium formation ; and on 
groups of two newly-emerged adults and groups of two old-adults 
(7 to 10 days after emergence). 

Determinations of reducing substances, expressed as glucose,, 
were made by the Hagedorn and Jensen procedure (see Hawk, 
Oser and Summerson, 1947, p. 528). 

OBSERVATIONS 

The results of the glucose determinations are given in Table 1. 
The table contains the average weights of the insects and the aver- 


1955] 


DelVecchio: Reducing Substances 


11 


age percentages (by weight) of glucose present at each day of 
growth and metamorphosis. These values are averages obtained 
from ten determinations. Since the amount of glucose is greater 
in the larger insects, the percentage values at different stages are 
considered more reliable than those for weights. There is no dif- 
ference in the amount of glucose present in the one- and two-day 
larva. However, between the second and third days there is a 
decrease from 0.36 to 0.23 per cent. This decrease is followed by 
an increase in concentration in the four-day larva to 0.26 per cent. 


TABLE 1 


Stage in 
development 

Number of 
insects 

Average 
weight in mg. 
per group 

Average 
weight of 
glucose in 
mg per 
group 

Glucose as 
per cent 
weight and 
standard 
errors 

1-day larvae 

50 

25. 

9.0 

0.36 ±.0085 

2-day larvae 

50 

72. 

25.7 

0.36 ±.0289 

3-day larvae 

50 

124. 

28.0 

0.23 ±.0066 

4-day larvae 

50 

89. 

23.4 

0.26 ±.0106 

5-day larvae 

50 

33. 

5.5 

0.17 ±.0069 

6-day larvae 

50 

75. 

20.6 

0.27 ±.0117 

1-day pupae 

40 

53. 

19.5 

0.37 ± .0142 

2-day pupae 

40 

54. 

21.0 

0.39 ±.0157 

3-day pupae 

40 

. 53. 

21.3 

0.40 ± .0174 

4-day pupae 

40 

40. 

16.9 

0.42 ±.0177 

newly-emerged 





adults 

20 

37. 

31.2 

0.84 ±.0108 

old adults 

20 

17. 

20.4 

1.20 ±.0075 


A second drop to 0.17 per cent occurs in the five-day larva, fol- 
lowed by an increase in the six-day larva to 0.27 per cent. The 
glucose then rises to its former value of 0.37 per cent following 
puparium formation. There is a steady increase in the concen- 
tration of glucose in the pupal stage reaching a high of 0.42 per 
cent in the four-day pupa. There is an increase in weight ex- 
hibited by the newly emerged adults, within the first 24 hours 
after emergence. This increase may be explained by the fact that 
these adults had already fed. However, as the adult ages, it loses 
weight resulting in a further increase in the percentage value of 


12 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


glucose. Glucose increases in the adult stage from 0.84 in the 
newly-emerged to 1.20 per cent in the old adult. 

In Table 2 is given a statistical analysis of these results. Begin- 
ning with the second day, there are significant changes between 
successive days of the larval period. In the pupal period, the 


TABLE 2 


Stages 

compared 

Difference 

between 

means 

Standard 
error of 
difference 

Difference 
Standard 
error of 
difference 

LARVAE 




1 and 3 day 

0.13 

± .0107 

12.0 

3 and 4 day 

0.03 

±.0125 

2.4 

4 and 5 day 

0.09 

±.0126 

7.1 

6 and 1 day 

0.10 

±.0184 

5.4 

pupa 




PUPAE 




1 and 2 day 

0.02 

±.0211 

0.9 

2 and 3 day 

0.01 

±.0234 

0.4 

3 and 4 day 

0.02 

± .0248 

0.8 

1 and 4 day 

0.05 

±.0231 

2.1 

ADULTS 




newly-emerged 




and old adults 

0.36 

±.0131 

27.5 


only statistical significance observed is that found when the one 
and four-day pupae are compared. A significant change is also 
found between the newly-emerged and old adults. 


DISCUSSION 

The irregular increases and decreases in the concentration of 
glucose throughout growth may have significance when correlated 
with the physiological activities of the organism. Thus, for ex- 
ample, an increase in the percentage of glucose from 0.37 per cent 
in the one-day pupa to 1.20 per cent in the old adult may be in- 
dicative of an endogenous synthesis of glucose, or other reducing 
compounds. Moreover, decreases in the concentration of glucose 
can similarly be associated with carbohydrate utilization. 

The results indicate a gradual increase in the concentration of 
reducing compounds during the pupal period. Similar increases 


1955] 


DelVecchio: Reducing Substances 


13 


were found by Frew (1929) ; Crescitelli and Taylor (1935) and 
Ludwig and Rothstein (1949). In the present study, there is no 
evidence of increases followed by decreases in concentration such 
as reported by Frew (1929) ; Courtois-Drilhon (1931) ; Crescitelli 
and Taylor (1935) and Ludwig and Rothstein (1949) . Hitchcock 
and Haub (1941) in the blowfly Phormia regina, found a steady 
decrease in the concentration of reducing substances during the 
pupal period. These findings are in direct opposition with those 
found in the present study. However, there is agreement in the 
fact that the concentration of reducing substances increases with 
the transition from the pupa to the adult. 

Frew (1929), correlated the marked synthesis of glucose dur- 
ing the pupal stage, with the respiratory quotient. If this glucose 
were all oxidized to C0 2 and H 2 0, the expected respiratory quo- 
tient would be about 0.7 to 0.8 depending on whether the glucose 
is formed from protein or fat. Frew postulated that it is improb- 
able that the glucose formed is entirely used in respiration ; some 
must almost certainly be used in building up the growing imaginal 
tissue. Frew further stated that there is definite evidence of a 
vigorous synthesis of glucose during the whole of the pupal 
period. He holds that this must be regarded as the most probable 
explanation of the low respiratory quotient obtained, namely, 
0.651. Ludwig (1931) showed a decrease in the rate of oxygen 
consumption during the last four or five days of the prepupal 
stage, which continued for several days of the pupal stage. The 
respiratory quotient of the larva varied from 0.7 to 0.97. It 
gradually decreased during metamorphosis and, in the pupa, 
varied from 0.4 to 0.7. He also stated that the low respiratory 
quotients may possibly be associated with the synthesis of glu- 
cose from protein or fat. Since the work of Ludwig and Rothstein 
(1949) indicates that glycogen supplies the energy required dur- 
ing the pupal stage, there seems to be no definite correlation 
between the respiratory quotient and the type of metabolism 
occurring in the insect. Taylor and Steinbach (1931) also give 
a discussion of the respiratory quotient and its importance during 
pupal metabolism. These authors point out that the oxidation 
of fats cannot occur without the oxidation of carbohydrate. 
Hence, it is false to assume that a quotient of 0.69 (the value 
obtained in their work) represents an exclusive oxidation of fat. 


14 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. lxiii 


Schneiderman (1953) studying the respiration of diapausing 
pupa of the moth, Platysamia cecropia, found that metabolic 
carbon dioxide is retained within the insect and released during 
brief periods. He further states that the discontinuous release 
of carbon dioxide is apparently a widespread phenomenon in dia- 
pausing pupa. Schneiderman goes on to say that this fact is evi- 
dently responsible for the extremely low and apparently errone- 
ous values reported for the respiratory quotients for diapausing 
pupa (0.78 found by Schneiderman, over a two day period). 
Buck, Keister and Specht (1953) confirm these results using 
pupae of Agapema (species not given), during diapause. 

To the author’s knowledge no other studies have been made on 
the concentration of reducing compounds during the larval 
growth of insects. 

SUMMARY 

Determinations were made on the glucose content of the house- 
fly Musca domestica, at the following stages : one, two, three, four, 
five and six-day larvae; one, two, three and four-day pupae; 
newly-emerged and old adults. 

The glucose content of the one-day larva was 0.36 per cent. It 
decreased to 0.23 per cent in the three-day larva, and to 0.17 
in the five-day larva. It then increased to 0.37 per cent in the 
one-day pupa. The per cent of glucose increased during the 
pupal stage, reaching 0.42 per cent in the four-day pupa. At 
the time of emergence there is a loss of weight. However, the 
percentage value of glucose is increased from 0.84 in the newly- 
merged adults to 1.20 per cent in the late adults. 

Literature Cited 

Buck, J., M. Keister, and H. Specht. 1953. Discontinuous respiration 
in diapausing Agapema pupae. Anat. Rec. 117: 541. 
Courtois-Drilhon. 1931. Etudies bioehcemiques sur la metamorphose des 
Lepidopteres. Ann. physiol, physicochimie biol. 7: 496-636. 
Crescitelli, F., and I. R. Taylor. 1935. Changes in the concentration of 
reducing substances during the metamorphosis of Galleria mellonella 
(bee-moth). Jour. Biol. Chem. 108: 349-353. 

Frew, J. G. H. 1929. Studies in the metabolism of insect metamorphosis. 
Brit. Jour. Exper. Biol. 6: 205-218. 

Hawk, P. B., B. L. Oser, and W. H. Summerson. 1947. Practical Physio- 
logical Chemistry. Philadelphia: Blakiston Co. 

Hitchcock, F. A., and J. G. Haub. 1941. The interconversion of food- 
stuffs in the blowfly ( Phormia regina ) during metamorphosis. Ann. 
Ent. Soc. Amer. 34: 32-37. 


1955] 


DelVecchio: Eeducing Substances 


15 


Ludwig, D. 1931. Studies on the metamorphosis of the Japanese beetle 
( Popillia japonica Newman). Physiol. Zool. 60: 309-323. 

Ludwig, D., and F. Eothstein. 1949. Changes in the carbohydrate and fat 
content of the Japanese beetle ( Popillia japonica Newman) during 
metamorphosis. Physiol. Zool. 22: 308-317. 

Schneiderman, H. A. 1953. The discontinuous release of carbon dioxide 
by diapausing pupal insects. Anat. Eec. 117: 540. 

Taylor, I. E., and H. B. Steinbach. 1931. Eespiratory metabolism during 
pupal development of Galleria mellonella (bee-moth). Physiol. Zool. 
4: 604-619. 


CHANGE IN PUBLICATION ARRANGEMENTS 

Beginning with Volume 62 of the Journal, the Society found 
it necessary to change publishers. Announcement of and rea- 
sons for the change were given in Vol. 62, (2) June, 1954, p. 98. 

Unfortunately, it soon became apparent that equal service to 
that provided by the former publishers could not be achieved. 
Unreasonable delays occurred, in spite of every effort on the 
parts of the editor and the various officers of the Society to main- 
tain a reasonable publication schedule. The four issues of vol- 
ume 62 were published over a period of more than two years. 
Obviously this was not fair to the subscribers nor to the Society 
and it became necessary finally, to again make a change in pub- 
lishers. 

The situation has been met by return of the Journal to the 
previous publishers, Business Press Inc. The entire Volume 63 
is here presented in one issue. It is planned also to publish 
Volume 64 (1956) in one issue and, if possible, to revert back to 
four separate issues with the 1957 Volume, 65. 

Throughout this difficult period your officers have been very 
much encouraged with the show of patience and understanding 
by the subscribers. It is the desire of the editor, other officers 
and Business Press to present the Journal on time, just as soon 
as possible. 

The Volume Title Page, Table of Contents and Index to the 
Volume were omitted from the December 1954 issue. Publica- 
tion in that issue would have resulted in further delay. This 
volume carries Title Pages, Tables of Contents and Indices for 
both Volumes 62 and 63. It is hoped that this might prove satis- 
factory for those subscribers who desire to bind the Journal. 
— F. A. Soraci. 


16 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


( Continued from page 8) 

Eiders. He reviewed the history of rocky mountain spotted fever on the 
island and traced the tick-host relationships. His most interesting and 
controversial contribution was the fact that ticks are present only in limited 
areas, chiefly along roadsides. As a result, periodical applications of in- 
secticides with hand sprayers and spray trucks are much more effective and 
economical than airplane dusting. 

A lively discussion on tick problems in neighboring States followed and 
brought out the fact that there is a considerable lack of knowledge ia re- 
gard to tick habits and habitats in the eastern United States. 

Dr. Collins ’ talk was illustrated with slides and motion-pictures. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:50 P.M. Loms MarkS; Secretary 

Meeting of October 21, 1952 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History; Dr. Clausen presiding. There were 7 members present. 
The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

Members present then proceeded to report on their respective collecting 
activities during the past summer period. 

Dr. Vishniac has been photographing plankton in full color for an illus- 
trated magazine article. He had to solve numerous interesting problems in 
the course of this undertaking, involving underwater photography and even 
taxonomy. Standard descriptions of plankton are based on formalin-pre- 
served specimens and taxonomists cannot, with any certainty, identify liv- 
ing material. 

Dr. Hagan spent the summer preparing two papers on Eciton, an army 
ant, particularly making studies on the ovarioles and oocytes of the queen. 

Dr. Clausen exhibited kodachromes of lepidoptera, coleoptera and some 
other insects. She also called attention to the membership of a new Labo- 
ratory Manual by Drs. Mullen and Marks. 

At this point Dr. Vishniac assumed the Chair. 

Soraci reported the presence of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica, in New 
Jersey. This is a new record for the State. The weevil is a serious pest in 
some localities. The assumption is that the infestation started with the 
importation of mountain hay for race horses at local tracks. He also called 
attention to Mr. Teale’s new book “ Green Treasury,” an anthology of 
natural history writing. 

Dr. Eehn then spoke of his work for the U. S. Army, particularly in the 
matter of tick control at Forts Dix, Drum and Devens. He mentioned that 
a DC-3 airplane will not give adequate coverage when using insecticides. A 
helicopter is far superior for this purpose. He mentioned that the year 
1952 was a heavy house-fly year. None of the flies at the various military 
posts showed any resistance to DDT. He postulates that inadequate cov- 
erage and poor testing accounts for the real reason for the existence of the 
so-called resistant strains. Dr. Eehn also reported on the occurrence of the 
Lone Star tick on Staten Island, the first such appearance since 1850. 

( Continued on page 20) 


1955] 


Creighton : Pseudomyrmex 


17 


OBSERVATIONS ON PSEUDOMYRMEX ELONGATA 
MAYR (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) 

By Wm. S. Creighton 
Department of Biology, City College, New York 

The purpose of this note is to report the presence of Pseudo- 
myrmex elongata Mayr in southern Texas and northeastern 
Mexico and to attempt a clarification of certain points in the 
taxonomy of this species. During 1951 and 1952 the writer took 
seven colonies of elongata, all of them in areas from which the 
insect has not been previously reported. 1 These records are as 
follows : 

Texas: Monte Alto (60') Hidalgo County, one colony in Prosopis 
juliflora. 

26 miles north of Raymondsville, one colony in Quercus vir- 
giniana. 

Nuevo Leon: El Pastor (2200') west of Montemorelos, two colo- 
nies in Quercus fusiformis. 

Tamaulipas: Canyon de el Abra (1000') north of Antiguo More- 
los, one colony in hollow stem. 

San Luis Potosi: 3 miles north of Ciudad Valles (300'), one 
colony in hollow twig. 

Rio Amahac, Tamazunchale (300'), one colony in dead twig. 
The above records are of interest since they extend the range 
of elongata on the western side of the Gulf of Mexico by almost 
fifteen hundred miles. The previous northern record for this 
region was Costa Rica. It is now clear that elongata reaches 
approximately the same latitude on either side of the Gulf, for 
the Texas stations and those where elongata has been secured in 
southern Florida are all close to Latitude 26°. This makes neces- 
sary a modification of the view that the writer published in 1950 
(1) that elongata probably reached Florida by way of the An- 
tilles. The writer still feels that the above explanation is the 
most likely one, but the presence of elongata in northeastern 
Mexico and south Texas makes it possible that at one time the 

1 Field work done on a Guggenheim Fellowship. 


18 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


range of elongata included the entire Gulf Coast. If so, its pres- 
ence in southern Florida could be due to a regression to the south 
rather than to a migration to the north. 

Because slight structural variations were found in the material 
coming from Texas and Mexico, the writer examined all avail- 
able material belonging to this species. This examination has led 
to a different view from that which I published in 1950. At that 
time I accepted Wheeler’s concept that the Cuban and Antillean 
representatives of elongata (the variety cubaensis Forel) were 
significantly different from the Florida population, which 
Wheeler treated as the typical elongata. I no longer believe this 
to be the case. Since I have seen no material of elongata coming 
from the southern part of its range, which extends to Colombia, 
the observations which follow may not apply to such specimens, 
although it seems probable that they do. But the population of 
elongata which occurs in southern Florida, the Bahamas, Cuba, 
Haiti, Jamaica, south Texas and northeastern Mexico cannot, in 
my opinion, be divided into geographical races. It is not that 
this population is invariable in structure, for there are minor 
differences in size, color, the width of the head and the shape of 
the petiolar node. But these differences occur in all parts of the 
range mentioned above. Unfortunately, these same variations 
were used by Forel as the basis for the recognition of the varie- 
ties cubaensis and tandem. Thus cubaensis was supposedly 
marked by a narrower head and a narrower and lower petiole, 
while tandem represented the opposite condition where the head 
is broader and the petiole shorter and higher. There is no diffi- 
culty in recognizing the variants that Forel described, but to 
assign to either of them a distinctive geographical range seems 
to the writer to be impossible. I propose, therefore to treat 
cubaensis and tandem as synonyms of the typical elongata. The 
synonymy of this species would be as follows : 

Ps. elongata Mayr, Sitz. ber. Akad. Wien, Vol. 61, p. 413 (1870) § 
Wheeler, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Vol. 21, p. 85 (1905) 
??<?• 

Ps. elongata var. cubaensis Forel, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. Voy. 45, 
p. 342 (1901) J. NEW SYNONYMY. 

Ps. elongata var. tandem Forel, Ibid. Vol. 50, p. 228 (1906) $. 

NEW SYNONYMY. 


1955] 


Creighton : Pseudomyrmex 


19 


The insect which Wheeler and Mann described in 1914 (2) 
as Ps. elongata snbsp. subatra is clearly a separate species which 
should never have been assigned to elongata. 

Despite the variations mentioned above, elongata is an easy 
species to recognize. It is small, dark in color and very densely 
sculptured, so that the surface presents a dull, matte-like appear- 
ance. Coupled with these characters is an unusually narrow 
head, with the large eyes extending to the level of the median 
ocellus and a short and high petiolar node (even in the variants 
where it is said to be “ lower and longer”). This ease of recog- 
nition may account for the fact that neither Forel nor Wheeler 
ever failed to appreciate the salient characteristics of elongata , 
although neither worker was willing to discount the slight varia- 
tions which mark this species over much of its range. It is inter- 
esting to note that in 1932 (3) Wheeler stated that there are 
“several varieties” of elongata in Cuba. Fortunately, he did 
not elect to name them. 

There follows a key to the species of Pseudomyrmex which 
-occur in the United States. This key is based on major struc- 
tural characters as well as on the differences of color and pilosity 
which the writer employed as criteria in the key published in 
1950. 

1. The maximum diameter of the head (eyes included) distinctly greater 

than the distance from the occipital margin to the anterior edge of the 
clypeus; anterior peduncle of the petiole slender, distinct from the node 
and at least one-third as long as the node; erect body hairs everywhere 

abundant; length 8 mm. or more gracilis mexicana 

The maximum diameter of the head (eyes included) no more and usually 
much less than the distance from the occipital margin to the anterior 
edge of the clypeus; anterior peduncle of the petiole short, thick and 
often not clearly distinguishable from the node; erect body hairs sparse; 
length 6 mm. or less 2 

2. The median ocellus lying at or very close to the level of the posterior 

border of the eyes; appressed pubescence abundant elongata 

The median ocellus lying well behind the level of the posterior border 
of the eyes; appressed pubescence dilute or absent 3 

3. Thorax seen in profile with a broad and deep impression at the meso- 

epinotal suture; sides of the postpetiole, seen from above slightly con- 
cave giving a short but distinct anterior peduncle to the node; color 
dark brown, the head, pronotum and petiolar nodes more or less marked 

with yellow .. brunnea 

Thorax seen in profile with the mesoepinotal suture unimpressed or feebly 


20 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


and narrowly impressed; sides of the postpetiole, seen from above, 
slightly convex, the node "without an anterior peduncle; color golden 

yellow to pale yellow 4 

4. Greatest length of the eye a little less than one-half the distance from 
the insertion of the mandible to the occipital margin ; cephalic sculpture 
heavy enough to dull the surface ; worker 5-6 mm., female 7-8 mm. 

apache 

Greatest length of the eye a little more than one-half the distance from 
the insertion of the mandible to the occipital margin ; cephalic sculpture 
fine, not dulling the surface; worker 4-4.5 mm., female 5.5-6 mm. 

pallida 

In conclusion it may be said that elongata is a rather timid 
and inoffensive ant compared to most species of Pseudomyrmex. 
It rarely stings and has a habit of dodging around to the rear 
of a twig if an attempt is made to pick it up. The colonies never 
seem to be very populous. There are rarely more than a hundred 
workers in a colony and usually the number is less. In most 
colonies a single female is present. It is noteworthy that elongata 
and brunnea will sometimes nest in the same limb. Most species 
of Pseudomyrmex are by no means so tolerant and ferociously 
exclude any other ants from the areas where they are nesting. 

Literature Cited 

1. Creighton, W. S. 1950. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard. 104. p. 80. 

2. Wheeler, W. M., and W. M. Mann. 1914. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

33: p 19. 

3. Wheeler, W. M. 1932. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 40. p. 4. 


( Continued from page 16) 

Mrs. Hopf displayed some abnormal chrysalids of the monarch butterfly 
from Bucks County, Penna. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:30 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 
Meeting of November 18, 1952 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History; Dr. Clausen presiding. There were 15 members and 
seven guests present. The previous minutes were read and after some minor 
amendments were accepted. 

Mr. Elbert Dixon of the United States Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine was proposed for membership. 

( Continued on page 42) 


1955] 


Tafuri: Army Ants 


21 


GROWTH AND POLYMORPHISM IN THE LARVA 
OF THE ARMY ANT (ECITON (E.) 

HAMATUM FABRICIUS ) 1, 2 

By John F. Tafuri 3 

The army ant Eciton ( E .) hamatum has been one of two 
species in the genns subjected to systematic investigation by 
Schneirla (1933, 1938, 1949a, 1949b). These investigations, di- 
rected primarily at behavioral analysis, have brought to light the 
significance of the unique broods and of events centering around 
brood development in these interesting ants. Although the adult 
worker of this species was described by Fabricius in 1781 and by 
Latreille in 1802, the developmental biology of the brood has 
escaped specialized attention in the literature except for a pre- 
liminary report by G. C. Wheeler (1943) on the external mor- 
phology of the worker larva. The present study was undertaken 
to investigate systematically the characteristics of development 
in the larval stages of this species. 

Eciton hamatum exhibits the not uncommon phenomenon 
among ants of polymorphism in the adult worker series. That 
is, in this species the worker population ranges from the smallest 
worker minor to the large soldier form. The most general char- 
acteristic of this population series is overall size, and further 
quantitative differentiation through the series is found in charac- 
teristics such as mandibular and head patterns. Although in 
detail the series exhibits a considerable amount of quantitative 

1 This paper represents a portion of a dissertation presented in partial 
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of .Doctor of Philosophy in 
the Department of Biology at Fordham University. 

2 This investigation was supported in part through a contract (NR 160- 
174) between the Office of Naval Research and the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York (Dr. T. C. Schneirla, project director). The 
studies were carried out at the Department of Animal Behavior of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, New York. The author expresses his appre- 
ciation for the use of these facilities. 

The author wishes to express his sincere gratitude to Dr. James Forbes, 
of Fordham University, for his untiring encouragement and guidance through- 
out this investigation. He is also indebted to Dr. T. C. Schneirla, of the 
American Museum of Natural History, for his counsel at all stages, and for 
supplying field data and material, and to Mr. M. Palekar, statistician, and to 
Rev. Dr. R. W. Allen, S.J., of the Mathematics Department, Xavier University. 

s The author’s present address is Xavier University, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


22 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


variation, there is a smooth series or regular transition in body 
length from the smallest to the largest form. In order to find 
what differences in the larval stages of development might fore- 
cast adult polymorphism, it was essential to examine closely the 
condition of all types of individuals in the brood at various 
representative stages of development. 

To appreciate the specialized nature of the problems confront- 
ing this investigation, it is imperative to bear in mind the rather 
unique nature of a “brood” in E. hamatum and other species of 
Eciton ( Eciton ). After descriptions by Sehneirla (1933, 1938, 
1944) an Eciton worker brood may be defined as an immense 
series of individuals developing more or less in step from eggs 
laid within the same period of a few days. Sehneirla ’s studies 
have revealed a regular pattern of behavior with the colony al- 
ternating between a nomadic phase and a statary phase. The 
army ant queen lays a new batch of eggs within the space of 
several days beginning about one-third through each statary 
phase. Thus the ages of all individuals in one generation vary 
by only a few days. In E. hamatum, immense broods of twenty- 
five thousand or more eggs appear approximately every thirty- 
six days through the season. Most of the larval development is 
accomplished during the nomadic phase which commonly lasts 
sixteen or seventeen days in this species. At the end of the 
nomadic phase the larvae enclose and the colony enters the sta- 
tary phase. With such material all possibility of confusing indi- 
viduals of different generations is eliminated, hence Eciton ap- 
pears to be an ideal form for investigations of larval development 
and larval polymorphism. The dorylines are the only social in- 
sects with broods of this description. 

As would be expected, classification of the larvae taken from 
such broods at different times of development represents a formi- 
dable problem. The literature offers no convenient or satisfac- 
tory scheme for separating the larva into instars such as those 
which have been worked out for other holometabolous insects. 
G. C. Wheeler (1938) with relatively limited material, desig- 
nated army-ant larvae as 4 ‘ young (?) or immature and as ma- 
ture,” with body length used as the index of maturity. How- 
ever, as a single criterion body length is an uncertain and 
misleading characteristic in the larvae of these ants, for actually, 


1955] 


Tafuri: Army Ants 


23 


as it proves, a difference in body length between two randomly 
selected larvae can be dne to a difference in polymorphic statns, 
in developmental stage (i.e., age), or in both of these. For ex- 
ample, when larvae are preserved from the same brood at dif- 
ferent stages, a major-type larva arrested at an early stage of 
development may have the same body length as a minor-type 
larva arrested at a later stage of development (see Plate III, fig. 
9, and Plate IV, fig. 10). Only when the developmental stage is 
known can the significance of body length be evaluated correctly 
in Eciton larvae. 

The problem required working out a reliable means of allocat- 
ing single larval specimens or small samples of larvae from 
broods of unknown status to their respective growth stages. The 
problem thus stated would be insoluble if body length were relied 
upon as our exclusive criterion, for in body length the larvae 
presents a smooth series or regular transition from the smallest 
to the largest forms, as does the adult population. However, to 
anticipate, in our examination of external morphology in a series 
of large brood samples of known status, detailed structural dif- 
ferences have emerged which prove diagnostic for developmental 
stages. The size and developmental range of these samples have 
made possible a scheme for classifying Eciton larvae as to devel- 
opmental stage. These studies of the external morphology paved 
the way for a differential study of the internal changes, to be 
reported in a further paper. 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The observations in this paper were obtained chiefly from 
Bouin-fixed larvae of the colony H-l, 1947, collected on Barro 
Colorado Island, Canal Zone, during November 1947 (Schneirla 
and Brown, 1950). Specimens from other colonies HB, 1946 
Schneirla, 1949a) and H-ll, 1948 (Schneirla and Brown, 1950) 
were also studied for purposes of comparison. 

The material collected in the field represents samples taken 
from a particular brood of a colony at regular intervals from 
early larval development to larval maturity. An attempt was 
made to get representative samples, i.e., to include all the poly- 
morphic forms, and care was exercised to limit the size of suc- 
cessive samples so as not to interfere with the general brood con- 


24 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


dition. The successive samples were collected from colony H-l,. 
between November 7 to November 21, during one of its nomadie 
phases. The first sample was collected an estimated three days 
after the onset of nomadism. This sample contained more than 
300 specimens consisting of eggs and newly hatched larvae. The 
second sample was collected two days after the first, i.e., on the 
fifth nomadic day, and contained about 70 larvae. The third 
sample was collected on the seventh nomadic day, two days after 
the second sample had been collected. This sample contained be- 
tween 200 and 300 larvae. Similar samples were collected on the 
ninth, tenth, twelfth, fourteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth no- 
madic days and each sample contained between 200 and 300 
larvae. The samples collected on the seventeenth nomadic day 
contained large and intermediate larvae that had become en- 
closed; the small larvae of this sample had not yet enclosed. A 
sample collected on November 23, two days after the seventeenth 
nomadic day, contained only enclosed larvae. This sample was 
taken on the second day of the statary phase when the brood was 
entering the prepupal stage (Schneirla, 1949b) and is, therefore, 
not considered in this paper. 

The imaginal leg discs, antennal discs, gonopodal discs, head 
capsule, and degree of pilosity were some of the external struc- 
tures studied. Measurements were made on most of these struc- 
tures, but since the measurements of the leg discs proved most 
useful in relation to the main task, our attention in this paper 
is confined to them. Measurements were made with an ocular 
micrometer. 

The following method was employed for selecting larvae for 
the leg disc measurements. The larval sample under study for 
each successive day collected during the nomadic phase was emp- 
tied as a whole into a Petri dish. Then with the aid of a dissect- 
ing microscope an attempt was made to select the five smallest 
and the five largest larvae, as well as the five larvae closest to 
the intermediate size. This procedure was designed to insure 
observation and examination of the extremes in the size of the 
larvae for each sample collected for the nomadic phase. Then 
successive samples could be studied comparatively in terms of 
corresponding points, viz., comparing the characteristics of the 
larvae of same size at the different stages of development during 


1955] 


Tafuri: Army Ants 


25 


the nomadic phase. Since the distribution of the small, inter- 
mediate and large forms in any one larval series of any one sam- 
ple was not critical for the purposes of this investigation, a ran- 
dom sampling technique was not employed. 

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS 

Preliminary observations of various structures of the army ant 
larvae indicated that the imaginal leg discs were the most im- 
portant structures for separating the larvae into stages. In 
Eciton hamatum the leg discs are found in all stages, and, more- 

TABLE 1 


Imaginal Leg Disc Sizes for Each Polymorphic Group of Larvae 
Collected During the Nomadic Phase 


Nomadic 

Day 

Larvae 

Body Length 
in mm. . 

Leg 

Length in mm. 

Discs 

Width 

. in 

. mm . 

3rd 

All Snail 

0.50 

to 

1.40 

0.021 

to 

0.028 

0.021 

to 

0.042 

5th 

Small 

0.70 

to 

1.30 

0.021 

to 

0.028 

0.021 

to 

0.028 


Inter.* 

2.50 

to 

2.90 

0.042 

to 

0.060 

0.051 

to 

0.084 


Large 

3.60 

to 

4.50 

0.079 

to 

0.084 

0.098 

to 

0.105 

7 th 

Small 

0.90 

to 

1.40 

0.028 

to 

0.028 

0.028 

to 

0.042 


Inter. 

2.30 

to 

3.10 

0.042 

to 

0.060 

0.051 

to 

0.070 


Large 

3.70 

to 

5.50 

0.098 

to 

0.126 

0.098 

to 

0.112 

■9 th 

Small 

4.50 

to 

5.20 

0.103 

to 

0.133 

0.126 

to 

0.135 


Inter. 

6.30 

to 

6.50 

0.147 

to 

0.168 

0.140 

to 

0.145 


Large 

7.60 

to 

8.20 

0.168 

to 

0.173 

0.145 

to 

0.173 

10th 

Small 

2.90 

to 

4.30 

0.084 

to 

0,107 

0.084 

to 

0.126 


Inter. 

6.60 

to 

7.00 

0.175 

to 

0.217 

0.163 

to 

0.187 


Large 

8.60 

to 

9.50 

0.241 

to 

0.210 

0.162 

to 

0.201 

12th 

Small 

3.40 

to 

4.10 

0.084 

to 

0.112 

0.084 

to 

0.126 


Inter. 

6.80 

to 

7.50 

0.226 

to 

0.236 

0.173 

to 

0.196 


Large 

8.40 

to 

9.60 

0.280 

to 

0.280 

0.210 

to 

0.224 

14th 

Small 

4.40 

to 

4.90 

0.203 

to 

0.217 

0.149 

to 

0.156 


Inter. 

6.60 

to 

7.50 

0.306 

to 

0.352 

0.217 

to 

0.254 


Large 

9.00 

to 

10.0 

0.420 

to 

0.420 

0.287 

to 

0.280 

15 th 

Small 

4.60 

to 

4.80 

0.226 

to 

0.268 

0.163 

to 

0.175 


Inter. 

8.20 

to 

8.70 

0.446 

to 

0.509 

0.254 

to 

0.320 


Large 

10.0 

to 

10.8 

0.445 

to 

0.515 

0.273 

to 

0.303 

16th 

Small 

4.10 

to 

5.00 

0.259 

to 

0.287 

0.182 

to 

0.201 


Inter. 

6.50 

to 

7.30 

0.336 

to 

0.420 

0.227 

to 

0.247 


Large 

8.40 

to 

9.20 

0.351 

to 

0.470 

0.271 

to 

0.305 

17th 

Small 

4.80 

to 

5.50 

0.327 

to 

0.403 

0.203 

to 

0.210 


Inter. 

Enclosed 








Large 

Enclosed 








* Abbreviation used in this table to indicate the 
intermediate larvae. 


26 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


over, these are one of the few structures readily accessible to 
measurement, which are found to display a growth rate inde- 
pendent of overall size. In contrast, a statistical evaluation of 
our data shows that the head capsule bears a direct relationship 
to body length regardless of the stage of development. It is 
otherwise for the leg discs in relationship to body length (Text- 
figures 1, 2, and 3). 

In very young or immature larvae the size of all three pairs 
of imaginal leg discs is approximately the same. The respective 
sizes of the leg discs, furthermore, are the same for larvae of 
similar body length and the same stage of development. In 
other words there is little, if any, individual difference in the 
size of the leg discs in very young larvae. In more mature lar- 
vae the three pairs of leg discs may vary slightly in size in any 
one specimen and may also vary to a small degree in the larvae 
of similar body length taken from the same stage of development. 
There is a greater degree of intra- and inter-individual differ- 
ences in these thoracic structures in the more mature larvae. 
These size differences in the leg discs of the more mature larvae, 
however, do not mitigate the usefulness of these structures for 
separating the larvae into more definite stages. 

Table I represents the smallest and largest body length size 
for each polymorphic group of larvae. The figures for the leg 
discs represent the average size of leg discs measured for five 
larvae in each of the three polymorphic groups, i.e., the poly- 
morphic small, intermediate and large larvae. An examination 
of Table I indicates that larvae of the same body length but of 
different nomadic days have leg discs of consistently different 
size increasing with age (Plate III, fig. 9, and Plate IV, fig. 10). 
This is clearly evident if a 6.6 mm. larva of the tenth nomadic 
day is compared with a 6.6 mm. larva of the fourteenth nomadic 
day. Small larvae may be collected near the end of the nomadic 
phase which have larger leg discs than large larvae collected at 
an early stage of nomadism, clearly indicating the more advanced 
age of the former and their polymorphic specialization. This 
fact is made quite clear when the leg discs of 4.8 mm. larva of 
the seventeenth day is compared with those of a 9.6 mm. larva 
of the twelfth nomadic day. However, the most critical test 
comes when the size of the leg discs is compared at successive 


1955] 


Tafuri: Army Ants 


27 



Body length of small larvae (mm.) 

Fig. 1. Growth curve for the 
imaginal leg discs of polymorphic 
small E. hamatum larvae. The 
calculated slope is 2.864. 



Body length of large lorvae (mm.) 



Body length of intermediate larvae (mm.) 

Fig. 2. Growth curve for the 
imaginal leg discs of the poly- 
morphic intermediate E. hamatum 
larvae. The calculated slope is 
1.785. 


Fig. 3. Growth curve for the 
imaginal leg discs of the large 
E. hamatum larvae. The calcu- 
lated slope is 1.635. 


28 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


stages of development; for example, at the tenth, twelfth and 
fourteenth nomadic days. This is even a more exacting test than 
is the one in which earlier stages are compared since in samples 
taken after the tenth nomadic and especially from the fourteenth 
nomadic day onward, inter-stage differences in the size of the leg 
huds become more marked. Table I shows that despite this fact 
there is an increase in the leg discs in all types of larvae through 
the more advanced stages. 

In order to get a graphic representation of the relationship 
which the leg discs bear to body length of the larvae, values for 
the area of the leg discs were plotted against the body lengths 
for each nomadic day for five larvae in each of the three poly- 
morphic groups. The original data was plotted on arithmetic 
paper. The points plotted indicated that an exponential curve 
of the type y = a b x would best fit the relationship between body 
length and the area of the leg disc. In this formula y represents 
the area of the imaginal leg disc, x represents the body length 
of the larva, and a and b are constants. Each polymorphic group 
of larvae seems to have its own exponential curve. This was fur- 
ther brought out when the data was plotted on semi-logarthmic 
paper. A linear relationship was obtained when the leg disc 
area for each corresponding body length was thus plotted for 
the three polymorphic groups (Text-figures 1, 2, and 3). The 
rate of growth of the leg disc area with respect to the body 
length clearly varied among the three polymorphic groups of 
larvae, and was smallest for the large larvae, greater for the 
intermediate larvae, and greatest for the polymorphic small 
larvae. The constants a and b determine the type of exponential 
curve for each of the polymorphic groups. These constants 
were determined by the least square method. The exponential 
equations of the forms are for the polymorphic small larvae, 
2/ = 0.0005801 (2.864)*; for the polymorphic intermediate larvae, 
y = 0.0021919 (1.785)*; and for the polymorphic large larvae 
y = 0.0025832 (1.636)*. The larger b is, the greater is the rate 
of increase in the leg discs with respect to body length. The 
larger a is, the larger is the initial leg disc area, i.e., at the earliest 
stages of development. 

An inspection and explanation of the figures in this paper will 
serve to demonstrate the most important external structures 


1955] 


Tafuri: Army Ants 


29 


which, when correlated with leg disc size, were used for separat- 
ing out the larvae into stages. 

Plate I, figures 1, 2, 3, and 4, simply illustrates extremes in 
bod} 7 length of the larvae of the third, fifth, twelfth, and fifteenth 
nomadic days. The extremes in body length for any one nomadic 
day and the overlapping of these body sizes into other days of 
the nomadic phase is indicative from size alone of at least three 
polymorphic types. The larvae collected on the third nomadic 
day, however, are characterized by all forms being small, trans- 
parent and anteriorly truncated. Most of the internal organs 
are visible through the body cuticle. The head segment in these 
larvae is poorly developed (Plate I, fig. 1). Plate II, figure 5, 
on the other hand, illustrates a typical head of a twelfth nomadic 
day larva which is well developed and tapering anteriorly. Sen- 
silla turrets are clearly visible on this head segment. The head 
segment of the intermediate larvae of the fifth nomadic day has 
already assumed this shape and lost its truncated appearance. 
The small larvae of the fifth nomadic day possess antennal and 
gonopodal imaginal discs which differentiate them from any lar- 
vae of the third nomadic day. 

Plate II, figure 6, illustrates another morphological character 
used for separating' the larvae into stages, namely, the presence 
of a peripodal cavity which surrounds the leg discs and is pres- 
ent first in the large seventh nomadic day larvae. 

The phenomenon of the leg discs overlapping the posterior 
margin of the thoracic segment in which they are found was still 
another character used for separating the larvae. Some of the 
intermediate larvae of the tenth nomadic day possess leg discs 
showing a precocious overlapping of these posterior margins. 
Only one or sometimes more than one leg disc may overlap the 
posterior margin of the segment. In most of the intermediate lar- 
vae of this group, however, the leg discs extend only to the 
posterior margin of the segment in which they are located. In 
the intermediate larvae of the twelfth nomadic day, the leg discs 
overlap the posterior margin of their segment (Plate II, fig. 7), 
as is the case in all larvae of succeeding nomadic days. 

Segmentation of the leg discs is the last major morphological 
character used in separating the larvae and appears first in the 
intermediate fourteenth nomadic day larvae (Plate II, fig. 8). 


30 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


In these specimens the leg discs appear segmented and have two 
or three marginal furrows which extend obliquely through the 
leg discs from the lateral to the median margin. The larvae of 
all succeeding groups also show this characteristic. 

In addition to the more significant characteristics already men- 
tioned it should be kept in mind that as the polymorphic types 
become mature the body width of all larvae increase in size. This 
is especially true for larvae collected after the fourteenth no- 
madic day, which have greater body widths than larvae of com- 
parable body lengths collected prior to this period. 

On the basis of larval morphological observations and data 
collected for leg disc sizes and body lengths, the following tenta- 
tive key is proposed for separating the larvae into developmental 
periods based on nomadic days. It is realized that the key in its 
present form applies specifically to the material which was studied 
and variations in the measurements of the leg discs will undoubt- 
edly occur when other hamatum larvae are applied. However, 
the measurements included are expected to be used as an aid in 
determining the position of the larvae with respect to the de- 
velopment of the other visible structures. 

KEY TO THE LARVAL GROWTH STAGES OF E. HAMATUM 

A. Leg discs oval or round without peripodal cavity; head segment larger 

than prothoracic segment B 

B. Gonopodal discs and antennal discs absent; larvae transparent, 
gut and entire nerve cord visible through cuticle ; body cuticle 

smooth C 

C. Body length 0.021 mm. to 0.028 mm. in length and width 

N-3*, N-5 Small 

CC. Body length approximately the same as in C but leg discs up 
to 0.028 mm. in length and 0.028 mm. to 0.042 mm. in 
width; mouth parts slightly better differentiated and 

sensilla turrets present N-7 Small 

BB. Gonopodal discs and antennal discs present; larvae not transpar- 
ent but first few ganglia of the ventral nerve cord visible 
through cuticle ; body covered with irregularly arranged pa- 
pillae; body lengths from 2.30 mm. to 4.50 mm., with leg disc 
lengths from 0.042 mm. to 0.084 mm. and widths from 0.060 

mm.to 0.105 mm 

N-5 Intermediate, N-5 Large, N-7 Intermediate 

AA. Leg discs oval or round with a peripodal cavity; the prothoracic seg- 
ment larger than the head segment B 

* X-n umber, represents nomadic day. . - 


1955] 


Tafuri: Army Ants 


31 


B. Leg discs not overlapping the posterior margin of body segment G 

C. Body segments sparsely covered with short hairs and the first 
few ganglia of the ventral nerve cord visible through 
cuticle; body lengths from 3.70 mm. to 5.50 mm. with leg 

disc lengths from 0.084 mm. to 0.126 mm 

: N-7 Large, N-10 Small 

CC. Body segments uniformly covered with short hairs and first 
few ganglia of the ventral nerve cord not visible through 

cuticle D 

D. Body lengths from 3.49 mm. to 5.50 mm. with leg disc 
lengths from 0.084 mm. to 0.133 mm. and widths from 

0.084 mm. to 0.135 mm. N-9 Small, N-12 Small 

DD. Body lengths greater than in D E 

E. Body lengths from 6.30 mm. to 8.20 mm. with leg 
disc lengths from 0.147 mm. to 0.173 mm. and 

widths from 0.140 mm. to 0.173 mm. 

N-9 Intermediate, N-9 Large 

EE. Body lengths from 6.60 mm. to 9.50 mm. with leg 
disc lengths from 0.175 mm. to 0.210 mm. and 

widths from 0.163 mm. to 0.201 mm 

N-10 Intermediate, N-10 Large 


BB. Leg discs overlapping posterior margin of body segment C 

C. Leg discs not segmented I) 


D. Body lengths from 4.40 mm. to 4.90 mm. with leg disc 
lengths from 0.203 mm. to 0.217 mm. and widths 

from 0.149 mm. to 0.156 mm. N-1.4 Small 

DD. Body lengths greater than in D E 

E. Body lengths from 6.80 mm. to 7.50 mm. with leg 
disc lengths from 0.226 mm. to 0.236 mm. and 

widths from 0.173 mm. to 0.196 mm 

N-12 Intermediate 

EE. Body lengths from 8.40 mm. to 9.60 mm. with leg 
disc length averaging 0.280 mm. and widths 


from 0.210 mm. to 0.224 mm N-12 Large 

CC. Leg discs segmented D 

D. Body lengths from 4.10 mm. to 5.50 mm E 


E. Leg disc lengths from 0.226 mm. to 0.268 mm. and 

widths from 0.163 mm. to 0.175 mm. 

N-15 Small 

EE. Leg disc lengths and widths larger than in E F 

F. Leg disc lengths from 0.259 mm. to 0.287 mm. 

and widths from 0.182 mm. to 0.201 mm. 

N-16 Small 

FF. Leg disc lengths from 0.327 mm. to 0.403 

mm. and widths from 0.203 mm. to 0.210 

mm. . N-l7 Small 


32 


New York Entomological Society 


[Yol. lxiii 


DD. Body lengths from 6.50 mm. to 7.50 mm E 

E. Leg disc lengths from 0.306 mm. to 0.352 mm. and 

widths from 0.217 mm. to 0.254 mm 

N-14 Intermediate 

EE. Leg disc lengths from 0.336 mm. to 0.420 mm. and 

widths from 0.227 mm. to 0.247 mm 

N-16 Intermediate 

DDD. Body lengths from 8.20 mm. to 10.80 mm. and leg disc 
lengths from 0.420 mm. to 0.515 mm. and widths 

from 0.250 mm. to 0.305 mm 

N-14 Large, N-15 Intermediate and Large, 

N-16 Large 

DISCUSSION 

In the past the study of growth processes in the larvae of social 
insects as the ant has been neglected by entomologists, w^ho have 
turned mainly to the non-social insect for such studies. Conse- 
quently, development in social insects has not been as clearly un- 
derstood as in other holometabolic insects. Reasons for this neg- 
lect are understandable. In a social organization developmental 
forms are confined to nests or hives, and the egg-laying of the 
queen is usually continuous during the warmer seasons. Hence, 
the larval population consists of a heterogenous mixture of indi- 
viduals of mixed castes, ages and stages, often complicated by 
extensive worker differences in species which manifest poly- 
morphism. Before the enigma proposed by individual differ- 
ences on the adult level can be clarified, corresponding immature 
forms must be studied at reliably differentiated stages. 

In E. hamatum the adult polymorphic workers form a con- 
tinuous series from the smallest worker minor to the large sol- 
dier form, and appears, therefore, to involve an incomplete poly- 
morphism. It is possible that further studies will reveal the 
presence of an incomplete dimorphic type of polymorphism as 
suggested by Wilson (1953). In the adult worker forms, as has 
been previously stated, beside differences in size there are ap- 
parent qualitative differences in this series marked primarily by 
exceptional hooked mandibles and head pattern of the major 
worker. However, in samples of E. hamatum larvae collected 
on successive days of the nomadic phase, characteristics such as 
are found in the adults to differentiate the polymorphic series, 
are not noticeably apparent. The obvious overlapping in the 


1955] 


Tafuri: Army Ants 


33 


range of body sizes of the larvae for any one sample as compared 
with earlier or later samples collected during the nomadic phase 
which together with structural similarities, at first seems to defy 
differentiation of the larvae into growth stages. In actual fact 
any distinction of growth stages is impossible on the basis of 
body size alone. It has been further found that Dyar ’s rule and 
Prizbram’s rule (Wigglesworth, 1939) are not applicable in de- 
termining the number of instars for the larvae and, therefore, 
the particular growth stage of the larva. Dyar’s rule shows 
that the head capsule of caterpillars grow in a geometrical pro- 
gression, increasing in width by a ratio which is constant for a 
given species. Prizbram’s rule implies a harmonic growth where 
the dimensions of a part of a body increase at each moult by the 
same ratio as the body as a whole. Growth in all these larvae 
is actually disharmonic or allometric, i.e., the parts of the body 
grow at rates peculiar to themselves. The extremes in size in 
the larvae of E. hamatum and the over-lapping of these sizes 
during the different periods of the nomadic phase indicate poly- 
morphism and is not due to instar growth. 

A study of the morphological changes which accompany larval 
groAvth supports the hypothesis of polymorphism in the larvae. 
The norm for designating stages of larval development is based 
on the days of the nomadic phase as worked out by Schneirla 
(1938, 1949a). In terms of this norm it is possible to correlate 
specific characters with growth for different polymorphic larvae 
during the different days of the nomadic phase. However, these 
results show some limitations. Eggs are laid during the statary 
phase and embryonic development and a small amount of larval 
development takes place during this phase. The greatest part 
of larval development, however, occurs during the nomadic phase. 
In samples collected on the third nomadic day the most advanced 
members of this group were larvae measuring about 1.5 mm. in 
length, the least advanced members were eggs in various stages 
of embryonic development. Unfortunately, because of limita- 
tions in the range of our material, the earliest stages of larval 
development occurring prior to the nomadic phase were not avail- 
able in the series used. 

A visual method of selecting specimens from samples such as 
was employed in this stud} 7 does not always insure the selection 


34 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


of true intermediate larvae. In some cases there is overlapping’ 
of structural characteristics of these larvae with structural char- 
acteristics of the smaller or larger forms, which would probably 
be indicated if polymorphism is of the incomplete dimorphic 
type. This difficulty might be more easily resolved if the inter- 
mediate specimens were selected at equal intervals of the size 
range of the sample. However, since the larvae like the adult 
workers apparently form a smooth series from the smallest to 
the largest forms, it was considered adequate to select specimens 
on a visual basis into categories representing the extremes and 
the median in body sizes. Conditions under which field samples 
are taken do not always permit representative samples to be ob- 
tained, hence the polymorphic extremes which make up a small 
percent of the population may be inadequately represented in 
some samples. This is the case with the measurements reported 
in Table I for the small larvae of the ninth nomadic day. A 
comparison of the ninth nomadic day larvae with those of the 
tenth and twelfth nomadic days indicates there must have been 
smaller larvae in the population than those actually obtained for 
the ninth nomadic day. Hence, the smallest ninth nomadic day 
larvae in this material shows a precocious morphological develop- 
ment normally present in the smallest larvae of later samples. 

In appraising the present results minor visual errors must also 
be considered in measuring and examining small structures. The 
averages obtained for specimens of given size and growth stage 
show a consistency despite intra- and inter-individual differences 
in the imaginal leg disc sizes recorded for individual specimens. 
It is presumed that over and above the expected observer’s error 
in measuring the leg discs for any one individual an actual 
growth differential exists in this respect. The nature of this 
growth differential is suggested in our results by a size gradient 
in leg disc pairs ranging from the smallest in the first pair to 
the largest in the third pair. 

A precocious overlapping of the posterior margin of the seg- 
ments by the imaginal leg discs was first observed in some of the 
intermediate tenth nomadic day larvae but not in the poly- 
morphic large larvae of this group. Why this overlapping was 
not found in the smallest and largest larvae is not clear. 

Wheeler (1938) investigated the leg vestiges in E. hamatum 


1955] 


Tafuri: Army Ants 


35 


ancl other army ant larvae. These structures are subcircular* 
convex, slightly elevated cuticular papillae, which lie ventral to 
the imaginal discs. His figures 2, 3, and 5, show the close rela- 
tionship between these vestiges and the imaginal leg discs, but 
the present paper is not concerned with the study of the leg 
vestiges. These structures were seen in many of the larvae but 
were not always discernible and consequently, not applicable 
for use as a distinguishing character. 

The principle employed in this study for separating the lar- 
vae into stages and establishing the existence of polymorphism 
in these forms was based on the heterogonic growth of the imag- 
inal leg discs. This principle is not a new one and has often 
been employed in such studies. 

Investigators have observed that certain organs increase in 
relative size with the absolute size of the body that bears them, 
but Huxley (1932) was first to demonstrate the significant rela- 
tionship between the magnitudes of the two variables by his het- 
erogony formula, y = b x k , later revised to y = bx a (Huxley and 
Teissier. 1936) . In this revised formula, as applied to the present 
study, y represents leg-disc dimension, x represents body length, 
and b and a are growth constants, a representing the equilibrium 
constant and b the value of y when x = 1, i.e., the initial growth 
index. Huxley was first to show that problems in polymorphism 
in ants can be related to problems in allometric growth in other 
animals. For example, he finds that the morphological relation- 
ship of the chelae of many male and some female Decapods and 
other appendages of various Crustacea follow the rule of constant 
differential growth ratios. Dudich (1923) finds that Cyclomma- 
tus tarandus has marked heterogenic male mandibles. Coleopter- 
ists distinguish main types based on mandible characters. Priz- 
bram (1930) finds that the legs in Orthoptera also obey this rule. 
The earwig, Forficula auricularia, bears at the end of the abdomen 
a pair of cerci named “ pincers” which vary with sex (Paulian, 
1937). Measurements of the pincers show that two polymorphic 
types are present in the male. 

In neuter social insects that show polymorphism, Huxley states 
that such series are characterized by relative increase of head, 
and especially mandible size, with an absolute increase in total 
size. He believes workers and soldiers represent a series of 


36 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


size forms of a single genetic type possessing a mechanism for 
heterogony or allometry of mandible and head. In ants the 
absolute size range appears to be greater than for other holo- 
metabolous insects, the size differences being brought about by 
the amount of food fed the larvae by their nurses. The largest 
larval forms are fed to the limit; the smallest are deprived of 
food and forced to pupate while still small larvae. Emery (1921) 
has shown this behavior to be true for ants. Wesson’s work 
(1940) goes one step further and gives evidence that overfeeding 
plays an important role in the production of the large queens as 
against the smaller workers. More recently the studies of such 
invesigators as S. F. Light (1942, 1943) on the social insects, that 
of R. E. Gregg’s (1942) on Pheidole, M. Y. Brian’s (1951, 1952) 
studies on caste determination in Myrmica rubra, and A. Le- 
doux’s (1950) work in Oecophylla longineda, reveal evidence of 
caste determination during the larval stages. Flanders (1945, 
1952), on the other hand, has suggested that caste determina- 
tion may occur in the eggs at the period of maturation or at the 
time of laying. The results obtained in this investigation sup- 
port caste differentiation during the larval period. Cohic (1946), 
making use of the rule of constant differential growth ratios, 
finds in the workers of Dorylus ( Anomma ) nigricans evidence 
for a mechanism for heterogony of the head, mandible, scape of 
the antenna, and leg parts and on the basis of his results sep- 
arated the workers of this species into four types. 

It would appear from the observations in this investigation 
that in the case of determination of castes in E. hamatum, growth 
trends are fixed during the larval stage and proceed without in- 
terruption to form the adult ant. The main features of adult 
caste formation are dependent on the differential growth of such 
structures as the imaginal leg discs, which possess specific growth 
rate potentials in the larva. The growth of the larval tissues 
apart from the imaginal discs is approximately regulated to allow 
final expression of the leg disc potentials. 

On the basis of three distinct growth curves and different 
slopes in at least the small and large larvae good evidence is of- 
fered for believing that the size of the leg discs in relation to 
body length of a particular polymorphic group may provide an 


1955] 


Tafuri: Army Ants 


37 


index of larval age, or in other terms, offer a cine to the time in 
the nomadic phase when a given sample was taken. 

SUMMARY 

A morphological study was made on several stages of worker 
larvae of Eciton (E.) hamatum to determine evidences of larval 
polymorphism. Specific external characters are correlated with 
growth and development of the larvae. 

The extreme range in the body sizes permitted the separation 
of the larvae arbitrarily into three groups; small, intermediate 
and large. 

The size and development of the leg discs, the shape of the 
head segment, the appearance of the imaginal discs, degree of 
transparency, and pilosity were noted for the different size larvae 
of each group. These characteristics are correlated with the 
days of the nomadic phase which have been used to designate 
successive stages of larval development. 

The results obtained are tabulated, and a key for separating 
the larvae according to nomadic day is proposed. The limita- 
tions of this key have been discussed. 

A comparison of the leg discs with body length indicates that 
these structures have an independent growth rate in the small, 
intermediate, and large larvae. These results are represented 
graphically. This independent growth rate makes possible the 
separation of the larvae of similar body lengths but different de- 
velopment stages into different polymorphic groups. It also in- 
dicates larval age. 


Literature cited 

Brian, M. 1951. Caste determination in myrmicine ant. Experientia 7: 
182-186. 

. 1952. Further work on caste determination. Bulletin de L ’Union 

Internationale pour L ’Etude Des Insectes Sociaux. 1: 17-20. 

Cohic, F. 1946. Observations morphologiques et ecologiques sur Dorylus 
( Anomma ) nigricans Illiger. Rev. Fr. Entom. 13: 229-276. 

Dudich, E. 1923. liber die Variation des Cyclommatus tarandus Thunberg. 
Arch. f. Naturgesch. 2: 62. 

Emery, C. 1921. Quels son les facteurs du polymorphisme du sexe feminin 
chez les fourmis? Rev. Gen. Sci. 32. 

Flanders, S. 1945. Is caste differentiation in ants a function of the rate 
of egg deposition? Science 101: 245-246. 


38 


New York Entomological Society 


[Yol. LXIII 

up 

. 1952. Oviposition as the mechanism causing worker development in 

ants. J. Econ. Ent. 45: 37-39. 

Huxley, J. 1932. Problems of Relative Growth. Methuen and Co. Ltd. 
London. 

Huxley, J. and G. Teissier. 1936. Terminology of relative growth. Na- 
ture 137: 780-781. 

Ledoux, A. 1950. Recherche sur la, biologie de la fourmi fileuse ( Oeco - 
phylla longinoda Latr.). Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. 12: 313-461. 

Light, S. 1942, 1943. The determination of castes of social insects. Quart. 
Rev. Biol. 17: 312-328; 18: 46-63. 

Paulian, R. 1937. A study of polymorphism in Forficula auricularia L. 
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 30: 558-562. 

Prizbram, H. 1930. Connecting Laws in Animal Morphology. Univ. Lon- 
don Press. London. 

Schneirla, T. 1933. Studies on the army ant in Panama. Jour. Comp. 
Psychol. 15: 267-299. 

. 1938. A theory of army-ant behavior based upon the analysis of 

activities in a representative species. Jour. Comp. Psychol. 25: 51-90. 
. 1944. The reproductive functions of the army-ant queen as pace- 
maker of the group behavior pattern. Jour. N. Y. Entom. Soc. 52: 
153-192. 

. 1949a. Problems in the environmental adaptations of some new- 

world species of doryline ants. Anal. Inst. Biologia. 20: 371-384. 

. 1949b. Army-ant life and behavior under dry-season conditions. 

Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 94: 1-82. 

Schneirla, T. and R. Brown. 1950. Army-ant life and behavior under 
dry-season conditions. 4. Further investigations of cyclic processes in 
behavioral and reproductive functions. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
95: 263-353. 

Wesson, L. 1940. An experimental study of caste determination in ants. 
Psyche. 47: 105-111. 

Wheeler, G. C. 1938. Are ant larvae apodous? Psyche. 45: 139-145. 

. 1943. The larvae of the army ant. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 36: 

319-332. 

Wigglesworth, Y. 1939. The Principles of Insect Physiology. Methuen 
and Co. Ltd. London. 

Wilson, E. 1953. The origin and evolution of polymorphism in ants. 
Quart. Rev. Biol. 28: 136-155. 


1955] 


Tafuri: Army Ants 


39 


(Jour, N. Y. Ent. Soc.), Yol. LXITI (Plate I) 



Plate I 


Pig. 1. Third nomadic day larvae of E. hamatum. X 19. 

Fig. 2. Small, intermediate, and large fifth nomadic day E. hamatum 
larvae, x 14. 

Fig. 3 Small, intermediate, and large twelfth nomadic day E. hamatum 
larvae. x4.5. 

Fig. 4. Small, intermediate, and large fifteenth nomadic day E. hamatum 
larvae. X 4.5. 


(Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc.), Vol. LXIII 


(Plate II) 



Plate II 


Fig. 5. Head of twelfth nomadic day E. liamatum larvae. 1, first thoracic 
segment; A, antennal disc; C, clypeus; H, habena maxilla; L, labrum; LA, 
labium; M, mandible; MA maxilla; O, opening of the spinning gland ; 

S 2 , S„ sensilla turrets. 

Fig. 6. Ventral view of the thoracic segments of a large seventh nomadic 
day E. liamatum larva. 1,2,3, first, second, and third thoracic segments 
I, imaginal leg discs; P, peripodal membrane; PC, peripodal cavity. 

Fig. 7. Ventral view of the thoracic segments of an intermediate twelfth 
nomadic day E. liamatum larva. 1,2,3, first second, and third thoracic seg- 
ments; I, imaginal leg discs; P, peripodal membrane; PC, peripodal cavity. 

Fig. 8. Ventral view of the thoracic segments of an intermediate four- 
teenth nomadic day E. liamatum larva. Labelling the same as in figures. 
6 and 7. 


19o5] 


Tafuri: Army Ants 


41 


{Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc.), Vol. XVIII (Plates III, IV) 



Plate III Plate IY 


Plate III. A comparison of the size of the leg discs in 5.5 mm. E. hama- 
tum larvae of different nomadic days. X 14. A, large larva of the seventh 
nomadic day; B, small larva of the twelfth nomadic day; C, small larva 
vOf the seventeenth nomadic day; G, gonopodal discs. 

Plate IY. A comparison of the size of the leg discs of large and inter- 
mediate E. Inamatum larvae of different nomadic days but of nearly similar 
body lengths. X 14. A, large larva (8.3 mm.) of the ninth nomadic day, 
leg discs within the margin of the segment; B, large larva (8.5 mm.) of the 
twelfth nomadic day, leg discs overlap the posterior margin of the segment; 
■C, intermediate larva (7.9 mm.) of the fifteenth nomadic day, leg discs 
segmented and overlap tha posterior margin of the segment. 



42 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. lxiii 


( Continued from page 20) 

Dr. Forbes moved for the suspension of the By-Laws and proposed that 
Mr. Dixon be elected to membership at this meeting. The proposal was 
approved. 

Dr. Vishniac introduced Dr. Boeder of Tufts College, the speaker of the 
evening. Dr. Boeder ’s topic was 1 1 Experimental methods applied to the 
study of insect physiology”. 

By means of lantern slides Dr. Boeder demonstrated the efficiency and 
mode of operation of electronic devices and circuits in the study of insect 
flight. As a result of his work he proposed that insects be grouped into 
two flight classes. Dr. Boeder’s remarks were followed by extensive discus- 
sion. 

The meeting adjourned at 9 :45 P.M. Loms | Makks> Secretary 

Meeting of December 2, 1952 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History; Dr. Clausen presiding. There were 15 members and nine 
guests present. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and 
approved. 

The minutes of the recent meeting of the Executive Committee were read. 
In these minutes note was made of a gift to the Society of $500.00 by Mr. 
Herbert F. Schwarz. The gift is to be used to help defray the indebtedness 
accrued through the publication of the Journal. Dr. Clausen publicly 
thanked Mr. Schwarz for his contribution on behalf of the entire Society. 

Dr. Clausen appointed a nominating committee consisting of Dr. Forbes 
(Chairman), Mr. Schwarz and Dr. Cazier. 

The Secretary called attention to the several notices regarding the Society 
and its members activities as broadcast over the French edition of the Voice 
of America by our fellow member, Lucien L. Pohl. 

Dr. Vishniac then introduced Mr. John C. Pallister of the American Mu- 
seum staff who spoke on his recent exploring and collecting expedition tO' 
Yucatan, Mexico. The trip was made under the auspices of the Explorers’ 
Club of New York. The talk was illustrated with many kodachromes and 
three reels of motion pictures, the last of which, through an unforeseen 
breakdown of the projection apparatus, was only partly shown. As a result 
of this very fine presentation the members of the Society went away with 
a better understanding of the ecology, geography and natural history of 
Yucatan. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:40 P.M. LouIS g. Marks , Secretary 

Meeting of December 16, 1952 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History; Dr. Clausen presiding. There were 8 members and 6 
guests present. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and ap- 
proved. 


( Continued on page 52) 


1955 ] 


De Coursey: Anopheles 


43 : 


THE EFFECT OF SUBMERGED PINE NEEDLES 
ON THE OVIPOSITION AND DEVELOPMENT 
OF ANOPHELES QUADRIMACULATUS SAY 1 

By J. D. De Coursey 2 
Department of Entomology 
Naval Medical Field Research Laboratory 
Camp Lejeune, North Carolina 

INTRODUCTION 

A study of the effect of submerged pine needles on the oviposi- 
tion and development of mosquitoes was instigated by a report 
from T. J. Roe, CWO, USN. Mr. Roe noticed that sand buckets 
filled with rain water and containing pine needles harbored no 
mosquito larvae, while those without needles produced several 
hundred larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. It was hypothe- 
sized that the submerged pine needles could either cause the 
water to be unsuitable for oviposition, or to retard or inhibit 
larval development. 

Various products from pine trees have been utilized as insect 
repellents and insecticides. Davis and Turner (1918) found that 
pine sawdust had a decidedly repellent effect on cutworms. 
Bishopp et al (1923) noted that various pine oils have a definite 
repellent value against flies, and Cory (1928) stated that volatile 
emanations from crude pine oil alone and in emulsions were 
markedly repellent to ants. Pine oil possesses definite repellent 
value against certain Aedes mosquitoes according to MacNay 
(1939), although not as effective as other materials tested. Studies 
by Blagoveschenskii and coworkers (1943) on d-x-pinene, ob- 
tained as a waste product in the process of purification of juniper 
oil in Central Asia, indicated that it was repellent to mosquitoes. 
With reference to insecticidal properties of pine tree products, 
Headlee (1929) found one of the fractions obtained by the de- 

This work is not to be construed as necessarily reflecting the views of the 
Department of the Navy. 

1 The author wishes to express his appreciation to LCDR R. S. Leopold, 
MSC, USN; LCDR M. R. Lewis, MSC, USN; LTJG R. H. Kathan, MSC, 
USN; G. H. Amerine, T/Sgt, USMC; L. L. Buck, HN, USNR; and Miss E. 
McIntosh for their kind assistance in the conduct of this study. 

2 CDR MSC USN. 


44 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


structive distillation of pine stumps, roots and branches with 
caustic soda to be effective in trunk treatments to kill overwin- 
tering codling moth larvae. Barnes (1925) showed that “pine 
oil, though very toxic to mosquito larvae is not suitable for use 
on water, as the film it forms breaks up too rapidly for practical 
purposes.” He concluded that pine oil has a powerful soporific 
or paralyzing effect upon the larvae and pupae and results in 
their death either directly or apparently by drowning while 
under the effects of the drug. According to Shugar and Wyrap 
(1942) and Shesterikova and Bushurova (1942) extracts from 
the distillation of pine wood are toxic to mosquito larvae. 

Very little is to be found in the literature about the insecticidal 
properties of pine needles. Lagereva (1947) discussed the free- 
ing of cattle of Psoroptes by rubbing the affected parts with a 
liniment prepared from pine needles and crude cresol. Barnes 
(1925) found that the eggs of Anopheles quadrimaculatus are 
not uniformly destroyed by the film formed by pine oil and kero- 
sene. 

With reference to the composition of pine oil, Wirth (1943) 
stated that it is obtained by the steam distillation of the wood of 
Pinus palustris Miller and other species of Pinus. It is a volatile 
oil composed chiefly of tertiary and secondary terpene alcohols. 
Pearson (1935) gives its composition as mainly terpenes, alco- 
hols, ethers and ketones. According to Bau (1921) the residue 
left by steam distillation of pine needles is a wax containing 
cetyl, ceryl and myricly alcohols; palmitic, phdroxypalmitic (A) 
and steric acids ; phytesterol ; obeitic acid ; dihydroxystearic acid 
and lower fatty acids, including butyric. Working with Philip- 
pine pine needle oil from Pinus insularis de Santos, West and 
Esquerra (1931) gave an analysis of the oil as largely A and B 
pinene and a small percent of esters calculated as bornyl acetate. 

MATERIALS 

Tests with submerged pine needles were conducted with Anoph- 
eles quadrimaculatus Say. eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. The 
needles were from large Loblolly pine trees, Pinus taeda L. Ovi- 
position studies were conducted by placing pine needles in Petri 
dishes containing tap water in cages with adult female mosqui- 
toes. Larval and pupal studies were conducted in 250 ml. beak- 


1955] 


De Coursey: Anopheles 


45 


ers and 8 by 12 inch stainless steel pans. The larvae were fed 
measured amounts of ground commercial dog food. All experi- 
ments were carried on at room temperature 76-80° F. The pine 
needles averaged seven inches in length and included the en- 
circling sheath at the base (groups of three needles). 

PROCEDURE 

Oviposition preference was determined by placing 10, 20, and 
30 pine needles in separate Petri dishes containing tap water. 
The needles were cut into approximately one-fourth inch lengths. 
The three dishes were placed three inches apart in a line across 
the center of the floor of a 19 by 19 inch screened cage containing 
approximately 500 adult Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Three 
dishes containing tap water as controls were placed individually 
in front and against each of the dishes containing the needles 
also three inches apart. All dishes were left overnight in the 
cage and removed after 21 hours. The results are shown in 
Table 1. 

TABLE l 

Effect of Submerged Pine Needles on Oviposition and Early Larval 
Development of Anopheles quadrimaculatus 


Number 

of 

needles 

Num- 

ber 

of 

eggs 

Num- 

ber 

hatched 

Per- 

cent 

Mortality of larvae 
age in days 


Per- 

cent 

dead 

hatched 

1 2 

3 

4 

5 

10 

259 

206 

79.5 

142 184 

198 

204 

206 

100 

Control 

4,155 

3,812 

91.7 

58 

81 

150 

160 

4.2 

20 

313 

200 

63.9 

143 192 

200 



100 

Control 

1,607 

O 

rH 

91.5 

44 

61 



4.1 

30 

204 

68 

33.3 

57 68 




100 

Control 

3,086 

2,831 

91.7 

50 




1.8 


Collectively, the three dishes containing pine needles con- 
tained 776 eggs compared with 8,848 in the controls or only eight 
per cent of the eggs were deposited on the pine needle water. 
However, subsequent tests involving 30 pine needles indicated 
that the mosquitoes laid as many eggs in the pine needle water 
as they did in the controls. The number of eggs laid on the 
water in the three dishes containing needles were not appreciably 


46 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


different. An average of 61 per cent of the eggs laid in the 
pine needle water ultimately hatched, compared with 92 per cent 
in the controls. In individual cases, the percentage of eggs that 
hatched decreased from 80 per cent in the dish with 10 pine 
needles to 33 in the one with 30 needles, while the controls re- 
mained constant at 92 per cent hatch. Apparently, the eggs 
that were laid during the first few hours were deposited on the 
water before the wax film was completely formed. Those de- 
posited later were on top of the film, and although slightly moist, 
did not hatch. This would account for the decreased percent- 
ages of hatch as the number of needles increased, forming a film 
more rapidly and of greater density. The number of days to 
complete larval mortality decreased from five days for 10 needles 
to two for 30 needles, indicating a more rapid death rate with 
increased numbers of needles. 

In preliminary tests with older larvae, a large number of green 
and dry (fallen) pine needles (300 each, 7 inches long) were cut 
into one-half inch lengths, ground separately in 200 ml. tap 
water and sand with mortar and pestle, and the supernatant 
liquid was placed in 250 ml. beakers. Fifty larvae 2 days old 
were placed in each beaker. Those in the liquid from green pine 
needles showed 68 per cent apparently dead in 2 hours and those 
in the liquid from dry needles, 50 per cent. In five hours, the 
green needle-water produced 72 per cent mortality while the dry 
needle water remained at the 50 per cent level. In twenty-one 
hours (over night) all were dead in both groups while the con- 
trols attained only 15 per cent mortality. Subsequent tests on 
the basis of whole green and dry needles indicated that the green 
needles produced greater mortality in 48 hours than the dry. 
For this reason all further observations were conducted with 
green needles. The results for green needles are given in Table 2. 

In order to determine the number of needles necessary to pro- 
duce mortality in five day old larvae, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 needles 
cut into half inch lengths were placed in separate 250 ml. beakers 
containing 200 ml. of water. Fifty larvae were placed in each 
beaker. The larvae were fed measured amounts of ground dog 
food. As shown in Table 2, ninety-six to ninety-eight per cent 
mortality was produced in nine days with 30 to 40 needles re- 
spectively. Fifty needles yielded 100 per cent mortality in five 


TABLE 2 

Mortality of Larvae Exposed to Submerged Green Pine Needles 


1955] 


De Coursey: Anopheles 


47 



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48 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


days. Fourteen per cent mortality occurred in the controls. 
Seven day old larvae exposed to 30, 50, 70 and 100 one-fourth 
inch needles under the same conditions reached 100 per cent 
mortality in five, two, two and one day respectively with 20 per 
cent mortality in the controls after five days. 

Since needles cut into one-fourth inch lengths produced mor- 
tality in a shorter time than those one-half inch long, tests were 
made in 8 x 12 inch stainless steel pans containing 800 ml. of 
water to determine the mortality over a larger surface area. 
One hundred to 200 five day old larvae were used per pan. The 
needles in one-fourth inch lengths were placed in the pans at the 
rates of 100, 200, and 300 needles per pan. The mortality 
reached 100 per cent in eight, seven and five days respectively 
with 11 per cent dead in the controls. Fifty-two pupae devel- 
oped in the controls, but none developed in the pans containing 
pine needles. 

The results indicate that Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae in 
800 ml. of water with a surface area of 96 square inches do not 
reach maturity in the presence of 100 pine needles under labora- 
tory conditions, and that the time necessary for death decreases 
as the number of needles is increased. 

The needles produce a wax-like film over the surface of the 
water which is similar to a coating of very thin paraffin. The ac- 
tions of the larvae in attempting to remain at the surface of the 
water, indicate that drowning may play a part in causing death, 
although the decrease in egg hatch may indicate a toxic action 
also. Oviposition will occur on water saturated with turpen- 
tine, but very few eggs hatch. In very dilute solutions of tur- 
pentine, the eggs hatch, but the larvae die shortly thereafter. 
It is possible, therefore, that the terpene alcohols may be a promi- 
nent factor in larval mortality. Starvation may also be a factor 
since the larvae were unable to feed at the surface and food 
would not spread over the surface. 

In order to determine the effect of pine cones on larval develop- 
ment, 15 young cones one inch long by one-fourth inch in diam- 
eter were placed in 200 ml. of water in a 250 ml. beaker with 50 
larvae. Ninety-six per cent of the larvae were dead in four days. 

Pine gum in water did not cause mortality to larvae. 

One-half inch lengths of one-fourth inch diameter limbs (from 


1955] 


De Coursey: Anopheles 


49 


section of limb eight inches long producing pine needles) gave 
28 per cent mortality to 50 larvae in 200 ml. of water (250 ml. 
beaker) in 48 hours and only 66 per cent in 11 days. 

Pupal mortality was determined by placing 100 pupae in 800 
ml. of tap water in each of three 8 by 12 inch pans containing 
100, 200 and 300 submerged green pine needles respectively. 
The needles were cut into approximately one-fonrth inch lengths. 
The pupae were from larvae that had pupated within 24 hours 
of the experiment. The control consisted of 100 pupae in the 
same type pan in tap water. Mortality counts were made 24, 48, 
and 72 hours following initiation of the test. The results are 
given in Table 3. 

TABLE 3 

The Effect of Submerged Pine Needles on Pupal Mortality 
and Adult Emergence 


Number 

of 

needles 

Number 

of 

Percent pupal mortality 
by days 

Percent adults from 
remaining pupae 

pupae 

1 

2 

3 

1 day 

2 days 

3 days 

100 

100 

7 

24* 

25* 

.01 

86.8 

100 

200 

100 

8 

15** 

19* 

.00 

63.5* 

100 

300 

100 

5 

21* 

26* 

.01 

56.9* 

100 

Control 

100 

4 

7 

7 

.01 

82.8 

100 


* Significant at the .001 percent level of confidence (Significance of dif- 
ference between proportions). 

** Significant at the .01 percent level of confidence. 


The pupal mortality in each of the pans containing submerged 
needles was significantly greater than the mortality in the con- 
trol pan on the second and third days. On the second day the 
adult emergence from the pan containing 100 needles was not 
significantly greater than the controls, but the emergence from 
the pans containing 200 and 300 needles was significantly less 
than the emergence from the 100 needle and control pans. This 
indicates that submerged pine needles cause some increase in 
mortality and retard adult emergence. However, 100 per cent 
of the remaining pupae had produced adults by the third day in 
all cases. 

In order to observe the effect of pine needle water on adult 


50 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


mosquitoes, 290 green needles were boiled for 30 minutes in a 
loosely capped beaker. Twenty adult females were sprayed with 
the supernatant fluid with an atomizer until the insects were wet. 
There was no mortality in 24 hours. Similarly 20 females 
sprayed with supernatant fluid from uncut needles allowed to 
stand in water 24 hours produced no mortality. Material from 
green pine needles cut into one-half inch lengths and ground 
in water with sand produced no mortality when sprayed on 
adult females. The controls were sprayed with tap water and 
remained normal. Organic solvent extraction might help clarify 
the question of insecticidal activity against adult mosquitoes and 
the mode of action on larval forms since the material released 
by the needles is relatively insoluble in water. 

CONCLUSIONS 

Anopheles quadrimaculatus females exhibit no aversion to ovi- 
position on water containing green pine needles. The needles 
produce a wax-like cover over the surface of the water. The 
number of eggs that hatch decrease as the number of pine needles 
in the water is increased. The death rate of the larvae increases 
as the number of pine needles becomes greater. The larvae are 
killed in water containing either green or dry needles, but greater 
mortality is produced by the green needles. The detrimental 
action of needles is enhanced by cutting them into one-fourth inch 
lengths. One hundred needles are required to kill larvae in nine 
days in 800 ml. of water with a surface area of 96 square inches. 
The time is reduced to five days when 300 needles are utilized. 

Since egg hatch and larval mortality are adversely affected by 
dilute solutions of turpentine, it is possible that terpene alcohols 
in the pine needles may be a prominent factor in larval mor- 
tality. Drowning, due to the film over the water, and starvation, 
due to inability to obtain surface food, may also contribute to 
mortality. 

Young pine cones have been shown to inhibit larval develop- 
ment. Small branches cut into short lengths show some detri- 
mental effect on larvae. Pine gum did not cause larval mor- 
tality. 

Submerged pine needles caused some pupal mortality on the 
second and third days, and retarded emergence on the second 


1955] 


De Coursey: Anopheles 


51 


clay. However, all remaining pupae emerged on the third day. 

There is no evidence that the water from submerged pine 
needles is toxic when sprayed on adult mosquitoes. Organic sol- 
vent extracts might clarify the question of insecticidal activity 
since the material released by the needles is relatively insoluble 
in water. 

Field tests of this method of mosquito control are warranted, 
and it appears to provide an alternate method of field control 
under certain conditions. However, rain, wind, and other fac- 
tors could conceivably nullify the effect of the wax film on the 
water. 

References 

Barnes, M. E. 1925. The toxic action of oil films upon mosquito larvae 
with particular reference to pine oil films. Amer. J. Hygiene 5: 315-329. 
Bau, A. 1921. Determination of oxalic acid. Woch. Brau. 38: 113-115, 
122-124. 

Bishop, F. C., F. C. Cook, D. C. Parman and E. W. Laake. 1923. Progress 
report of investigations relating to repellents, attractants and larvicides 
for the screw-worm and other flies. J. Econ. Entom. 16: 222-224. 
Blagoveschenskii, D. I., N. G. Bregetova and A. S. Monchadskii. 1943. 
New deterrent substances for protecting man against attacks of mo- 
squitoes. Compt. rend. Acad. Science U.R.S.S. (N.S.) 40: 119-122. 
Cory, E. N. 1928. Experiments with pine oil preparations. Bull. Maryland 
Agric. Expt. Sta. 298: 184-186. 

Davis, J. J. and C. F. Turner. 1918. Popular and practical entomology, 
experiments with cutworm baits. Canad. Ent. 1: 187-192. 

Headlee, T. J. 1929. Report of the Department of Entomology. Rep. New 
Jersey Agri. Exp. Sta. 1927-28: 125-189. 

Lagereva, M. G. 1947. Treatment of skin diseases in agricultural animals. 
Veterinariya 24: 42-44. Moscow. 

MacNay, C. G. 1939. Studies on repellents for biting flies. Canad. Ent. 
71: 38-44. 

Pearson, A. M. 1935. The role of pine oil in cattle fly sprays. Bull. Del. 

Agric. Expt. Sta. 196: p. 63. 

Santos, I. de., A. P. West and P. D. Esguerra. 1931. Philippine pine- 
needle oil from Pinus insularis (Endlicher) Philippine J. Sci. 46: 1-7. 
Shesterikova, A. A. and A. A. Bushurova. 1942. The effect of bituminous 
by-products and some vegetable poisons on mosquito larvae. Med. Para- 
sitol. and Paras. Dis. 11: 23-24. Moscow. 

Shugar, N. A. and H. A. Wyrap. 1942. A new method for the preparation 
of paris green suspensions. Med. Parasitol. and Paras. Dis. 11: 87-88. 
Wirth, E. H. 1943. Pine oil. Nation. Formulary Bull. 11: 168-169. 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


52 

( Continued from page 42) 

Dr. Clausen appointed an Auditing Committee consisting of Dr. Gertscli 
and Mr. Huntington. 

The paper of the evening was given by Dr. Harold Hagan of the College 
of the City of New York, a past President of the New York Entomological 
Society. His topic was ‘ 1 Evolutionary Sequences in the Development of 
Reproductive Systems ’ \ 

Dr. Hagan distinguishes between what he calls balanced and unbalanced 
systems. A balanced system is one which has all parts and organs equipped 
to perform a function to get an end product. An unbalanced system is one 
which has lost one or more of these factors, be it an organ or a function. 
By use of the development of the reproductive systems of various orders 
of insects, Dr. Hagan was able to show certain trends that have taken place. 
The primitive reproductive system utilized only mesoderm in its origin and 
was laid down metamerically, terminating in a primitive gonopore. Later 
modifications utilize the invagination of ectodermal tissue, at least twice in 
the phylogeny of the system resulting in subsequent displacement of the 
original primitive gonopore. 

A discussion followed the presentation of this paper. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:45 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 
Meeting of January 6, 1953 

The annual meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History; Dr. Clausen presiding. There were 11 members and 10 
guests present. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and ap- 
proved. The Secretary certified that a quorum was present. There were 
no officers’ reports. 

Dr. Forbes reporting for the Nominating Committee proposed the follow- 
ing slate of officers for the coming year : 

President — Dr. Lucy Clausen 

Vice President — Dr. Roman Vishniac 

Secretary — Dr. Louis S. Marks 

Asst. Secretary — Dr. Frederick Rindge 

Treasurer — Mr. Arthur Roensch 

Asst. Treasurer — Mrs. Patricia Vaurie 

Editor — Mr. Frank Soraci 

Editor Emeritus — Dr. Harry B. Weiss 

Asst. Editor — Mr. Herbert F. Schwarz 

Trustees — Messrs. Huntington, Teale, Drs. Klots and Cazier. 

There were no other nominations and those presented were seconded and 
duly elected. 

Dr. Vishniac introduced the speaker of the evening, Mr. Jay Fox of Sea- 
ford, Long Island, who spoke on “ Motion Picture Photograph in Nature.” 
He illustrated his remarks with prize-winning motion pictures which utilized 
( Continued on page 58) 


1955] 


Frost & Brown: Mecoptera 


53 


A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF PENNSYLVANIA 
MECOPTERA 

By S. W. Frost and Joanne Pepper Brown 
HISTORY 

Early references were made to Mecoptera by Pliny and Aris- 
totle. They spoke of them as winged scorpions which no doubt 
referred to these insects. The first definite reference to Mecop- 
tera is that of Aldrovandi (1602) who placed them in the Dip- 
tera. In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae (1758) Linnaeus 
grouped them in the genus Panorpa and the order Neuroptera. 
Latrielle (1801) placed them in a separate family, the Panorpa- 
tae. The order Mecaptera was established by Packard (1886) 
and this was changed by Comstock (1895) to Mecoptera as it 
stands today. 

The Mecoptera form a small group and comparatively few 
papers have been published on this order. The best and most 
comprehensive is that by Carpenter (1931) on the revision of the 
Nearctic species. Setty (1940) contributed considerable on the 
family Bittacidae. Carpenter and Tillyard have published sev- 
eral articles on the fossil species. Many notes on individual 
species have been published, but no extensive papers have ap- 
peared since 1931. 

IMPORTANCE OF GROUP 

They are interesting insects and at times and in certain local- 
ities are frequently abundant. However, they have been col- 
lected and studied by comparatively few entomologists. This is 
partly due to the fact that they are of little economic importance 
except as food for other animals or in their capacity as scaven- 
gers. Although not of direct importance to man, it is significant 
that they do not destroy foliage or vegetation and do not bite or 
inconvenience him in any way. 

The Mecoptera are valuable in fundamental taxonomic studies. 
Their primitive structure and ancient origin has aided in study- 

Authorized for publication May 25, 1954 as paper No. 1877 in the Journal 
series of the Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station. 


54 


New York Entomological Society 


[Yol. lxiii 


ing the development of morphological structures in closely re- 
lated orders. As a matter of fact, these studies have served to 
bring this, one of the smallest of insect orders, into prominence. 
Based on numerous fossil remains obtained from the Carbonif- 
erous, Permian, Triassic and Jurassic periods, Tillyard (1935) 
has shown that the Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and prob- 
ably the Siphonaptera have all originated with the Mecoptera 
from a common ancestor. It is also interesting to note that the 
Mecoptera were more abundant during the Permian period than 
at the present. Carpenter (1930) gives figures to show that they 
constituted 9.0 per cent of the total insects in the Permian, 3.3 
per cent in the Tertiary and only .035 per cent at the present. 

CLASSIFICATION 

Approximately 300 species of Mecoptera are known from the 
world. Three-fourths of them are found in temperate and sub- 
tropical regions. Their distribution includes Australia, New 
Zealand, Europe, Central, South and North America. About 70 
species have been described from North America and twenty- 
three are definitely known from Pennsylvania. 

Six families of Mecoptera are recognized : The Notiothaumidae, 
Nannochoristidae, Meropidae, Bittacidae, Panorpidae, and Bore- 
idae. Only the last four of these occur in Pennsylvania. The 
largest number of species belong to the family Panorpidae which 
is found over the entire Holarctic region and in parts of the 
tropics. The Bittacidae is the next largest family and is found 
in both the temperate and tropical regions of both hemispheres. 
The Boreidae are represented by 12 species in Europe and North 
America. Only a single species of the Family Meropidae is 
known and this occurs in Eastern United States. 

COMMON NAMES 

The Mecoptera are popularly known as scorpion flies, however, 
only the males of the Panorpidae have a scorpion-like appearance. 
Some workers therefore prefer to call them snout flies. The 
Boreidae are frequently called snow scorpion flies or snow fleas 
because they are commonly found on the snow. The Bittacidae, 
which resemble craneflies in their manner of hanging by their 
front legs, are often called hanging snout flies. 


1955] 


Frost & Brown: Mecoptera 


55 


HABITATS 

Mecoptera are generally found in damp, shady and well for- 
ested areas especially near streams. They are frequently associ- 
ated with blackberry, nettle, jewelweed, goldenrod, ferns, grasses, 
mosses and broad leaved plants. On the other hand they are 
sometimes collected in open sunny places. The Bittacidae hang 
from the undersides of the foliage and when disturbed fly close 
do the ground for some distance and eventually hide in dead 
leaves or dense foliage. They resemble certain craneflies in their 
flight and are often mistaken for them. They are essentially 
predacious and feed primarily upon Diptera, consuming the body 
fluids and softer parts. The Panorpidae usually rest on the 
upper surface of the leaves and after being disturbed either drop 
to the ground or fly a short distance returning to the same gen- 
eral area. They are principally saprophagous, feeding upon dis- 
abled or freshly killed insects. Caterpillars and adult flies make 
rip the larger part of their diet but they occasionally feed on 
nectar, pollen and parts of flowers or fruit. The Boreidae are 
found in moss at the bases of trees and are most readily located 
when there is snow on the ground. They frequent the higher 
elevations in wooded areas. These snout flies are phytophagous 
but may feed on Podura, Collembola and other tiny animals in 
the moss where they occur. 

The larvae of all species are difficult to locate. They inhabit 
mosses, dead leaves and soil cover in wooded places. 

Over 12,000 specimens of Mecoptera have been collected from 
73 localities and 30 counties in Pennsylvania representing a rel- 
atively large part of the state as indicated on the accompanying 
map. These studies have been based on several hundred speci- 
mens in the collection of the Pennsylvania State University ; nu- 
merous specimens in the collection of the Pennsylvania Academy 
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; those in the collection of the 
Bureau of Plant Industry, Harrisburg; and a rather sizeable 
-collection in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh. Records pub- 
lished by Carpenter (1931) and Hine (1901) have also been 
included. Twenty-three species have been taken in Pennsyl- 
vania as indicated by Table 1. Most of these were collected indi- 
vidually. At times some species such as Panorpa maculosa Hagen 
<or Bitlacus apicalis Hagen were obtained accidentally in sweep- 


56 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. lxiii 


ing low vegetation. On one occasion 10 to 12 specimens of the 
latter species were taken with practically every sweep of the 
net. Some species were collected in light or bait traps. The 
numbers from these latter sources were small. Merope tuber 
Newm. was taken twice from the surface of water in a bucket. 
Once, this somewhat rare species flew into an open window at 
night. 

Mecoptera Taken in Pennsylvania 


Species 

Number 

of 

localities 

Range of 
collections 

Abundance 

Panorpa acuta Carp. 

21 

6/ 4-8/28 

Y. common 

Panorpa bifida Carp. 

2 

7/18-31 

Rare 

Panorpa canadensis Banks 

33 

5/18-9/11 

V. common 

Panorpa claripennis Hine 

1 

5/29 

Y. rare 

Panorpa decor at a Carp. 

1 

7/4 

Y. rare 

Panorpa elaborata Carp. 

3 

6/ 9-7/15 

Y. rare 

Panorpa latipennis Hine 

4 

5/11-7/15 

Rare 

Panorpa maculosa Hagen 

28 

5/23-8/30 

Y. common 

Panorpa mirabilis Carp. 

1 

6/6 

Rare 

Panorpa nebulosa Westw. 

18 

5/30-9/ 2 

Y. common 

Panorpa rufescens Ramb. 

4 

6/ 6-8/18 

Y. rare 

Panorpa signifer Banks 

10 

6/27-9/17 

Rare 

Panorpa sub fur cat a Westw. 

6 

6/ 9-6/30 

Rare 

Panorpa submaculosa Carp. 

17 

5/26-8/15 

Common 

Panorpa venosa Westw. 

12 

5/30-8/10 

Rare 

Bittacus apicalis Hagen 

5 

6/18-7/21 

Common 

Bittacus occidentalis Walker 

1 

9/ 4-9/19 

Y. rare 

Bittacus pilicornis WestAV. 

19 

6/ 4-8/15 

Common 

Bittacus stigmaterus Say 

3 

7/14 

Y. rare 

Bittacus strigosus Hagen 

9 

7/ 1-8/13 

Common 

Boreus brumalis Fitch 

2 

1/ 5-2/23 

Common 

Boreus nivoriundus Fitch 

3 

1/ 5-2/23 

Rare 

Merope tuber Newm. 

4 

6/19-9/ 7 

Rare 


Most of the species are generally distributed throughout the 
state ; however some seem to be limited. Bittacus apicalis has 
been taken only in the central and western part of the state. It 
is recorded from Lycoming, Fayette and Beaver counties and at 
times is very abundant. As the species is readily identified, it 
is doubtful if it could have been overlooked in other areas. 
Merope tuber seems to be limited to the central and western 


1955] 


Frost & Brown: Mecoptera 


57 


part of the state. It has been taken only in Clearfield, Allegheny 
and Fayette counties. This species, unlike the former, is rare 
and as previously stated all specimens were accidental catches. 

Only individual specimens of Panorpa claripennis and Bit- 
tacus occidentals have been taken in Pennsylvania. It is inter- 
esting to note that a single Pennsylvania specimen of Bittacus 
Occident alis , which was taken in Erie county now rests in the 
British Museum. 



In addition to the species listed in Table 1, several which 
have been taken in New York and New Jersey might be expected 
to occur in Pennsylvania. These include Panorpa americana 
Swecl., P. banksi Hine, P. chelata Carp., P. dissimilis Carp., and 
P. Virginia Banks. 

Literature Cited 

Aldrovandi, Ulissi. 1602. De animalibus insectes libri septem, cum singu- 
lorum inconibus as vivum expressis. 1st ed. 

Carpenter, F. M. 1930. The lower Permian insects of Kansas. Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool. 60 (2) : 69-101. 

Carpenter, F. M. 1931. The biology of the Mecoptera. Psyche 38 (1) : 
41-45. 


58 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXiir 


Carpenter, F. M. 1931. Revision of the Nearc-tic Mecoptera. Bull. Mus.. 
Comp. Zool. 72 (6) : 205-277. 

Comstock, J. H. and A. B. Comstock. 1895. A manual for the study of 
insects. 

Hine, J. S. 1901. A review of the Panorpidae of America, North of Mexico. 

Bull. Science Lab. Denison University 11 (10) : 241-264. 

Linnaeus, Carl V. 1758. Systema Naturae. 10th ed. 

Packard, A. S. 1886. Zoology for high schools and colleges. 5th ed. 
revised. 

Setty, L. R. 1940. Biology and morphology of some North American 
Bitticidae, Amer. Midi. Nat. 23 (2) : 257-353. 

Tillyard, R. J. 1935. Evolution of scorpion flies and their derivatives 
(Mecoptera). Annals Ent. Soc. Amer. 28 (1): 1-45. 


many highly specialized (and expensive) pieces of apparatus usually used 
by professional photographers. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:30 P.M. 


A regular meeting of the Society Avas held at the American Museum of 
Natural History ; Dr. Clausen presiding. There were 17 members and six 
guests present. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and ap- 
proved. 

The Treasurer’s report was received. 

The President announced, with sorrow, the death of Mrs. John D. Sher- 
man, Jr. The Secretary was empowered to send to the Sherman family a 
proper letter of condolence. 

The feature of the evening was a “Symposium on Lepidoptera” led by 
Dr. Frederick Rindge, lepidopterist of the Department of Insects and Spiders 
of the American Museum of Natural History. 

Dr. Rindge said that the Lepidoptera are divided into about 190 families 
and that those of North America and Europe are relatively well known. In 
North America, north of Mexico there are about 10,000 species representing 
70 families. Dr. Rindge pointed out that, in contrast to the western states, 
the eastern part of the country has been very poorly collected. He based 
his statements on the series of specimens in the American Museum collec- 
tions. He then outlined the salient features of the order. 

Dr. George Rawson contributed some notes on his recent trip to the arctic, 
specifically in the vicinity of Point Barrow, Alaska. He pointed out that 
in the arctic the Diptera replace the Lepidoptera as flower pollinators. 

A lively discussion followed on the proclivity of bats in eating Lepidop- 
tera with participation by Treat, Rindge, Hessel, Rawson and Ziegler. 
Other contributors to the discussion Avere Mullen, Marks, Hopf and Clausen. 


( Continued from page 52) 


Louis S. Marks, Secretary 


Meeting of January 20, 1953 


The meeting adjourned at 9:30 P.M. 

Lot 

( Continued on page 75) 


Louis S. Marks, Secretary 


1955] 


Levi: Spiders 


59“ 


THE SPIDER GENERA CHRYSSO AND 
TIDARREN IN AMERICA 
(ARANEiE : THERIDIIDiE) 

By Herbert W. Levi 

University of Wisconsin, Wausau Extension Center, 
and the Department of Zoology, Madison 

This revision of two genera of comb-footed spiders, Chrysso 
and Tidarren , was made possible through the generous loan by 
Dr. W. J. Gertsch of material from the collection of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History. Dr. Gertsch not only supplied 
the majority of specimens, but also gave valuable advice and 
read the manuscript. I want to extend my sincere thanks to him 
and also to Dr. A. M. Chickering of Albion College, who loaned 
large collections from Panama, Dr. P. J. Darlington, Jr. for 
specimens from the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Mrs. D. 
Frizzell (Dr. Harriet Exline) for Tidarren from South America, 
and my wife who helped with the paper. 

The types of the new species have been deposited in the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History, with the exception of Chrysso 
vallensis, the holotype of which is in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. Paratypes of this species are in the American Museum 
of Natural History. 

Chrysso 0. P. — Cambridge 

Chrysso 0. P. — Cambridge, 1882, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 429. 

Type species: Chrysso albomaculata 0. P. — Cambridge. 

Small to medium sized theridiid spiders (1 to 5 mm. total length.) Cara- 
pace slightly longer than wide. Anterior eye row slightly procurved, pos- 
terior row straight, or slightly pro or recurved. Anterior median eyes sepa- 
rated by their diameter or more, by less from laterals. Posterior median 
eyes usually slightly closer to each other than to laterals. Eyes subequal in 
size or anterior medians slightly larger or smaller than others. Shape of 
carapaee and clypeus quite variable. Length of chelicerae about equal to 
height of carapace. Anterior margin of chelicerse armed with two large teeth 
(sometimes difficult to see). Sternum truncate between posterior coxae, which 
are separated by their diameter. First legs longest; each patella with a 
retrolateral tubercle. A tarsal comb on fourth tarsus. Abdomen longer than 


60 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


wide or high, extending beyond spinnerets, and with characteristic furrows or 
stripes on sides (figs. 10, 14, 16, 18, 19). Colulus absent. 

Epigynum a more or less sclerotized plate, the openings indistinct. The 
internal genitalia with sacs (figs. 25, 26), or short connecting ducts (which 
do not correspond in length to the embolus of the male palpus). One pair 
of seminal receptacles present. Male palpus with a radix (R in fig. 4). 
Base of embolus (E) seemingly curves the same direction as in Achcearanea. 
Its length is supported by the radix, its tip by the radix and conductor (C). 
The only indication of the paracymbial hook is a depression in the alveolus 
of the cymbium. The haematodocha attaches the bulb to only the most 
proximal portion of the alveolus of the cymbium (Y). 

Chrysso is probably related to Achcearanea , but differs in hav- 
ing a radix in the palpus. The shape of the abdomen, its lateral 
furrows, the structure of the internal female genitalia and the 
male palpi differentiate Chrysso from other related genera, in- 
cluding Theridion. 

Chrysso is found only in America; no species have been de- 
scribed from other parts of the world. While there are a number 
of species in northern South America and Central America, only 
one, C. albomacidata, is found in North America. The genitalia 
of the different species are all quite similar, and all are of about 
the same size. There are, however, striking differences in colora- 
tion between many sympatric species. 

The following species have been described in Chrysso, but do 
not belong to it : 

C. nigripalpus Banks, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69 : 85, 
figs. 46, 72 ( 9 ) is Coleosoma flavipes O. P. — Cambridge. New 
synonymy. 

C. nigrosternum Keyserling, 1891, Die Spinnen Amerikas, 
Brasilianische Spinnen, p. 206, pi. 7, fig. 148 ( $ 9 ), probably 
belongs in Achcearanea. 

C. perblexum Keyserling, 1886, ibid., Theridiidae 2 : 242. pi. 20, 
fig. 296 ( $ ). 

C. quadratum 0. P. — Cambridge, 1882, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lon- 
don, p. 430 ; pi. 30, fig. 7 ( $ 9 ) found in Ceylon and Sumatra. 

Chrysso splendida Banks, 1898, Proc. California Acad. Sci., 
ser. 3, 1 : 237, pi. 14, fig. 13 ( $ ), is Achcearanea vittata (O. P. — 
Cambridge), 1894 ( Theridion cambridgei Petrunkevitch, 1911). 
New synonymy. 


1955] 


Levi : Spiders 


61 


Chrysso albomaculata O. P. — Cambridge 
Figs. 1-4, 18, 19, 25-27 

Chrysso albomaculata 0. P. — Cambridge, 1882, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, p. 429, fig. 6(3 $ ). Keyserling, 1884, Die Spin- 
nen Amerikas, Theridiidae, 1: 152, pi. 7, fig. 94 ( $ $ ). 

Marx, 1890, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mns., 12 : 523. Banks, 1904, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 56 : 128 ; 1910, Bull. U. S. 
Natl. Mus., 72 : 20. Chickering, 1936, Trans. Amer. Micros. 
Soc., 55 : 451. Chamberlin and Ivie, 1944, Bull. Univ. Utah, 
biol. ser., 8(5) : 37. Bryant, 1948, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
100: 382. (probably not Bryant, 1940, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 86: 311, figs. 78, 81, $ $ ). 

Theridion albomaculaium, Simon, 1894, Histoire naturelle des 
Araignees, 1 : 535. Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., 29 : 190. Bishop and Crosby, 1926, Jour. Elisha 
Mitchell Sci. Soc., 41 : 181. Roewer, 1942, Katalog der 
Aranese, 1 : 501. 

Steatoda albomaculata, F. O. P. — Cambridge, 1902, Biologia Cen- 
trali-Americana, Araneidea, 2 : 385, pi. 36, figs. 18, 19 

(3 ?). 

Steatoda voluta F. O. P. — Cambridge, 1902, ibid., 2 : 386, pi. 36, 
fig. 20 ( $ ) . New synonymy. 

Theridion volutum, Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 29 : 210. Roewer, 1942, Katalog der Aranese, 1 : 500. 
New synonymy. 

Achcea luculenta Bryant, 1940, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 86 : 310, 
figs. 83, 84 ( $ ). New synonymy. 

Chrysso davisi Bryant, 1945, Trans. Connecticut Acad. Sci., 36 : 
202, figs. 4, 11 ( $ ). Archer, 1946, Pap. Alabama Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 22 : 55. New synonymy. 

Female : Carapace, sternum orange, eye region and area behind eyes black. 
Legs orange-white, distal segments darker ; anterior and posterior sides 
darker. Palpi black. Abdomen orange-white, usually with a number of 
dorsal white spots and five lateral white spots. Posterior tip of abdomen 
black (figs. 18, 19). Archer (1946) indicates that live spiders are red, but 
their color fades rapidly in alcohol. Eye spacing variable. Posterior median 
eyes of a Florida specimen separated by one diameter, by one and one-third 
diameters from laterals. In others, eyes of posterior row equally spaced. 
Eyes subequal in size, sometimes anterior or posterior medians slightly 
smaller or larger than others. Height of clypeus equals two diameters of 


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[Vol. LXIII 


anterior median eyes. First legs longest, second or fourth legs next in 
length. Epigynum an oval convex plate or variable shape (fig. 27). Seminal 
receptacles on dorsal surface of sclerotized sacs, (figs. 25, 26). Total length, 
2.5-4. 5 mm. A female from Bay County, Florida, measured total length, 
2.7. Carapace 1.00 long, 0.85 wide, 0.32 high. First femur, 1.95 ; patella and 
tibia, 1.82; metatarsus, 1.52; tarsus, 0.63. Second patella and tibia, 1.06; 
third, 1.04; fourth, 1.24. 

Male: Coloration like that of female, white abdominal spots less distinct 
or absent. Eyes slightly farther apart. Large epigastric plate orange. Pal- 
pus quite variable in shape (figs. 1-3). Total length of males, 1.9 to 3.1 mm. 
A male from Bay County, Florida, measured total length, 2.4. Carapace, 
1.10 long, 0.91 wide, 0.39 high. First femur, 2.00 ; patella and tibia, 1.93 ; 
metatarsus, 1.70; tarsus, 0.65. Second patella and tibia, 1.17; third, 0.78; 
fourth, 1.30. 

Size, coloration, eye spacing and sizes, leg length and genitalia 
of this species vary greatly. None of these characters could be 
correlated with the geographic distribution. However, the varia- 
tion in color seems greater in northern specimens, which some- 
times lack abdominal spots and appear similar to C. vexabilis. 
Central American specimens all had abdominal spots and could 
be separated readily from C. vexabilis. Some individuals from 
Florida have the anterior median eyes slightly larger ; others 
have the eyes subequal in size. 

According to Archer (1946), this species makes webs “on 
under surfaces of leaves of hard-leaved shrubs” and occurs in 
open fields, on wooded edges and open woods. Bishop and 
Crosby (1926) found an egg sac under a Liquidambar leaf. It 
was “spherical, 2mm. in diameter, and composed of fine silk, 
tightly woven to form a firm tissue. It contained 23 eggs.” 

Type localities: Syntypes of C. albomaculata came from the 
Amazon, the male holotype of Steatoda voluta from Guatemala. 
The female holotype of Achcea luculenta came from Cienaga de 
Zapata, Central Covadonga, Cuba, September 13, 1936 (Daven- 
port) and the male holotype of C. davisi from Winter Park, 
Florida, April, 1934 (E. M. Davis). The first two are in the 
British Museum (Natural History) and the last two in the Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology. 

Records: North Carolina: Carteret Co.: Boque Bank (R. D. 
Barnes). South Carolina: Charleston Co. Georgia: (Bishop 
and Crosby, 1926) ; Lowndes Co. Florida: (Banks, 1904) ; Cal- 
houn Co. ; Bay Co. ; Alachua Co. ; Putnam Co. ; Marion Co. ; 


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Levi : Spiders 


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Pasco Co.; Orange Co.; Sarasota Co. Alabama: (Archer, 1946). 
Mississippi : George Co. Louisiana : Grant Par. Texas : Newton 
Co. San Luis Potosi: Tamaznnchale. Nayarit : San Bias. 
Hidalgo : Chapulhuacan. Colima : Cuyutlan ; Boca de Pascnales ; 
Las Hnmedades Armeria. Guerrero : Lo Bajo. Oaxaca : Soyal- 
tepec. Tabasco: (F. 0. P. — Cambridge, 1902). Campeche: 
Campeche ; San Jose. Yucatan : Chichen-Itza ; Colonia Yucatan. 
Quintana Roo : Cozumel. Costa Rica : Cartago. Panama : 
Bocas del Toro; Summit; Arraijan. Cuba: Vega Alta; Santa 
Clara; Pinar del Rio ; Sierra de Anafe. Haiti: (Bryant, 1948). 
Trinidad : Gasparee. Colombia : Turbaco. 

Chrysso vexabilis Keyserling. Figs. 5, 6, 23, 24 
Clirysso vexabilis Keyserling, 1884, Die Spinnen Amerikas, Ther- 
idiidse, 1 : 155, pi. 7, fig. 96 (39). Banks, 1929, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 69 : 85. 

Theridion vexabile, Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. 29: 209. Mello-Leitao, 1941, An. Acad. Brasileira 
Cienc., 13 : 250. Roewer, 1942, Katalog der Araneae, 1 : 500. 
Chrysso lyparus Chamberlin and Ivie, 1936, Bull. Univ. Utah, 
biol. ser., 3(5) : 35, pi. 10, fig. 84 ( $ ). New synonymy. 
Theridion lyparum, Roewer, 1942, Katalog der Araneae, 1 : 494. 
New synonymy. 

This species is very close to C. albomaculata. Both males and females 
differ from Central American C. albomaculata by the coloration of the ab- 
domen, which is sooty black, gray or sometimes nearly white. No white spots 
are visible although there may be whitish (to reddish) areas on the anterior 
portion of the venter and the sides; one individual had a black spot on the 
posterior tip of the abdomen. The epigynum is a light area, quite variable, 
sometimes translucent. The internal genitalia differ from those of C. albo- 
maculata in that the sacs are lobed behind and less sclerotized (fig. 23). 
The lobes may be touching. The contracted palpus is much like that of C. 
albomaculata except for slight differences in the tegulum (fig. 5). When 
expanded, the radix lacks the mesal flange and distal hook (fig. 6). 

None of the specimens studied approached the total length 
given by Keyserling (4.7 mm.). Although Keyserling ’s other 
measurements and description agreed with specimens on hand, 
his key character, carapace much shorter than the fourth tibia, 
did not. This species is nevertheless considered to be Keyser- 
ling ’s and the longer fourth tibia the peculiarity of an individual 
specimen. 


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Type locality : Male and female types of Chrysso vexabilis 
from Nneva Granada, Colombia; female holotype of C. lyparus 
from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, in the University of Utah 
collection. 

Records: Panama: Porto Bello; Old Panama City; El Valle; 
Summit; Prijoles; Barro Colorado Island; Madden Dam Forest; 
Pedro Miguel; Gamboa; Experimental Gardens; Boquete; For- 
est Reserve; Arraijan; Ft. Sherman; Chilibre. 

Chrysso huanuco, new species. Figs. 20-22 

Female: Carapace, sternum dark brown. Coxae, proximal portions of 
femora white ; other segments and distal portions of femora brown. Ab- 
domen dusky yellow with longitudinal dark gray band on dorsum and on 
venter (fig. 20). Epigastric area dark brown. Eyes small and subequal in 
size. Anterior median eyes separated by one and one-half diameters, one 
diameter from laterals. Posterior median eyes separated by one and one- 
half diameters, one and three-quarters diameters from laterals. Height of 
clypeus equals two diameters of anterior medians. Anterior lip of epigy- 
num, anterior to a depression, which in turn is followed by a raised area 
(fig. 22). Internal genitalia (fig. 21) as in the preceding two species. Total 
length, 3.9 mm. Carapace, 1.20 long, 0.95 wide. First femur, 2.41 ; patella 
and tibia, 2.08; metatarsus, 1.97; tarsus, 0.77. Second patella and tibia, 
1.35; third, 0.78; fourth, 1.41. 

The coloration and small eyes differentiate this species from C. alboma- 
culata. 

Type locality : Female holotype from Tingo Marla, Huanuco, 
Peru, 670 m. (W. Weyrauch). 

Chrysso vallensis, new species. Figs. 7, 8, 28, 29 

Female: Carapace, sternum orange; region between anterior eyes, por- 
tions of clypeus dusky. Legs yellow, each with a pro and retrolateral black 
line ; metatarsi and tarsi dusky. Abdomen gray with white and black spots 
(fig. 8), the latter so large in some specimens that they fuse so that whole 
posterior portion is black. Eyes subequal in size. Posterior eye row straight. 
Anterior median eyes separated by one and one-quarter diameters, one quarter 
diameter from laterals. Posterior median eyes separated by three-quarters 
diameters, a little more than one diameter from laterals. Height of clypeus 
equals one and one-half diameters of anterior medians. The epigynum (fig. 
29) distinguishes this species from C. diplosticha. Total length, 1.8 to 2.4 
mm. Total length of holotype, 2.3; carapace, 0.87 long; 0.69 wide. First 
femur, 1.30; patella and tibia, 1.36; metatarsus, 1.13; tarsus, 0.52. Second 
patella and tibia, 0.91; third, 0.55; fourth, 0.95. 

Male : Coloration and structure much like that of female. Abdomen nearly 


1955] 


Levi : Spiders 


65 


all black in both males. Palpus (fig. 7) similar to that of C. diplosticha but 
differing in shape of radix and ectal hook. In one specimen, portions of ectal 
hook are hidden by embolus. Total length, 1.8 mm. Carapace, 0.94 long, 
0.78 wide. First femur, 1.56; patella and tibia, 1.55; metatarsus, 1.35; 
tarsus, 0.52. Second patella and tibia, 0.99; third, 0.62; fourth, 1.08. 

Type locality : Female holotype, male allotype, fourteen female 
paratypes and one male paratype from El Valle, Panama, July, 
1936 (A. M. Chickering). 

Chrysso diplosticha Chamberlin and Ivie. Figs. 9, 30, 31 

Chrysso diplostichus Chamberlin and Ivie, 1936, Bull. Univ. Utah, 
biol. ser., 3(5) : 36, fig. 83 ( $ ). 

Theridion diplostichum, Roewer, 1942, Katalog der Aranese, 1 : 
491. 

Female: Similar in coloration to C. vallensis. Eyes large. Posterior 
median eyes separated by slightly more than one diameter, two-thirds diam- 
eter from laterals. Height of clypeus equals diameter of anterior median 
eyes. Epigynum (fig. 31) readily distinguishes this species from related 
ones. Total length, 2.0 to 2.9 mm. A specimen from Barro Colorado Island 
measured: total length, 2.7. Carapace, 0.88 long, 0.73 wide. First femur, 
1.53 ; patella and tibia, 1.49 ; metatarsus, 1.21 ; tarsus, 0.52. Second patella 
and tibia, 0.91 ; third, 0.52 ; fourth, 0.97. 

Male: Clypeus as high as two diameters of anterior median eyes. Palpus 
illustrated by figure 9. Total length, 1.6 to 2.1 mm. A specimen from Barro 
Colorado Island measured : total length, 2.00. Carapace, 0.89 long, 0.68 wide. 
First femur, 1.53 ; patella and tibia, 1.44 ; metatarsus, 1.02 ; tarsus, 0.59. 
Second patella and tibia, 1.01 ; third, 0.56 ; fourth, 1.04. 

Although the abdomen of females is like that of C. vallensis in 
structure, one specimen had a tail as in C. indicifer. 

Type locality: Female holotype from Barro Colorado Island, 
Panama, in the University of Utah collection. 

Records: panama : Barro Colorado Island (many collections) ; 
Fort Davis ; Porto Bello ; Fort Randolph ; Fort Sherman. Peru : 
Divisoria, Dept, of Huanuco (F. Woytkowski). 

Chrysso nigriceps Keyserling. Figs. 16, 32, 33 

Chrysso nigriceps Keyserling, 1884, Die Spinnen Amerikas, 
Theridiidse, 1 : 154, pi. 7, fig. 95 ( $ ). 

Theridion keyserlingi Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 29 : 198 (new name for C. nigriceps, not Theridion nigri- 
ceps Keyserling, 1891). Mello-Leitao, 1941, An. Acad. Brasi- 


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leira Cienc., 13 : 250. Roewer, 1942, Katalog der Araneae, 

1 : 494. 

Female : Carapace, sternum light orange yellow ; head region dusky to 
black; clypeus black. Palpi dark. Legs yellowish, distal ends of femora 
dusky, other segments slightly dusky. Abdomen with two white spots on 
each side, a large black spot on posterior end (fig. 16). Carapace wide in 
front, lower margin of clypeus projecting. Anterior median eyes slightly 
smaller than others and separated by one and one-half diameters, a little 
farther from laterals. Posterior median eyes separated by one diameter, one 
and one-third diameters from laterals. Height of clypeus equals four diam- 
eters of anterior median eyes. Epigynum illustrated by figure 33. Total 
length of a specimen from Ecuador, 3.5 mm. Carapace, 1.36 long, 1.16 wide. 
First femur, 2.72; patella and tibia, 2.25; metatarsus, 2.06; tarsus, 0.97. 
Second patella and tibia, 1.50; third, 0.98; fourth, 1.79. 

Type locality : Female type from Santa Fe de Bogota, Colom- 
bia. 

Records : Ecuador : Runtun Trail, Banos, 2000 m., Nov. 26, 
1939 (F. M. Brown), 1 $. 

Chrysso ecuadorensis, new species. Figs. 10, 38-39 

Female: Carapace, sternum dark brown. Coxae, legs white; first tarsi 
brownish. Abdomen gray, black and white (fig. 10). Carapace low. Eyes 
small, subequal in size. Anterior medians separated by one and one-half 
diameters, two diameters from laterals. Posterior medians separated by one 
diameter, two and one-third diameters from laterals. Height of clypeus 
equals five diameters of anterior medians. Legs very long. Epigynum diag- 
nostic, illustrated by figure 39. Total length, 4.7 mm. Carapace, 1.66 long, 
1.20 wide. First femur, 4.5; patella and tibia, 3.6; metatarsus, 3.9; tarsus, 
1.3. Second patella and tibia, 2.15 ; third, 1.10 ; fourth, 2.48. 

Type locality : Female holotype and one paratype from Runtun 
Trail, Banos 2000 m., Ecuador, November 26, 1939 (F. M. 
Brown). 

Chrysso indicifer Chamberlin and Ivie. 

Figs. 11, 12, 17, 34, 35 

Chrysso indicifer Chamberlin and Ivie, 1936, Bull. Univ. Utah, 

biol. ser., 3(5) : 36, figs. 82, 96 ( $ ). 

Theridion indiciferum, Roewer, 1942, Ivatalog der Araneae, 1 : 
494. 

Female: Carapace, sternum brown. Legs yellow-white. Abdomen gray, 
black and white (fig. 17). Eyes subequal in size. Posterior medians sepa- 
rated by two-thirds their diameter, three-quarters diameter from laterals. 
Height of clypeus equals one and one-half diameters of anterior medians. 


1955] 


Levi: Spiders 


67 


Abdomen with a tail-like extension. Epigynum illustrated by figure 35. 
Total length of females, 2.5-3.5 mm. Total length of one specimen, 3.3. 
Carapace, 0.98 long, 0.73 wide. First femur, 1.95; patella and tibia, 1.82; 
metatarsus, 1.56; taruss, 0.65. Second patella and tibia, 1.07; third, 0.65; 
fourth, 1.20. 

Male : Posterior median eyes three-quarters diameter apart, one diameter 
from laterals. Abdomen short (fig. 12). Palpus illustrated by figure 11. 
Total length, 2.00 mm. Carapace, 0.91 long, 0.72 wide. First femur, 1.82; 
patella and tibia, 1.64; metatarsus 1.56; tarsus, 0.63. Second patella and 
tibia, 1.15; third, 0.65; fourth, 1.24. 

Type locality: Female holotype from Barro Colorado Island, 
Panama, in the University of Utah collection. 

Records: panama : Barro Colorado Island (many collections) ; 
Forest Reserve. 

Chrysso sicki, new species. Figs. 14, 36, 37 

Female: Carapace and sternum orange-yellow. Legs, yellow-white. Ab- 
domen white with some dusky pigment on dorsum, sides with white pigment 
spots. Tavo black spots on dorsum near posterior tip (fig. 14). Eyes sub- 
equal in size. Anterior eye row straight, posterior slightly recurved. An- 
terior medians separated by one diameter, less than one diameter from 
laterals. Posterior medians separated by one diameter, same distance from 
laterals. Height of clypeus equals three diameters of anterior median eyes. 
Epigynum (fig. 37) and internal genitalia (fig. 36) distinguish this species. 
Total length, 2.5 mm. Carapace, 0.84 long, 0.78 wide. First femur, 1.25; 
patella and tibia, 1.17 ; metatarsus, 0.91 ; tarsus, 0.59. Second patella and 
tibia, 0.77 ; third, 0.60; fourth, 0.82. 

Type locality: Female holotype from Teresopolis, (Rio de 
Janeiro), Brazil, 1600-1800 m., March 16, 1946 (H. Sick). 

Chrysso sulcata (Keyserling) . Fig. 13 

Helvibis sulcata Keyserling, 1884, Die Spinnen Amerikas, Theri- 
diidae, 1 : 175, pi. 8, fig. 106 ( $ ). 

Chrysso sulcata , Keyserling, 1886, ibid., 2 : 243. 

Theridion sulcatum , Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 29 : 207. Roewer, 1942, Katalog der Araneae, 1 : 499. 

Male : Carapace orange, area between anterior eyes dusky ; dusky triangle 
(pointing tOAvard chelicerse) on clypeus. Sternum orange with a central 
black spot. Legs orange. Abdomen yellow-white with a series of lateral 
and dorsal AA r hite spots. Spinnerets and posterior tip of abdomen black. 
Eyes subequal in size; anterior medians separated by one and one-quarter 
diameters, one-third diameter from laterals. Posterior medians three-quart- 
ers diameter from each other, tAvo-thirds diameter from laterals. Height of 


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clypeus equals two diameters of anterior medians. Palpus (fig. 13) shows a 
mesal tooth, part of the median apophysis. Total length, 2.3 mm. Cara- 
pace, 1.00 long, 0.70 wide. First femur, 2.60; patella and tibia, 2.52; meta- 
tarsus, 2.21; tarsus, 0.65. Second patella and tibia, 1.54; third, 0.73; 
fourth, 1.45. 

Keyserling’s figure 106 shows the mesal tooth in the palpus. 
The measurements and descriptions agree with those given in the 
original description. 

Type locality: Male holotype from Amazonas, Brazil (O. P. — 
Cambridge). 

Record: peru: San Martin: Bella Vista, Dec. 11, 1946 (J. C. 
Pallister), 1 $. 

Chrysso marise, new species. Fig. 15 

Male : Sternum, carapace orange ; dusky between anterior eyes. Legs 
orange-yellow. Abdomen yellow-white with white spots on sides and dorsum, 
several black spots above lateral Avhite spots; posterior tip black. Carapace 
similar to that of C. diplosticha. Posterior eye row slightly recurved. Eyes 
subequal in size. Anterior medians separated by on diameter, one-fourth 
diameter from laterals. Posterior medians separated by one-half diameter, 
less than one diameter from laterals. Height of clypeus equals one and one- 
half diameters of anterior median eyes. Palpus (fig. 15) clearly differen- 
tiates this species from C. diplosticha and other related species. Total length, 
2.2 mm. Carapace, 1.00 long, 0.74 wide. First femur, 2.09. Second patella 
and tibia, 1.17; third, 0.66; fourth, 1.28. 

Type locality: Male holotype from Tingo Maria, Huanuco, 
Peru, October 21, 1946 (J. C. Pallister). 

Clirysso elegans (Taczanowski). 

Argyrodes elegans Taczanowski, 1872, Horae Soc. Ent. Rossicae, 
9: 118, pi. 5, fig. 11 ( 9 )* 

Chrysso elegans , Keyserling, 1884, Die Spinnen Amerikas, Theri- 
diidae, 1 : 151, p. 7, fig- 93 ( $ ). Mello-Leitao, 1948, An. Acad. 
Brasileira Cienc., 20 : 156. 

fSteatoda elegans, F. O. P. — Cambridge, 1902, Bioligia Centrali- 
Americana, Araneidea, 2 : 386. 

Theridion elegans, Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., 29: 194. (not T. elegans, Blackwall, 1862). 

Theridion emendatum Roewer, 1942, Katalog der Araneae, 1 : 492. 
(New name for T. elegans Taczanowski.) 


Reference not seen 


1955] 


Levi: Spiders 


69 


Female: Carapace, legs yellow. Abdomen light gray-brown with five to 
six white spots on each side, and a white dorsal band which narrows to a 
point posteriorly; posterior tip black. Eyes subequal in size, separated by 
their diameter, except for laterals which are touching, and anterior medians 
which are one-half their diameter from laterals. Total length, 3.1 mm. 
Carapace, 1.2 long, 1.0 wide. First femur, 2.7; patella and tibia, 2.6; meta- 
tarsus, 2.1; tarsus, 0.9. Second patella and tibia, 1.5; third, 0.9; fourth, 1.7. 

(After Keyserling’s description.) 

Type locality : Female type from Uassa in French Guiana in 
the collection of the University of Warsaw, Poland. 

Records: British guiana: Cane Grove (Mello-Leitao, 1948). 
Guatemala: (KeyseTling, 1884). 

Tidarren Chamberlin and I vie 

Tidarren Chamberlin and Ivie, 1934, Bull. Univ. Utah, biol. ser., 
2(4): 4. Type species: Theridion fordum (= sisyphoides 
Walckenaer, not fordum Keyserling). 

Theridiid spiders with females of medium size (3 to 9 mm.), but with 
minute males (less than 2 mm. total length). Female carapace longer than 
wide, highest near middle, narrow in front. Anterior eye row slightly pro- 
curved as seen from front, posterior row straight or slightly procurved as 
seen from above. Eyes subequal in size. Anterior medians separated by 
one diameter or slightly less, one-quarter to two-thirds diameter from later- 
als. Posterior medians separated by slightly more or less than one diameter, 
about one diameter from laterals. Clypeus as high as two to four diameters 
of anterior median eyes; lower border sometimes bulging and projecting. 
Dorsum of carapace with a characteristic pattern of dusky marks on yellow- 
ish background (fig. 42). Sternum slightly longer than wide, truncate be- 
tween posterior coxae, which are separated by their Avidth; yellow to brown 
with a dark border whose inner margin has an irregular outline. First legs 
longest, fourth second in length, third shortest. Small tubercle on retrolat- 
eral face of each patella. A comb present on fourth tarsus. Abdomen 
higher than long, sometimes with a tubercle; resembling Achcearanea in 
markings, but female has a distinctive narrow AA r hite line between the spin- 
nerets and the highest point of the dorsum, (figs. 41, 42). All species ex- 
amined have some individuals dark, while others may be yellow-Avliite Avith 
only faint indications of pattern. Colulus absent. Abdomen sometimes 
quite hairy. Epigynum with a protruding beak (figs. 44, 45, 47, 48), one 
pair of seminal receptacles present. 

Males very small in size. Carapace hardly longer than wide, quite high. 
Eyes appear large, but are separated by about same distances as in female. 
Height of clypeus equals one and one-half to two diameters of anterior 
median eyes. Sternum convex. Abdomen higher than long, with a pattern 
of black spots on gray background. Only one very large palpus present. 


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[Vol. LXIII 


After the penultimate molt, either palpus is twisted off by the spider (Branch, 
1942). It does not regenerate. 

Conductor (C on figure 59) of palpus large; radix (R) present, lying 
below embolus (E). Median apophysis (M) fits into paracymbial hook (P) 
of alveolus of cymbium (Y), holding bulb in cymbium. 

Tidarren can be separated from Achcearanea and other theri- 
diid genera by the difference in size between males and females, 
the characteristic beak shaped epigynnm, the presence of a single 
palpus in the male, and the placement of the palpal parts. 

While in most theridiid genera the shape of the median apophy- 
sis, conductor or embolus is diagnostic, these structures differ 
little in species of Tidarren. The cymbium, a conservative struc- 
ture rarely modified in closely related species, differs considerably 
in the two species of males known. 

In habits and habitat, Tidarren is similar to Achcearanea tepi- 
clariorum (Gertsch, 1949). While females are abundant, the 
males are rarely collected, probably because of their small size. 

Although the species described in this genus are all American, 
Dr. G. Schmidt (in letter) told me that members of this genus 
occur in the North African region. 

Species placed in Tidarren by Chamberlin and Ivie (1934) but 
probably belonging to Achcearanea are : Theridion passivum Key- 
serling, 1891, Die Spinnen Amerikas, Brasilianische Spinnen, p. 
195, pi. 7, fig. 141 ( ? ), and Theridion migrans Keyserling, 1884, 
ibid., Theridiidfe, 1 : 18, pi. 1, fig. 6 ( $ ). 

Tidarren sisyphoides (Walckenaer) . Figs. 41-45, 58-60 

Theridion ansatum Walckenaer, 1841, Histoire naturelle des In- 
sectes Apteres 2: 320 (sub. Theridium). Petrunkevitch, 1911, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 29 : 191. Roewer, 1942, Katalog 
der Araneae, 1: 501 (sub. anasatum). Chamberlin and Ivie, 
1944, Bull. Univ. Utah, biol., ser., 8(5) : 47 fig. 43 ( $ ). 
Theridion sisyphoides Walkenaer, 1841, Histoire naturelle des 
Insectes Apteres, 2 : 321. 

Theridion fordum, Banks, 1898, Proc. California Acad. Sci., 3rd 
ser., 1(7) : 236; 1904, ibid., 3(13) : 344; 1910, Bull. U. S. Natl. 
Mus., 72: 19. Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 29: 196 (in part). Comstock, 1912, The Spider Book, 
p. 346, fig. 344 ( $ ). Moles and Johnson, 1921, Jour. Ent. 
Zool., 13: 41. Bishop and Crosby, 1926, Jour. Elisha Mitchell 


1955] 


Levi: Spiders 


71 


Sci. Soc., 41 : 182. ? P efr unke viteh , 1930, Trans. Connecticut 
Acad. Sci., 30: 194, fig. 39 ( $ ). Chickering, 1937, in the 
Geology and Biology of the San Carlos Mountains, p. 274. 
Bryant, 1940, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 86 : 319. Comstock, 
1940, The Spider Book, rev. ed., p. 361, fig. 344 ( 9 ). not T. 
fordurn Keyserling). 

JSteatoda forda, F. 0. P. — Cambridge, 1902, Biologia Centrali- 
Americana, Araneidea, 2 : 382, pi. 36, fig. 7 ( $ ) . 

Tidarrm fordum, Chamberlin and Ivie, 1933, Bull. Univ. Utah, 
biol. ser., 2(4) : 5, figs. 1-9, 11-23 ( $ $ ). Fox, 1940, Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., 53 : 44. Chamberlin and Ivie, 1941, Bull. 
Univ. Utah, biol. ser., 6(3) : 12. Boewer, 1942, Katalog der 
Araneae, 1: 508 (in part). Kraus, 1955, Abh. Senckenbergi- 
schen Naturf. Gesell., 493 : 19. (not T. fordum Keyserling). 
Tidarren sisyphoides, Chamberlin and Ivie, 1944, Bull, Univ. 
Utah, biol. ser. 8(5) : 57. Archer, 1946, Pap Alabama Mus. 
Nat. Hist., 22 : 33. 

Female : Coloration and structure typical. Height of clypeus equals about 
three diameters of anterior median eyes; lower margin bulging and project- 
ing. Abdomen without a tubercle although minute indications of it may be 
present. Beak of epigynum diagnostic, having posterior face swollen (figs. 
44, 45). Batio of length of carapace to first patella and tibia 10: 15 in 
northern specimens, 10 : 19 in specimens from the southern part of the range. 
Total length, 5.8 to 8.6 mm. A specimen from Georgia measured: Total 
length, 6.2 ; carapace, 2.5 long, 2.2 wide. First femur, 4.5 ; patella and tibia, 
4.0; metatarsus, 4.3; tarsus, 1.4. Second patella and tibia, 2.7 ; third, 2.0; 
fourth, 3.2. 

Male: Cymbium of palpus funnel shaped (figs. 58, 59). Total length, 1.3 
to 1.4 mm. Total length of a male from Mississippi, 1.4. Carapace, 0.63 
long, 0.60 wide, 0.34 high. First femur, 1.04 ; patella and tibia, 0.94 ; meta- 
tarsus, 0.78; tarsus, 0.35. Second patella and tibia, 0.66; third, 0.50; fourth, 
0.67. 

Type locality : Both T. ansatum and T. sisyphoides came from 
Georgia, and the descriptions are based on Abbot’s manuscript 
drawings p. 15, figs. 149, 150, and p. 25, fig. 313, respectively. 
The manuscript is in the British Museum (Natural History). 

Records: Kentucky: Breathitt Co. : Quicksand (S. C. Bishop). 
Georgia: (Chamberlin and Ivie, 1944); Bibb Co.; Ware Co. 
flordia : Gadsden Co. ; Liberty Co. ; Alachua Co. ; Pasco Co. ; 
Orange Co. ; Highlands Co. ; De Soto Co. ; Dade Co. Alabama : 
(Archer, 1946) ; Marion Co. ; Mississippi : Forrest Co. ; Wilkinson 


72 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


Co. ; Covington Co. Louisiana : Saint Landry Par. texas : Polk 
Co. ; Wise Co. ; Newton Co. ; Montgomery Co. ; Panola Co. - 
Hidalgo Co. ; Cameron Co. Arizona : Santa Cruz Co. ; Pima Co.. 
California : Santa Clara Co. ; Monterey Co. ; San Lnis Obispo 
Co, ; Los Angeles Co. ; San Bernardino Co. ; San Diego Co. baja 
California: (Banks, 1898). nuevo leon : 15 and 25 mi. S. of 
Monterrey, tamaulipas: Villagran; El Mante; Jaumave; El 
Limon ; San Carlos Mts. durango : Nombre de Dios, nayarit : 
Tepic ; San Bias, san luis potosi : Picolo ; Pujal ; Tamazuchale. 
hidalgo : Chapulhuacan. distrIto federal : Mexico, veracruz : 
La Buena Ventura; Franca Vieja; Region del Chapo; Orizaba; 
Alto Lucero; Huatusco; Tiapacoyan; Jalapa; Martinez del la 
Torre, puebla: Acatlan; Tohuacan. guerrero: 62 mi. N. of 
Acapulco, oaxaca: Oaxaca; Tolosa. chiapas: La Zacualpa; 
Mapastepec ; north of Huixtla. yucatan : Chichen-Itza. el 
Salvador : (Kraus, 1955) . costa rica : San Jose, panama : Barro 
Colorado Island ; Forest Reserve, haiti : in mts. 25 mi. from Aux 
Cayes. cuba : (Bryant, 1940) ; Tapaste. Puerto rica: (Petrun- 
kevitch, 1930). Peru: Dept. Piura; Quebrada Songora (D. H. 
Frizzell). 

Tidarren mixiivm (0. P. — Cambridge). Figs. 40, 46-48 
Theridion mixtum 0. P. — Cambridge, 1896, Biologia Centrali- 
Americana, Araneidea, 1: 206, pi. 24, fig. 11 ( $ ). Petrun- 
kevitch, 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 29 : 200. dicker- 
ing, 1936, Trans. Amer. Micros. Soc., 55: 451. Banks, 1902, 
Proc. Washington Acad. Sei., 4: 59 (a doubtful record). 
Reimoser, 1939, Ann. Naturhist. Museum, Wien, 50 : 346. 
Steatoda mixta, F. O. P. — Cambridge, 1902, Biologia Centrali- 
Americana, Araneidea, 2 : 383, pi. 36, fig. 8 ( $ ) . 

Tidarren mixtum , Chamberlin and Ivie, 1934, Bull. Univ. Utah, 
biol. ser., 2(4) : 9, figs. 26-27 ( $ ). Roewer, 1942, Katalog der 
Araneae, 1 : 508. 

Female : Coloration of abdomen with little contrast, usually dark with 
indistinct stripes. Abdomen hairy, usually with a large tubercle (fig. 40). 
Area posterior to epigynal beak sclerotized (figs. 46, 47). Legs short. Ratio 
of length of carapace to first patella and tibia 10 : 14 to 10 : 15. Total length, 
4.5 to 5.5 mm. A female from Guatemala measured : Total length, 5.0 ; cara- 
pace, 1.87 long, 1.61 wide. First femur, 2.82; patella and tibia, 2.62; meta- 
tarsus, 2.08; tarsus, 0.75. Second patella and tibia, 1.90; third, 1.43; fourth, 
2.24. 


1955] 


Levi : Spiders 


73 


Type locality : Female holotype from Chiacam, Guatemala 
(Sargent) in the British Museum (Natural History). 

Records : san luis potosi : Tamazunchale ; Rio Frio, veracruz : 
La Buena Ventura, guerrero: Acapulco, chiapas: Tonala; 
Tapachula. Guatemala : San Jeronimo. Costarica: (Reimoser, 
1939) ; San Jose, galapagos islands: (Banks, 1902, a doubtful 
record). 

Tidarren fordum (Keyserling). # Figs. 49-57, 61-64 
Theridion fordum Keyserling, 1884, Die Spinnen Amerikas, 
Theridiidae 2 : 382, pi. 1, fig. 9 ( $ ). Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 29: 196 (in part). Banks, 1929, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool. 69 : 84. Mello-Leitao, 1947, Arq. Paraneense, 
6 : 237. Reimoser, 1939, Ann. Naturhist. Museum, Wien, 50 : 
346. 

Theridion elevatum Banks, 1897, Canad. Ent., 29 : 195 ; 1898, 
Proc. California Acad Sci., 1(7) : 237. (sub. Theridium, not 
T. elevatum Thorell, 1881) . New synonymy. 

JSteatoda elevata, F. 0. P. — -Cambridge, 1902, Biologia Centrali- 
Americana, Araneidea, 2 : 387. New synonymy. 

Theridion fordidum Banks, 1909, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel- 
phia, 61: 203. (sub. Theridium). Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 29 : 196. Roewer, 1942, Katalog der 
Araneae, 1 :493. New synonymy. 

Theridion texanum Banks, 1910, Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus., 72 : 20. 
(sub. Theridium, new name for elevatum, preoccupied). 
Petrunkevitch, 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 29:208. 
Roewer, 1942, Katalog der Araneae, 1 : 499. New synonymy. 
Tidarren minor Chamberlin and Ivie, 1934, Bull. Univ. Utah, biol. 
ser. 2(4) : 10, figs. 10, 2L-25 ( $ ). Fox, 1940, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington, 53: 44. Roewer, 1942, Katalog der Araneae, 1: 
508. Chamberlin and Ivie, 1944, Bull. Univ. Utah, biol. ser., 
8(5): 57. Archer, 1946, Pap. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist., 22 : 33 ; 
1950, ibid., 30 : 15, pi. 2, fig. 2 ( $ ). New synonymy. 

Tidarren fordum, Mello-Leitao, 1940, Rev. Mus. La Plata (n. s.) 
2: 34. Roewer, 1942, Katalog der Araneae; 1: 508 (in part). 
Mello-Leitao, 1943, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 37 : 171. 

? Tidarren sisyphoides, Mello-Leitao, 1945, Rev. Mus. La Plata 
(n. s.) 4: 216 (prob. not T. sisyphoides Walckenaer). 

* South American references incomplete. 


74 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


Tidarren mixtum, Kraus, 1955, Abh. Senckenbergischen Naturf.. 

Gesell., 493: 19. (not T. mixtum 0. P. — Cambridge). 

Female: Coloration and structure typical. Height of clypeus equals two 
and one-half to three diameters of anterior median eyes. Abdominal tubercle 
lacking or very small. Epigynum of variable shape, only beak and a small 
area anterior to it are sclerotized (figs. 49-57). Total length of females, 
2.4-7. 0 mm. A female from Banos, Ecuador, measured 5.0, total length. 
Carapace, 2.16 long, 1.87 wide. First femur, 4.2; patella and tibia, 3.7; 
metatarsus, 3.7 ; tarsus, 1.4. Second patella and tibia, 2.4; third, 1.8; fourth, 

3.0. Total length of a specimen from Texas, 3.7. Carapace, 1.25 long, 1.08 
wide. First femur, 1.92; patella and tibia, 1.60; metatarsus, 1.53; tarsus, 
0.71. Second patella and tibia, 1.04; third, 0.83; fourth, 1.53. 

Male: Cymbium of palpus rounded (figs. 61-63). Total length, 0. 9-1.4 
mm. (largest specimens from California). Total length of a specimen from 
Banos, Ecuador, 1.2 mm. Carapace, 0.55 long. 0.54 wide. First femur, 0.91 ; 
patella and tibia, 0.78; metatarsus, 0.60; tarsus, 0.41. Second patella and 
tibia, 0.53 ; third, 0.41 ; fourth 0.58. Total length of a specimen from Texas, 

1.1. Carapace, 0.52 long, 0.39 wide. First femur, 0.69 ; patella and tibia, 
0.65 ; metatarsus, 0.49 ; tarsus, 0.37. Second patella and tibia, 0.46 ; third, 
0.34; fourth, 0.52. 

Although the difference in size of males is small, females from 
Mexico and the United States measured between 2.4 and 4.5 mm. 
those of Central and South America 4.5 to 7.0 mm. The ratio of 
length of carapace to first patella and tibia is 10 : 13 in the United 
States, 10 : 15 in southern Mexico, 10 : 19 in some specimens of 
northern Central America, 10 :17 in more southern specimens. 
Hardly two specimens have the epigynum or internal genitalia 
similar. 

Type locility : Female types of Theridion fordum from Santa 
Fe de Bogota, Columbia. Female holotype of T. elevatum from 
Brazos County, Texas, and female holotype of Theridion for- 
dulum Banks from Chiral Paraiso, Costa Rica in the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. Female holotype of T. minor from Talla- 
hassee, Leon County, Florida, Aug. 1933 (W. I vie) in the collec- 
tion of the University of Utah. 

Records: Florida: (Chamberlin and Ivie, 1934) ; (Fox, 1940) ; 
Lee Co. Alabama: (Archer, 1946); Baldwin Co. Mississippi: 
(Archer, 1946). Texas: Liberty Co.; Hidalgo Co. Arizona: 
Huachuca Mts. California (Chamberlin and Ivie, 1934) ; San 
Diego Co. tamaulipas: Tampico, san luis potosi: Tamazun- 
chale. Nayarit: (Banks, 1898). Guerrero: km. 100 road to 


1955] 


Levi : Spiders 


75 

Taxco; Acapulco. Oaxaca: San Geronimo. Chiapas: Mapas- 
tepec. Yucatan : Dry Cenote, Chichen-Itza. Quintana Roo : 
Esmeralda, 45 km. S. of Peto, Yucatan. Guatemala: Chichicas- 
tenango. El Salvador: (Kraus, 1955); San Salvador. Costa 
Rica: (Reimoser, 1939) ; San Jose. Panama: Summit; France 
Field ; Forest Reserve ; Boca Toro ; Balboa ; Experimental Gar- 
dens; Barro Colorado Island. Ecuador: I. de Puna; nr. Are- 
nillas. Prov. Tungurahua : Punapi. Banos. Peru : Dept. Junln ; 
Huacapistana. Dept. Loreto: Rio Topo. Quillabamba, Valle 
Urubamba, 1100 m. Brazil: numer. coll. nr. Rio de Janeiro, 
Sao Paulo, Teresopolis. Parana: (Mello-Leitao, 1947). Rio 
Grande do Sul (Mello-Leitao, 1943). Uruguay: (Mello-Leitao, 
1943). Argentina : Corrientes : (Mello-Leitao, 1945). Provincia 
de Buenos Aires (Mello-Leitao, 1948). 

References Cited 

Branch, J. H. 1942. A spider which amputates one of its palpi. Bull. 

South. California Acad. Sci. 41: 139-140. 

Gertsch, W. J. 1949. American Spiders. New York. 


( Continued from page 58) 

Meeting of February 3, 1953 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History; President Clausen in the chair. There were nine mem- 
bers and seven guests present. The minutes of the preceding meeting were 
accepted as read. The Secretary announced the death of Mr. Nathan Banks, 
one of America’s oldest and most distinguished entomologists, and a long- 
time honorary member of the New York Entomological Society. It was 
announced that descriptive circulars and membership blanks for the Society 
were available from the Secretary. The President announced the illness 
of Dr. Hagan to the Society. The President appointed a program commit- 
tee to consist of Drs. Vishniac and Pohl. 

Dr. Vishniac introduced the speakers on the topic of the evening — ‘ ‘ The 
Breeding of Lepidoptera”. He said our speakers represented the expe- 
rience of old age — Mr. Fred Naumann — and the enthusiasm of the younger 
generation — Mrs. Hopf. 

Mrs. Hopf spoke of her breeding work on the Monarch Butterfly and 
showed an inexpensive breeding case of new design. Mr. Naumann had six 
double-pinned boxes of butterflies and moths, exotic and domestic, which he 
used to illustrate his experiences. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:30 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 
( Continued on page 82) 


76 


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[Vol. LXIII 


(Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc.), Vol. LXIII 


(Plate V) 




1955] 


Levi: Spiders 


Plate V 

Pigs. 1-4. Clirysso albomaculata O. P. — Cambridge, left palpus. 1-3. Ven- 
tral view, showing variation. 4. Subventral view, expanded. 

Figs. 5-6. C. vexdbilis Keyserling, palpus. 5. Ventral view. 6. Radix 
and median apophysis. 

Pigs. 7-8. C. vallensis, new species. 7. Palpus. 8. Female. Fig. 9. C. 
diplosticha Chamberlin and Ivie, palpus. 

Fig. 10. C. ecuadorensis, new species, female. 

Figs. 11-12. C. indicifer Chamberlin and Ivie. 11. Palpus. 12. Abdomen 
of male, dorsal view. 

Fig. 13. C. sulcata (Keyserling), palpus. 

Fig. 14. C. sicki, new species, abdomen of female, dorsal view. 

Fig. 15. C. marice, new species, palpus. 

Abbreviations: C, conductor; E, embolus; M, median apophysis; R, radix; 

S, subtegulum ; T, tegulum ; Y, cymbium. 


Plate VI 


Fig. 16. Clirysso nigriceps Keyserling, female. 

Fig. 17. C. indicifer Chamberlin and Ivie, female. 

Figs. 18-19. C. albomaculata O. P. — Cambridge, female. 

Figs. 20-22. C. huanuco, new species. 20. Female. 21. Female genitalia, 
dorsal view. 22. Epigynum. 

Figs. 23-24. C. vexabilis Keyserling. 23. Female genitalia, dorsal view. 
24. Epigynum. 

Figs. 25-27. C. albomaculata O. P. — Cambridge. 25-26. Female genitalia, 
dorsal view. 27. Epigynum. 

Figs. 28-29. C. vallensis, new species. 28. Female genitalia, dorsal view. 
29. Epigynum. 

Figs. 30-31. C. diplosticha Chamberlin and Ivie. 30. genitalia, dorsal view. 
31. Epigynum. 

Figs. 32-33. C. nigriceps Keyserling. 32. Female genitalia, dorsal view, 
33. Epigynum. 

Figs. 34-35. C. indicifer Chamberlin and Ivie. 34. Female genitalia, dorsal 
view. 35. Epigynum. 

Figs. 36-37. C. sicki, new species. 36. Female genitalia, dorsal view. 37. 
Epigynum. 

Figs. 38-39. C. ecuadorensis, new species. 38. Female genitalia, dorsal 
view. 39. Epigynum. 


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[Vol. LXIII 


(Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc.), Yol. LXIII 


(Plate VI) 



1955] 


Levi: Spiders 


79 


(Jour. N. Y. Ext. Soc.) Vol. LXIII 


(Plate VII) 



80 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


Plate VII 

Fig. 40. Tidarren mixtum (O. P. — Cambridge), female. 

Figs. 41-45. T. sisyphoides (Walckenaer) . 41-42. Female. 43-45. Epi- 
gynum. 43. Cleared. 44. Ventral view. 45. Lateral view. 
Figs. 46-48. T. mixtum (O. P. — Cambridge), epigynum. 46. Cleared. 47. 
Ventral view. 48. Lateral view. 

Figs. 49-57. T. fordum (Keyserling), epigynum. 49, 52, 55, 60. Cleared. 
50, 53, 56. Ventral view. 51, 54. Lateral view. 


Plate VIII 

Figs. 58-60. Tidarren sisyphoides (Walckenaer), left palpus. 58. Ventral 
view. 59. Expanded, ventral view. 60. Ectal view. 

Figs. 61-64. T. fordum (Keyserling), palpus. 61-63. Ventral view. 61. 

Ecuador. 62. Panama. 63. Texas. 64. Ectal view, Texas. 

Abbreviations: C, conductor; E, embolus; M, median apophysis; P, para- 
cymbial hook; R, radix; S, subtegulum; T, tegulum; Y, 
cymbium. 

Map showing the distributions of Chrysso albomaculata , Tidarren sisy- 

phoides, T. mixtum and T. fordum. 


1955] 


Levi: Spiders 


81 


(Jour, N. Y. Ent. Soc.) Vol. LXIII 


(Plate VIII) 



Tidarren mixtum 



Tidarren sisyphoides 


Chrysso albomaculata 


82 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


( Continued from page 75) 

Meeting of February 17, 1953 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. President Clausen was in the chair. There were eight 
members and four guests present. The minutes of the previous meeting 
were read and approved. 

The Secretary called attention of the members to ‘ 1 Insect Physiology ’ ’ 
a new book edited by Dr. K. Boeder and “An Introduction to Arthropod 
Anatomy” by Dr. R. F. Snodgrass. 

Dr. Vishniac introduced Dr. Nash of the John Powell Co. who spoke to 
the members on 1 1 Pyrethrum ”. Dr. Nash detailed the history of pyrethrum 
from its discovery and use in the early 1800s, its first introduction into the 
United States in 1858, and its continued use here until the present time. 

Pyrethrum is an extract from the flower head of a member of the com- 
posite family which plant is grown commercially in Japan, Kenya and 
certain parts of the United States. Most of the work of collecting and ex- 
tracting is done by hand. Dr. Nash outlined the active principle of the 
pyrethrum extract and the role of synergistic agents, such as oil of sesame, 
with pyrethrum. The addition of such activators increases the potency of 
the extract to many times its original strength. He concluded his talk with 
a discussion of the relationship of pyrethrum with other insecticides. 

An interesting side light of Dr. Nash’s remarks was the discussion on the 
method of breeding house flies for use in the Peet-Grady testing chamber. 

The meeting adjourned at 10:00 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 
Meeting of March 3, 1953 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. Vice-President Vishniac was in the chair. There were 11 
members and six guests present. The minutes of the previous meeting were 
read and approved. 

Mrs. Celia Smith Lowing, 370 Columbus Ave., N.Y.C. was proposed for 
membership in the Society on the written motion of Mr. John Pallister. Dr. 
Forbes moved that the By-Laws be suspended and the Mrs. Lowing be 
elected at this meeting. Mrs. Lowing was duly elected. 

Attention of the members was called to the book “The Wonderful World 
of Insects ’ ’ by our former President Mr. Albro T. Gaul. It was briefly re- 
viewed and praised by Mr. Soraci. 

Dr. Vishniac then introduced the speaker of the evening, a former Presi- 
dent of the New York Entomological Society, Mr. George Becker of the 
U. S. Dept, of Agriculture Inspection House at Hoboken, N. J. Mr. Becker 
spoke on “The Troubles of a Quarantine Inspector”. He traced the his- 
tory of plant quarantine in this country, and pointed out interestingly 
enough that the Botanical Gardens were among the earlier opponents to the 
idea of plant quarantining. Many incidents, amusing in retrospect, happen 
to a plant quarantine inspector. Many of these were passed on by Mr. 

( Continued on page 93) 


1955] 


Pauly: Serology 


83 


SEROLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG 
ORTHOPTEROID INSECTS AS DETERMINED 
BY THEIR WHOLE “BLOOD ” 1 

By Ludwig Iy. Pauly 

Zoology Department, University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee 

Although precipitins were discovered in 1897 and various 
techniques have been employed for determining the strength of 
precipitin reactions, relatively few taxonomists have used this 
serological reaction in the study of animal relationships. This 
approach to the study of animal relationships showed great prom- 
ise for clarifying disputed or undetermined relationships as early 
as 1904 when Nuttall published a book summarizing the results 
of some 16,000 tests in which some thirty different antisera were 
used on 900 species of animal blood. These results, in general, 
paralleled the existing classification of these animals as based on 
morphological and embryological characteristics. The solution 
of taxonomic problems has been carried out by means of the pre- 
cipitin reaction (Graham-Smith on the king crab, Eisenbrandt 
on worms, and Wilhelmi on the phylogeny of the Chor dates) but, 
all in all, there has been a general lack of use of precipitins for 
settling relationship disputes. 

The class Insecta, being the largest class of animals in the 
animal kingdom, naturally has its share of members with un- 
certain taxonomic position. There is a general agreement in the 
gross picture of insect classification, but, when it comes to the 
relationship of orders to each other and families in each order, 
each author seems to have his own idea of classification. There 
is, perhaps, no better example of this variation in classification 
than among the orthopteroid insects. Comstock (1933), for in- 
stance, includes the families Tettigoniidae, Gryllidae, Locustidae, 
Phasmidae, Mantidae and Blattidae in the order Orthoptera and 
differentiates between the jumping forms (Saltatorial Orthop- 

1 Supported in part by the Research Committee of the University of 
Wisconsin Graduate School from funds supplied by the Wisconsin Alumni 
Research Foundation. Project under supervision of Professor H. R. Wolfe, 
Department of Zoology, Madison. 


84 


New York Entomological Society 


t Vol. LXIII 


tera) and the walking forms. Ross (1948), on the other hand, 
divides the order Orthoptera into four suborders, Blattaria, 
Mantodea, Phasmida, and Saltatoria. Essig (1942) has still a 
different classification for the orthopteroid insects. He places 
the saltatorial forms in the order Orthoptera and each of the 
walking forms in separate orders : Blattaria, Phasmida, and 
Mantodea. Finally Blatchley (1920) has still a different clas- 
sification. He divides the Orthoptera into four suborders : 
Dermaptoria, containing the family Forficulidee, the earwigs; 
Cursoria (runners) including the family Blattidse ; Gressoria 
(walkers), including the families Mantidae and Phasmidae; and 
Saltatoria (jumpers), including the families Tetrigidae (pygmy 
locusts), Acrididae, Tettigoniidae and Gryllidae. 

All of these authors base their classification on certain morpho- 
logical features and each author expresses his own opinion by 
his classification. Thus we have variations in classification. 
These discrepancies in classification could be avoided with a 
more objective basis for classification. 

No one can deny that the basic nature of any organism is found 
in its biochemical constitution. The best known means of meas- 
uring the biochemical relationship of different organisms is the 
precipitin testing technique. As Wells (1930) so aptly puts it, 
1 ‘ The serologic reactions are essentially delicate methods for 
differentiation of proteins (either alone or as the complexes ex- 
isting in protoplasm), and since the evolution of different species 
is essentially the evolution of different combinations of amino- 
acids to form the proteins characteristic of each species, . . ., 
evidently the serological reactions afford a means for the analysis 
of the evolutionary relationship of species.” 

Several serological studies on insects have been carried out in 
the past. Brown and Heffron (1928) and Martin and Cotner 
(1934) on certain Leidoptera, Cumley (1940) on Diptera and 
Leone (1947) on Orthoptera have all carried out successful 
studies in this respect. Brown and Heffron and Martin and 
Cotner used the ring test technique, Cumley used the ring test 
technique and complement-fixation, and Leone used the ring 
test technique and the Libby photronreflectometer (1938). All 
of these authors obtained their insect antigens by saline extrac- 
tions from ground-up insect bodies. This is a questionable prac- 


1955] 


Pauly : Serology 


85 


tice since Canning (1929) showed that different organs in the 
same species showed some differences in serological reactions. 

In serological studies with larger animals it is customary to 
use the blood serum as the antigen. In this paper the author 
has made an attempt to continue this practice with insects. Nat- 
urally, only insects of relatively large size can be used. 


MATERIALS AND PROCEDURE 


Whole ‘‘blood” 
species : 


was obtained from each of the following 
Order Orthoptera 


Family 

Scientific Name 

Common Name 

Blattidae 

Periplameta americanum 

American cockroach 


Blatta orient alis 

Oriental cockroach 


Leucophea maderice 

Tropical roach 

Acrididae 

Romalea microptera 

Florida lubber 
grasshopper 


Melanoplus femur-rubrum 

Red-legged 

grasshopper 

Mantidae 

Paratenodera sinensis 

Chinese praying 
mantis 

Phasmidae 

Anisomorpha sp. 

Walking stick 


Order Coleoptera 

Scarabaeidae Phyllophaga sp. May beetle 

Some of the insects used in the tests were either raised or col- 
lected by the authors, while others were obtained through various 
biological supply houses. 

Special “syringes” were made for bleeding the insects. Glass 
tubing seven millimeters in diameter and approximately twenty 
centimeters long was heated through the middle and drawn into 
long slender, tapering tubes. When these tapering tubes were 
broken at the narrowest point and a rubber bulb from an eye 
dropper attached to the blunt end, an excellent instrument for 
bleeding insects was obtained. 

The insects were starved for at least twenty-four hours and 
were then anaesthetized for bleeding. The slender tapered end 
of the syringe was inserted through the softer tissue between 


86 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


the first and second tergum into the dorsal vessel of the insect. 
By careful manipulation of the rubber bulb a small amount of 
“ blood” was obtained from each insect. Great care was nec- 
essary in inserting the syringe because of the delicate nature of 
the dorsal vessel. The tropical roach ( Leucophea maderice) was 
found to yield the largest amount of blood per individual. Fifty 
of these insects would yield an average of 3.5 to 5 ml. of blood. 

The blood of the various species of insects bled varied in color 
from a watery, colorless liquid as found in some of the cock- 
roaches to a beautiful blue-green liquid as found in the Chinese 
mantids. The color of blood varied not only from species to 
species but also varied considerably from individual to individual 
in the same species. 

The blood obtained from any one series of bleedings was pooled 
and allowed to stand for several hours — usually over night in a 
refrigerator. Several of the bloods formed a sort of clot while 
others did not. All of them, however, did have a fatty residue 
after standing for a time. The blood of the Florida lubber grass- 
hopper ( Romalea microptera) and the walking stick ( Aniso - 
morpha sp.) turned a dark almost black color after a few hours. 

The blood was then centrifuged and the serum was stored in 
sterile vials in a freezer for future use. No attempt was made 
to determine protein content of the sera at this time. 

Both chickens and rabbits were used for the production of 
antisera. For the ring test chicken antisera were used exclu- 
sively. Each chicken was given a single intravenous injection 
of 1 ml. of 2% dilution of the insect serum used as antigen. 
Wolfe (1942) found that this injection procedure usually yielded 
specific antiserum of high titer. Seven days after the injection 
the chickens were starved for 24 hours and bled completely by 
cardiac puncture. This blood was allowed to clot at room tem- 
perature. The clot was broken up and the blood was centrifuged. 
The antiserum was poured off and stored in cotton stoppered 
containers in the refrigerator for at least eight days. It was 
shown (Wolfe and Dilks, 1946) that the rise in titer of chicken 
antiserum occurred on standing and this was usually at a maxi- 
mum after this length of time. Then the antiserum was used 
immediately or filtered and stored in sterile, rubber-stoppered 
vials in the refrigerator. 


1955] 


Pauly: Serology 


87 


The ring- test technique was performed similar to that of Boy- 
den (1926) except that the original antigen dilution was a 2% 
solution of the insect’s serum. Readings were taken at 5, 10, 
20, 30 and 60 minute intervals, but only the 60 minute readings 
are recorded in this paper. Proper care was taken in layering 
the antiserum under the antigen and handling the tubes in order 
to maintain a clear interface. 

A photoelectric instrument which has never been used in any 
serological study of taxonomy is the microdensitometer of Baier 
(1943). This instrument measures the amount of light trans- 
mitted by a turbid medium. It can cover an extremely wide 
range of turbidity concentration without readjustment but is less 
sensitive than certain other photoelectric instruments and conse- 
quently requires a much stronger antiserum for taxonomic 
studies. 

In order to build up a strong enough antiserum for testing 
with the microdensitometer, a multiple series injection technique 
was employed. A rabbit was given a multiple series of injections 
of undiluted serum of the tropical roach (L. maderice). The 
first series consisted of injections of 0.5 ml., 1.0 ml., and 1.5 ml. 
-of the roach serum into the lateral ear vein on alternate days. 
Thirty days after the last injection this series was repeated. 
Seven days after the last injection of the second series the rabbit 
was starved for 24 hours, anaesthetized, and bled completely by 
^cardiac puncture. The blood was allowed to clot at room tem- 
perature. The clot was broken up, the blood was centrifuged, 
and the antiserum was filtered and stored in sterile, rubber- 
stoppered serum vials for future use. 

The microdensitometer tests were conducted according to the 
procedure as outlined by Baier (1947). The tubes used in these 
tests were standardized according to diameter and transmittancy 
of light beams. This means that each tube in any one set of 
lubes would, when filled with distilled water, transmit the same 
•amount of light in the instrument as any other tube in that set. 

The microdensitometer readings should be made with antigen 
dilutions so chosen that the final readings for the highest and 
lowest dilutions (antibody excess and antigen excess) should 
•equal the control reading at those two points. This was not pos- 
sible at the antigen excess level because of the small amount of 


88 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. Lxnr 


antigen and the relatively low protein content of the insect’s 
sera. Protein N determinations were made when sufficient anti- 
gen was available and 2% standard solutions containing 0.16 
gms. N or protein per 100 ml. were prepared. 

These 2% standard dilutions were used in the initial tube in 
the microdensitometer readings. As will be noted (Figure 1) 

Aatijerv dilution 



this procedure failed to produce readings in the prozone of the 
antigen-antibody reaction curve in some cases. In order to con- 
serve antiserum only alternate tubes were used in the tests. No 
duplicate tests were run. 

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 

Successful antisera were produced against the tropical roach 
( Leucophea maderice), the lubber grasshopper ( Romalae microp- 
tera ), and the walking stick ( Anisomorpha sp.). The limited 
amount of antigen prevented attempts to produce others. 


1955] 


Pauly : Serology 


89 


Table I presents a summary of the results obtained with vari- 
ous antisera using the ring test technique and the microdensitom- 
eter. The first two anti-tropical roach sera were the same pooled 
immune serum obtained by combining the serum from several 
ohickens. This combined serum was filtered and stored in sterile 

TABLE I 

Ring Test and Microdensitometer Results 


Antigens (Relationship values in per cent) 




op 


Antisera 

Homologous ti 
hundreds 

Tropical roach 

Oriental roach 

American road 

Walking stick 

Chinese mantis 

Lubber grass- 
hopper 

Red-legged gra 
hopper 

May beetle 

Tropical roach 










P.C.l— 1949 

128 

100 

25 


12.5 


3.1 

0 


Tropical roach 










P.C.l— 1950 

64 

100 

12.5 


1.6 


0 

0 


Tropical roach 










41 

256 

100 

12.5 

.4 

25 

0 

1.6 

3.1 

0 

Lubber grass. 










(pool.) P.C.2 

128 

0 

1.6 

0 

0 

0 

100 

12.5 

0 

Lubber grass. 










2876 

128 

25 

1.6 


0 


100 

50 


Walking stick 










(pool.) P.C.3 

64 

0 

0 

1.6 

100 

0 

1.6 

1.6 

0 

Tropical roach 










JD — diluted 1 + 2 

128 

100 

50 

100 

0 

100 

.4 



JD — microdens 


100 

44.1 

82.3 

.3 

27. 

7 1.3 




Note: First six tests run with non-standardized antigens. Last two run 
with 2 % standard antigens. 

vials in the refrigerator for a year. It is interesting to note in 
this pooled antiserum that the interfacial titer remained con- 
stant but the specificity seemed to increase during the first year. 
On the basis of these tests the tropical roach shows a closer rela- 
tionship to the oriental roach than to any other insect tested. A 
relatively strong cross-reaction was obtained between the anti- 
tropical roach serum (1949) and the walking stick serum and a 
slight reaction was obtained with the lubber grasshopper serum. 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXiir 


Serum 41 against the tropical roach gave results that were- 
similar to those obtained from the pooled tropical roach sera. 
It is interesting to note that again there is a weak reaction with 
the sera of the two jumping forms of Orthoptera tested. 

For reciprocal tests three different antisera were used, two 
against the lubber grasshopper and one against the walking stick. 
Of the two antisera against the lubber grasshopper the pooled 
antiserum was again more specific. In testing this pooled anti- 
serum only two heterologous reactions were obtained, a relatively 
strong one against the red-legged grasshopper and a very faint 
one against the oriental roach. 

Antiserum 2876 against the lubber grasshopper showed a 
strong heterologous reaction against the red-legged grasshopper 
and the tropical roach and a very faint one against the oriental 
roach. This antiserum was definitely less specific than the pooled 
antiserum which probably accounts for the strong cross-reaction 
with the tropical roach. 

The walking stick antiserum was a pooled antiserum of a very 
specific nature. Weak heterologous reactions were obtained with 
the American roach, the lubber grasshopper and the red-legged 
grasshopper. 

All of the above tests were run with non-standardized antigens. 
This combined with the fact that the protein contents of the 
various insect sera varied considerably might lead one to believe 
that these tests were not too trustworthy. 

The last two tests in Table I were run with 2% standard anti- 
gens. The antiserum in both of these tests was from the same 
rabbit. The results of the microdensitometer test are shown in 
Table I — last line. With the microdensitometer heterologous 
reactions were obtained with all antigens tested. On the basis 
of this test the American roach showed a much closer relation- 
ship to the tropical roach than did the oriental roach. The Chi- 
nese mantis showed a surprisingly close relationship to the tropi- 
cal roach although it is considerably more distant than any of the 
roaches are to each other. The lubber grasshopper and walking 
stick showed only a slight relationship to the tropical roach. 

Using one part of this same antiserum diluted with two parts 
of buffered saline, ring tests were performed with the same anti- 
gens used in the previous test. The results paralleled those of 


1955] 


Pauly : Serology 


91 


the microdensitometer although no distinction could be made 
between the tropical roach, the American roach and the Chinese 
mantis. No cross reaction was obtained with the walking* stick 
and only a very faint reaction was obtained with the lubber 
grasshopper. 

DISCUSSION 

The above results combined with those of Leone are at best only 
a crude beginning in the serological study of orthopteroid rela- 
tionships. The insect species used in this study were chosen 
because of their large size and availability. This study was made 
with two purposes in mind: (1) to show the possibility of per- 
forming serological tests using the blood serum of insects rather 
than the extracts of whole insects or parts thereof; and (2) to 
attempt to give a serological basis for the taxonomic classifica- 
tion of the orthopteroid insects. 

To the best of the authors’ knowledge this is the first serolog- 
ical study of insects in which the whole blood sera of insects is 
used rather than saline extracts of the macerated bodies of in- 
sects. In the serological studies of all of the Chordata and many 
of the Invertebrata whole blood sera were used as the antigen. 
Only in cases where the animals studied were too small or where 
they lacked a well-defined circulatory system was it found nec- 
essary to use a saline solution to extract the body protein. The 
validity of the use of saline extracts of whole organisms in estab- 
lishing relationships has been frequently discussed but never 
proven. Leone (1947) conducted serological studies of the Or- 
thoptera using saline extracts for antigens. The results of this 
study are quite similar to those of Leone. More work should 
be done comparing results obtained by using whole blood sera 
with those obtained by using saline extractions. If these results 
are parallel at all times then — and only then — can the use of 
saline extracts of whole organisms in establishing relationships 
be considered valid. 

As indicated previously each author seems to have his own 
classification for the orthopteroid insects. On the basis of the 
serological data obtained in this study indications are that all 
orthopteroid insects belong in the single order, Orthoptera. In 
no case was any cross reaction obtained when orthopteroid anti- 
sera were tested with serum from the May beetle, a member of 


92 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


the order Coleoptera. With the sera of each of the orthopteroid 
forms, however, at least a slight reaction was obtained in one or 
more of the tests carried out. 

In order to determine whether the order Orthoptera should be 
further divided into four suborders (Ross) or whether this order 
should merely contain six families (Comstock), more tests espe- 
cially of the reciprocal nature, would have to be carried out. 
This author hopes to collect more insect sera and carry out these 
tests in the not too distant future. 

SUMMARY 

Serological tests were carried out using the whole blood serum 
of seven orthopteroid insects and one coleopteran insect. 

Comparisons were made between results obtained from the 
‘ 1 ring ’ ’ test and the Baier microdensitometer. 

On the basis of the results obtained the roaches showed a closer 
relationship to the Chinese mantis and the walking stick than to 
the jumping forms tested. 

The results suggested that the orthopteroid insects belong in a 
single order rather than three or four different orders. 

The right to accept results obtained by using saline extractions 
for antigen was questioned and a solution was suggested. 

Bibliography 

Baier, J. G., Jr. 1943. A null-reading photoelectric microdensitometer for 
use in turbidimetry and abridged spectrophotometry. Indust. Eng. 
Chem. 15: 144-148. 

. 1947. An analysis of photoelectric instruments for measure- 
ment of turbidity with reference to serology. Physiol. Zool. 20: 
172-186. 

Blatchley, W. S. 1920. Orthoptera of Northeastern America. The Nature 
Publishing Company. 

Boyden, A. A. 1926. The precipitin reaction in the study of animal re- 
lationships. Biol. Bull. 50: 73—107. 

Brown, M. M., and H. M. Heffron. 1928. Serum diagnosis and Rhopalo- 
cera. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 36: 165-170. 

Canning, G. A. 1929. Precipitin reactions with various tissues of Ascaris 
luTYibricoides and related helminths. Amer. Jour. Hyg. 9: 207. 
Comstock, J. H. 1933. An Introduction to Entomology. Comstock Pub- 
lishing Company. 

Cumley, R. W. 1940. Comparison of serological and taxonomic relation- 
ships of Drosophila species. Jour, of N. Y. Ent. Soc. 48: 265-274. 


1955J 


Pauly: Serology 


93 


Essig, E. O. 1942. College Entomology. Macmillan Company. 

Leone, C. A. 1947. Systematic serology among certain insect species. Biol. 
Bull. 93: 64-71. 

. 1947. A serological study of some Orthoptera. Ann. Ent. 

Soc. Amer. 40: 417-433. 

Libby, B. L. 1938. The photronreflectometer — an instrument for the meas- 
urement of turbid systems. Jour. Immun. 34: 71-73. 

Martin, S., and F. Cother. 1934. Serological studies of moth proteins 
with special reference to their phylogenetic significance. Ann. Ent. 
Soc. Amer. 27: 372-379. 

Nuttall, G. H. F. 1904. Blood Immunity and Blood Relationship. Cam- 
bridge University Press. 

Ross, H. H. 1948. A Textbook of Entomology. John Wiley and Sons. 
Wells, H. G. 1930. The evidence furnished by biochemistry and immu- 
nology on biologic evolution. Archives of Pathology. 9: 1044-1075. 
Wolfe, H. R. 1942. Precipitin production in chickens. I — Interfacial 
titers as affected by quantity of antigen injected and aging of antisera. 
Jour. Immun. 44: 135-145. 

Wolfe, H. R. and E. Dilks. 1946. Precipitin production in chickens. 
II — Studies on the in vitro rise of the interfacial titers and the forma- 
tion of precipitins. Jour. Immun. 52: 331-341. 


( Continued from page 82) 

Becker. On the serious side he pointed out the importance of the airplane 
in the transportation of insect and other epidemic producing pests, among 
them the Golden Nematode. Mr. Becker concluded that the greatest dif- 
ficulty and hazard of plant quarantine inspection work is not with insects 
but with Homo sapiens. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:30 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 
Meeting of March 17, 1953 

The meeting of the Society was called to order at 8:00 P.M. by the Pres- 
ident, Dr. Lucy Clausen. In the absence of the Secretary, Mr. Marks, the 
minutes of the previous meeting were not read and the President asked Dr. 
James Forbes to serve as Secretary for the evening. There were 15 mem- 
bers and 7 guests present. Dr. Clausen cordially welcomed the guests to 
our meetings. She also greeted two members, Dr. Harold Hagen and Mr. 
Edwin W. Teale, who have not been with us recently. This was Dr. Hagan ’s 
first meeting in several months since his recent illness. Mr. Teale had just 
returned from a 28,000 mile, six-month jaunt around the country. 

Mr. Jay Fox of Seaford, New York, was proposed for membership. 

( Continued on page 94) 


94 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


( Continued from 'page 93) 

This brought the order of business to the speaker of the evening. Dr. 
Yishniac introduced Dr. Louis Pyenson of the Long Island Agricultural 
and Technical Institute of Farmingdale, New York, who spoke on “ Methods 
of Escaping Detection in the Insect World. ” 

There are four main devices which nature uses to assist iiisects in escap- 
ing detection. These are fusion, confusion, concealment, and deception. 
Fusion implies the blending of the organism with its background to make 
the organism unrecognizable. This is accomplished by countershading to 
create a flatness, or the imitation of the background color on the insect, or 
the repetition of the background pattern on the insect. Confusion means 
that the insect can be seen but not recognized. This is accomplished by 
disruptive patterning which is the use of irregular patterns, and structural 
disruption or the use of projections and irregular surfaces and contours. 
Concealment is the hiding of the insect in the ground, or within the stems, 
leaves, or twigs of plants, or within the foam produced by the spittle-bug. 
Deception is the means used to make the insect look more important or less 
important than it is. This is accomplished by the use of colored spots, or 
colored hairs and projections, or by mimicry. Dr. Pyenson stressed the 
point that these four devices are usually not employed singly, but they are 
combined in practically any combination. He had a very fine series of 
Kodachrome slides to illustrate the devices and the combinations. 

The talk was followed by a discussion of the devices, their meaning and 
importance, insect problems in general, and the equipment which Dr. Py- 
enson used for taking his very fine pictures. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:30 P.M. 

James Forbes, Sec., pro temp. 


Meeting of April 7, 1953 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. President Clausen was in the chair. There were 8 mem- 
bers and 5 guests present. 

Mr. Jay Fox, Seaford, Long Island, was elected to membership. 

Miss Eosalie Talbot, 262 Bay 17th Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. was proposed 
for membership. On motion duly made and seconded the By-Laws were 
suspended and Miss Talbot was declared elected. 

The Secretary called attention to Dr. Ernst Mayr’s volume “Principles 
and Methods of Systematic Zoology”. 

Dr. Forbes noted that the speaker of the previous meeting, Dr. Pyenson, 
writing an article in the Long Island Press, called attention to the fact 
that this year (1953) a brood of the 17-year cicada will make its appear- 
ance on Long Island. 

Dr. Hagan spoke in some detail on the new book “Fresh Water Inverte- 
brates ’ \ 

The speaker of the evening, Dr. Eoger Williams, spoke on “ Culicoides in 
Alaska”. He illustrated his lecture with some beautiful kodachromes. 

{Continued on page 110 ) 


1955] 


Dos Passos & Grey: Argynnis 


95 


A NEW NAME FOR ARGYNNIS LAIS EDWARDS 
(LEPIDOPTERA, RHOPALOCERA) 

By Cyril Franklin dos Passos 1 and Lionel Paul Grey 2 

Mr. Nicholas W. Gillham, of New York, has kindly called our 
attention to the fact that Argynnis lais Edwards, 1883, is a pri- 
mary homonym of Argynnis lais Scudder, 1875, and has suggested 
that it would be appropriate to propose a new name for the 
former insect. 

Argynnis lais was published by Scudder in the synonymy of 
“Brenthis Triclaris (Hiibn.) Herr.-Schaeff., ” with the statement 
that “ . . . Many years ago I distributed specimens of this butter- 
fly under the MS. name of Arg. Lais 

Subsequent to the publication of these two homonyms the 
former was transferred to Proclossiana and is now considered a 
synonym of P. eunomia triclaris (Hiibner), [1821], while the 
latter is classified as Speyeria (Speyeria) atlantis lais (Ed- 
wards). 

Prior to the Fourteenth International Congress of Zoology at 
Copenhagen in 1953, the mere listing of a specific name in the 
synonymy without an independent description was considered 
publication thereof, in accordance with Opinion 4 of the Inter- 
national Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1907 ; Hem- 
ming, 1944). That opinion was incorporated in the Regies by 
the Thirteenth International Congress of Zoology at Paris in 
1948 (Hemming, 1950), but that action was reversed by the 
Fourteenth International Congress of Zoology (Hemming, 1953). 
Since the latter action is not retroactive, we propose for this 
insect the name 

Speyeria ( Speyeria ) atlantis helena, new name. 

The type of helena is the lectotype of Argynnis lais , a male in 
the Carnegie Museum. 

It is a question, in a case like the present, whether a new name 

1 Research Associate, Department of Insects and Spiders, the American 
Museum of Natural History; Research Associate, Section of Insects and 
Spiders, Carnegie Museum. 

2 Lincoln, Maine. 


96 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


( Helena ) for an homonym (lais) should be proposed in the origi- 
nal genus ( Argynnis ) in which the homonym was described or in 
the genus (Speyeria [Speyeria ] ) to which the homonym has 
been transferred. The Regies are silent on this subject and there 
are precedents for both methods of procedure. 

It would be well, for the sake of uniformity, to amend the 
Regies so that this problem is covered. Such an amendment 
should not be retroactive, because that could upset many names. 
Possibly it should not even be mandatory, but merely in the 
form of a recommendation. 

Bibliography 

Edwards, William Henry. 1883. Descriptions of new species of North 
American butterflies. Canadian Ent. 15: 209-211. 

Hemming, Francis (ed.). 1944. Opinions and declarations rendered by 

the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Opinion 4. 
The status of certain names published as manuscript names. London, 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1(13): 103-114. 
. 1950. International Commission on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture. Session held during the Thirteenth International Congress of 
Zoology, Paris, 21st— 27th July, 1948. Conclusions of the Fourth Meet- 
ing held at the Sorbonne in the Amphitheatre Louis-Liard on Thursday, 
22nd July, 1948, at 0900 hours. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature. 4: 62-82. 

. 1953. Copenhagen decisions on zoological nomenclature. 

Additions to, and modifications of, the Regies Internationales de la 
Nomenclature Zoologique. Approved and adopted by the Fourteenth 
International Congress of Zoology, Copenhagen, August, 1953. Lon- 
don, International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, xxx + 136 pp., 
2 pis. 

Hubner, Jacob. [1819—] 1806 [-1832]. Sammlung exotischer Schmetter- 
linge. Augsburg. 2: [6] pp., 225 colored pis. 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature [Charles Wardell 
Stiles, Secretary] 

1907. Report of the International Commission on Zoological Nomen- 
clature. Science. 26: 520-523. (See Hemming, 1944.) 

Scudder, Samuel Hubbard. 1875. Description of some Labradorian butter- 
flies. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 17: 37-57. 


1955] 


Brown: Strumigenys 


97 


THE NEOTROPICAL SPECIES OF THE ANT 
GENUS STRUMIGENYS FR. SMITH: 

GROUP OF CULTRIGER MAYR 
AND S. TOCOCAE WHEELER 

By William L. Brown, Jr. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 

The present paper is a continuation of my series on the New 
World fauna of the dacetine ant genus Strumigenys Fr. Smith. 
Earlier parts, containing keys to the abbreviations for measure- 
ments and proportions, may be found in Jour. New York Ent. 
Soc. 61: 53-59, 101-110 (1953). Other parts are in press. 

Discussed here are S. cultriger Mayr, S. deltisquama new spe- 
cies, and S. tococae Wheeler, considered as members of the man- 
dibularis series. S. cultriger and S. deltisquama seem to be re- 
lated, and these two may be considered as members of group 
cultriger. They are characterized by having basic mandibularis - 
series mandibular dentition, with the addition, on the inner or 
masticatory borders of each of the shafts, of a straightedged, 
translucent lamella which ends in a right angle just short of the 
proximal preapical tooth. S. cultriger shows obvious close rela- 
tionships to the smithii group of the mandibularis series ; S. delti- 
squama is somewhat more aberrant. 

S. tococae has mandibularis- series dentition, except that the 
apical fork has two, instead of only one, intercalary teeth. A 
rudimentary lamella is also present on the inner mandibular 
border, but this does not imply a close relationship to the cult- 
riger group ; in fact, the relationships of tococae are obscure, 
and its assignment to the mandibularis series is tentative. 

Each of these three species remains known from a single col- 
lection at the present time, so little can be said concerning their 
probable distribution. S. tococae is known to inhabit plant 
cavities above the ground, and its very large eyes appear to rep- 
resent an adaptation to arboreal foraging habits. 

Strumigenys cultriger Mayr 

Strumigenys cultriger Mayr, 1887, Yerh. zool-bot. Ges. Wien, 
37 : 571, worker. Type loc. : Santa Caterina, Brazil. Lectotype 
(so labelled) in Naturh. Mus. Wien., by present selection. 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


Worker (notes based on lectotype, loaned through the courtesy 
of Dr. M. Beier) : TL 3.7, HL 0.85, ML 0.51, WL 0.90 mm.; Cl 
77, MI 60. Antennal scape L 0.63 mm. ; antennal funiculus seg- 
ments, I 0.14, II 0.07, III 0.10, IV 0.23, V 0.37 = total funiculus 
L 0.91 mm. 

In general habitus and proportions very similar to 8. pro - 
spiciens Emery, but slightly larger overall, and with a narrow 
but distinct translucent margin or lamella extending along the 
inner mandibular border to very slightly beyond the midlength 
of the exposed length of the mandible, where it ends abruptly 
in a rectangular corner a trifle proximad of the proximal pre- 
apical tooth. Dentition as in other mandibularis- series species; 
preapical teeth spiniform, widely spaced, the distal shorter than 
the dorsal apical tooth, but nearly twice as long as the proximal 
preapical tooth. 

Propodeum with dorsal surface a bit shorter and more convex 
than in prospiciens, and the lamellae much different, vestigial, 
represented only by a minute subrectangular dorsal tooth trail- 
ing a fine bordering carina on each side of the declivity. 

Petiole and postpetiole opaque, as in prospiciens, but with 
more strongly convex dorsonodal surfaces and less well developed 
spongiform appendages. Gaster smooth and shining, the basal 
costulae obsolete. Mesokatepisternum smooth and shining ; body 
otherwise opaque. 

Reclinate, linear-spatulate hairs of ground pilosity more nu- 
merous and conspicuous than in prospiciens or smithii Forel, 
found on cephalic dorsum, clypeus, scapes, legs, promesonotum, 
posterior propodeum, and both nodes. Gaster with no conspicu- 
ous erect hairs except a few very fine curved ones along antero- 
dorsal margin and on venter; very fine, dilute, but fairly long 
reclinate pubescence-like pilosity over dorsal and posterior ven- 
tral surfaces. Specialized erect hairs limited to two linear- 
spatulate pairs, one on humeri and one straddling mesonotum. 
Mandibular and trigger-hairs much as in prospiciens , smithii 
and relatives. Color medium ferruginous ; appendages, anterior 
and posterior extremities of gaster a trifle lighter and more yel- 
lowish. 

This ant can be distinguished readily from other mandibu- 
laris- series species by means of its mandibular lamellae, ending 


1955] 


Brown: Strumigenys 


99 


near midlength. of the shafts, and by the peculiar reduction of 
propodeal lamellae and gastric pilosity. See also under S. delti - 
squama below. 

Strumigenys deltisquama new species 

(Fig. 1, a, b.) 

Holotype worker: TL 2.6, HL 0.63, ML 0.34, WL 0.60 mm.; 
Cl 97, MI 54. Scape, exposed L 0.28 mm.; funiculus L 0.48 
mm. ; apical segment L 0.23 mm. 

Form of head, mandibles and a scape shown in fig. 1, b, with pilosity 
omitted from all parts except anterior clypeal and scape borders. With 
all the pilosity in place, the head appears relatively shorter and broader 
and the mandibles shorter, a common type of illusion in heavily pilose 
dacetine ants. Each inner mandibular margin bears a straight border of 
translucent lamella extending to the apical quarter of the exposed length, 
where it ends abruptly and subrectangularly just basad of the proximal 
preapical tooth (see fig. 1, a). Apical fork with a single intercalary tooth. 
Dorsal surface of head gently and evenly convex. Compound eye circular, 
moderate in size, slightly prospicient and usually just barely visible in direct 
dorsal view of head, with about fifteen facets, four in greatest diameter 
(equal to 0.04-0.05 mm.). Lateral surfaces of head just in front of eyes 
broadly and rather deeply concave, the concavity not interrupting the pre- 
ocular lamina, which arches above it to reach the eye behind; the concavi- 
ties are not extended mesad ventrally to form any “postoral grooves.” 

Promesonotum broad, subcircular in dorsal view, without humeral angles, 
depressed, surface gently convex, feebly impressed at site of obsolete pro- 
mesonotal suture. Posterior mesonotum much narrowed, metanotal groove 
feeble, scarcely interrupting uniconvex alitruncal profile. Propodeum short, 
narrow, with a pair of sturdy acute teeth slightly shorter than the distance 
between the centers of their bases and subtended by narrow, concave, carini- 
fiorm infradental lamellae. Petiolar peduncle slender, arched, naked be- 
neath, subequal in length to the node; node distinct, just about as long as 
it is broad behind; from side view with differentiated subequal anterior 
and dorsal profiles; spongiform appendages confined to a thick rim around 
posterior margin of node. Postpetiole transverse-oval, small, but wider 
than petiolar node, maximum width about 0.17 mm., convex, with narrow 
spongiform margins and moderate lobes beneath; sides partly naked. 

Mandibular apices and under-surfaces, apical gastric segments and median 
posterior gastric venter more or less smooth, shining; body otherwise com- 
pletely and densely punctulate and opaque. Base of gaster with feeble 
superimposed costulation extending about half the length of the first seg- 
ment. Head, with clypeus and scapes, and promesonotum densely covered 
with thick, orbicular, opaque, yellowish, squamose or stud-like hairs, pseudo- 
appressed, uniform in size, but those on the promesonotum slightly larger. 
A few other thick squamose hairs also along the sides of the propodeal 
dorsum, and one applied to the dorsal surface of each propodeal tooth, a 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


few each on the petiolar node and around lateral and posterior borders of 
postpetiolar node. The squamose hairs of the anterior scape borders have 
their blades curved ventrad at the apices, and thus appear deltoid to dorsal 
view; the specific name is in reference to this. Legs with reclinate spoon- 
shaped hairs; nodes with a few posteriorly-curved, suberect, narrowly spatu- 
late hairs. Gastric dorsum with about six transverse rows of six posteriorly 
inclined, erect, flattened-clavate hairs, all conspicuous. Inconspicuous fine 
pilosity on ventral surfaces of head and gaster. Each mandible with three 
or four dorsal rows of slender, oblique pointed hairs. No trace of special- 
ized erect hairs on head or alitrunk. Feebly concave sides of alitrunk 
largely naked; only three or four squamose hairs along ventrolateral pro- 
thoracic margin on each side. Color uniform light ferruginous. 



Fig. 1, a and b, Strumigenys deltisquama new species; a, apex of right 
mandible in detail, oblique dorsal view; b, head and mandibles, dorsal view, 
pilosity largely omitted (paratype worker) ; c, Strumigenys tococae Wheeler, 
left mandible, dorsal view (syntype worker). 


Holotype selected from a series of workers taken by K. W. 
Cooper during January, 1941, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama 
Canal Zone. Holotype and paratypes in Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, Harvard University; paratypes in U.S. National 
Museum, Coll. K. W. Cooper, and elsewhere. Paratypes, all 
from type nest series, showed only very slight variation : TL 2.5- 
2.7, HL 0.62-0.67, ML 0.34, WL 0.60-0.63 mm.; Cl 95-97, MI 


1955] 


Brown: Strumigenys 


101 


51-55. Nothing is recorded concerning the biology of this ant, 
but the type locality is covered with rainforest. 

8. deltisquama differs strongly from 8. cultriger in the form 
of the head, which in the latter is similar to 8. prospiciens. The 
mandibular teeth of deltisquama are also much closer to the apex 
of the mandible and to each other, and the lamella extends much 
farther along the shaft. There are also wide differences in size,, 
sculpture and pilosity, as well as in the form of the propodeal 
lamellae or teeth. 


Strumigenys tococae Wheeler 
(Fig. 1, c.) 

Strumigenys tococae Wheeler, in Wheeler and Bequaert, 1929, 

Zool. Anz., 82 : 31, worker. Bequaert, op. cit p. 23, biology. 

Type loc. : Para [Belem], Brazil. Syntypes in Mus. Comp. 

Zool., Harvard Univ., and elsewhere. 

Worker (measurements from largest and smallest specimens of 
8 in available syntype series) : TL 3. 3-3. 6, HL 0.80-85, ML 
0.44-0.47, WL 0.80-0.87 mm. ; Cl 75, MI 55. Max. diameter of 
compound eye 0.14-0.15 mm. This species is easily recognized 
by means of its very large, laterospicient eyes and by its distinc- 
tive mandibles. 

In figure lc, a mandible is shown in dorsal view, so as to dis- 
play the preapical dentition and the narrowly lamellate internal 
margins. The apex of the mandible as seen end-on has two 
widely diverging teeth forming the apical fork, approximately 
equal in length, and between these, two shorter but acute inter- 
calary teeth. The shafts lie close together and parallel at full 
closure. The head shape in general is that of many species of 
the mandibularis series and of the emeryi-hindenburgi groups. 
A very fine lamella or earina borders each antennal scrobe dor- 
sally to mark the dorsolateral cephalic margin on each side. 

Antennal scape slender; funiculus also slender, its second 
and third segments both longer than broad, the third much longer 
than the second. Promesonotum strongly convex, with well de- 
veloped humeral angles, median longitudinal carinula and low, 
flange-like borders dorsolaterally. Impression in region of ex- 
treme posterior mesonotum and metanotum broad and deep; 
propodeal dorsum weakly convex, sloping ventrad posteriorly. 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Yol. lxiii 


Propodeal teeth prominent, slender and acute, elevated, the 
upper tooth longest; upper and lower teeth on each side con- 
nected by a low, deeply concave lamella. 

Petiole with a distinct, slender peduncle subequal in length to 
the node ; node semiglobosely rounded, bicarinulate, its free por- 
tion seen from above nearly or quite as long as broad. Post- 
petiole broader than long and broader than the petiolar node, its 
free disc strongly convex, longitudinally costulate, opaque. Both 
nodes with voluminous lateral, posterolateral and ventral spongi- 
form appendages. Gaster strongly longitudinally costulate at 
base for about Ys length of basal segment. Anteroventral spon- 
giform pad of gaster prominent. Gaster otherwise smooth and 
shining, with scattered punctures. 

Mandibles rather smooth, weakly shining; body and most of 
appendages otherwise finely punctate-reticulate, opaque. Head, 
with clypeus, promesonotum, posterolateral borders of propo- 
deum, appendages, both nodes and gastric dorsum with abun- 
dant, rather evenly distributed, inverted lineocochlear ground 
pilosity, most hairs arched-reclinate, moderate-sized and fairly 
conspicuous. Vertex with a pair of erect remiform hairs; long 
flagellate hairs paired on humeri, others distributed sparsely 
over nodes and both surfaces of gaster. Mandibles with slender 
appressed hairs; inner margins each with about 9 slender, tap- 
ored, oblique sensory hairs; trigger hairs of labrum long, fine, 
curved. Color even light ferruginous yellow. 

Dr. J. C. Bequaert took this species in some numbers in the 
peculiar foliac sacs of a species of the myrmeeophyte Tococa 
formicaria Mart, group at Belem, in which circumstances he 
found it the commonest ant species. Several species of ants yet 
remain to be described in the arboreal Strumigenys fauna of 
South America, and one or more of these may prove to be closely 
related to S. tococae. 


1955] 


Burbutis & Hansens: Fleas 


103 


FLEAS ON RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) 

IN NEW JERSEY 1 

By Paul P. Burbutis 2 and Elton J. Hansens 3 

In the spring of 1951 a survey of domestic rat parasites was 
started in New Jersey to determine ultimately the kinds of ecto- 
parasites and their distribution in the state. These studies were 
supported in part by the New Jersey State Department of Agri- 
culture. This paper briefly summarizes the data on fleas through- 
out New Jersey taken from rats (all Battus norvegicus) . Most 
of the animals were taken in garbage and refuse dumps but a 
portion of the animals were also taken in warehouses, stores, 
houses and other buildings. The place names used in the discus- 
sion do not necessarily denote that the dump is owned or oper- 
ated by the municipality mentioned. 

To obtain fleas and other ectoparasites, rats were captured on 
the dumps by driving them from their burrows with calcium 
cyanide or by running a bulldozer through the area and killing 
the rats as they emerged. As soon as killed, each animal was 
placed in a two quart jar containing a quart of water, and small 
quantities of lindane and a wetting agent. Each jar was set 
aside for at least 2 hours and then shaken vigorously 100 times 
to wash parasites from the animal. After washing the rat was 
removed, and the length and sex were recorded. Liquid remain- 
ing in the jar was passed through a sieve (60 meshes to the inch) 
to collect the parasites. Parasites and debris collected on the 
screen were washed from the screen and stored in 70% alcohol 
until mounted for study. 

A preliminary report on the fleas infesting rats in New J ersey, 
by Hansens and Hadjinicolaou (1952), presented data on fleas 
taken from rats between June 1, 1951, and January 31, 1952. 
However, the study continued and this paper presents the data 

1 Paper of the Journal Series, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion, Rutgers University, the State University of New Jersey, Department of 
Entomology, New Brunswick. 

2 Assistant Research Specialist in Entomology. 

3 Associate Research Specialist in Entomology. 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. Lxnr 


on fleas from rats collected between February 1, and September 
30, 1952, and a summary of the entire study. 

Data on the additional collections are summarized in Table 1. 

At the following locations where rats were collected between 
February 1 and September 30, 1952, no fleas were taken (num- 
ber of rats collected in parentheses) : Atlantic County — Atlantic 
City (7), Somers Point (1) ; Bergen County — Englewood (18),. 
Englewood Cliffs (1), Fairview (50), Lyndhurst (3), North 
Bergen (1), Rutherford (24), Woodcliff Lake (1), Wood Ridge 


TABLE 1 

Fleas Taken from Bats Collected February 1 to September 30, 1952 


Location 

Total 

Bates 

Total 

fleas 

Xenopsylla 

cheopis 

Nosopsyllus 

fasciatus 

Ctenocephalides 

fe.lis 

Secaucus 

49 

1 

1 



Jersey City 

72 

30 

26 

4 


N. Arlington 

41 

6 

3 

3 


Union City 

63 

2 

2 



Newark 

71 

5 

1 

4 


Bahway 

39 

1 


1 


Perth Amboy 

32 

6 

6 



Bernardsville 

30 

1 



1 

Bordentown 

21 

1 



1 

Flemington 

34 

14 


14 


Camden 

41 

22 

21 

1 


Burlington 

15 

7 


7 


Totals 

508 

96 

60 

34 

2 


(23) ; Burlington County — Pemberton (1), Palmyra (16), River- 
side (29), Riverton (3), Roebling (3) ; Camden County — Audu- 
bon (14), Barrington (19), Pennsauken (10) ; Cape May County 
— Cape May (6), Wildwood (3), Woodbine (1) ; Cumberland 
County — Bridgeton (15), Deerfield (16), Port Norris (2), Vine- 
land (10); Gloucester County — Gibstown (1), National Park 
(7), Westville (8), Woodbury (16) ; Hunterdon County — High- 
bridge (20), Lambertville (3) ; Mercer County — Hightstown 
(30), Trenton (3), White Horse (22) ; Middlesex County — Cran- 
bury (31), North Brunswick (3), South Plainfield (1), South 
River (60) ; Monmouth County — Allentown (15), Freehold (20), 
Long Branch (15) ; Morris County — Dover (2), Pine Brook 


1955] 


Burbutis & Hansens: Fleas 


105 


(17) ; Ocean County — Toms River (1) ; Passaic County — Bloom- 
ingdale (45) ; Salem County — Centerton (3), Pedricktown (5), 
Penns Grove (11), Salem (10) ; Somerset County — Raritan (18) ; 
Sussex County — McAfee (3), Newton (25) ; Union County — 
Elizabeth (40) ; Warren County — Belvidere (10), Hackettstown 
(43), Phillipsburg (25), Washington (33). 

Between February 1 and September 30, 1952, 96 fleas were 
collected from a total of 1,331 rats surveyed in 69 different loca- 
tions in New Jersey. Thirty-eight of these fleas were taken from 
rats which were trapped in buildings, and the remainder were 
taken from rats inhabiting dumps. Of these 38 fleas taken from 
rats trapped inside buildings, 27 were Xenopsylla cheopis, the 
Oriental rat flea, and these were all collected from Jersey City 
and Camden, New Jersey. Eleven specimens of Nosopsyllus 
fasciatus were taken from rats collected in buildings in Jersey 
City, Newark, and Burlington, New Jersey. 

A summary of the species of fleas taken from rats in New 
Jersey for the entire survey is set forth in table 2. 


TABLE 2 

Fleas Taken from Rats from May 15, 1951, to September 30, 1952 


Flea Species 

Rats 

infested 

No. of 
fleas 

Fleas per 
infested rat 

Xenopsylla cheopis 

172 

376 

2.2 

Nosopsyllus fasciatus 

43 

59 

1.3 

Ctenocephalides felis 

17 

19 

1.1 

Ceratophyllus gallinae 

1 

2 

2.0 

Totals 

233 

456 

1.9 


During the two summer-study periods, most of the fleas were 
collected from dumps in the northeastern part of New Jersey 
and in Camden. Of these fleas, 86.4 percent were Xenopsylla 
cheopis , the Oriental rat flea. Nosopsyllus fasciatus and Cteno- 
cephalides felis make up the remaining 13.6 percent of the fleas 
collected from rats in dumps during the summer months. The 
flea index was very low ; 0.24 fleas per rat during the first sum- 
mer and 0.04 fleas per rat collected. X. cheopis was taken only 
in those areas close to port facilities. 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


Preliminary studies (Hansens and Hadjinicolaou, 1952) indi- 
cated that the peak of abundance of adult fleas was reached some- 
time in August. This was substantiated by further studies in 
that 32 of the 41 fleas collected during the second summer were 
taken in August. 

In a study of the fleas on rats in buildings, a total of 142 rats 
were trapped at 24 different localities. These rats yielded a total 
of 103 fleas of which X. cheopis was again the predominant 
species, making up 76.9 percent of the total fleas. The flea index 
for rats trapped in buildings was 0.73 fleas per rat. This is 5 
times that of the summer index for rats in dumps and 9 times 
that of the outdoor winter flea index. The winter flea index was 
0.08 fleas per rat collected. 

SUMMARY 

In a study of fleas on rats in New Jersey from May 15, 1951,. 
to September 30, 1952, 2,721 rats ( Rattus norvegicus) and 456 
fleas were collected, giving a flea index of 0.16 fleas per rat col- 
lected. Only 233 or 8.2 percent of the rats captured were in- 
fested with fleas. Although the flea index is only 0.16 fleas per 
rat collected, it is of interest to note that there were almost 2 fleas 
per infested rat. 

In all, 4 species of fleas were found to parasitize rats in New 
Jersey, and these were: Xenopsylla cheopis , Nosopsyllus fasci- 
atus, Ctenocephalides felis, and Ceratophyllus gallinae. X. 
cheopis represented 82.7 percent of the fleas collected, and it was 
found to be present mainly in the northeastern metropolitan and 
Camden areas. N. fasciatus represented 12.9 percent of the total 
fleas collected and it was the major flea parasitizing rats in rural 
areas. The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis , was collected from 12: 
localities and it probably only occasionally attacks rats in New 
Jersey. The common chicken flea, Ceratophyllus gallinae col- 
lected from a rat in a poultry hatchery, does not normally attack 
rats, and, due to the situation in which it was found, it can be 
considered as only accidentally occurring on rats in New Jersey. 

Reference 

Hansens, E. J. and J. Hadjinicolaou. 1952. Preliminary studies of fleas, 
on rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) in New Jersey. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 
60: 91-95. 


1955] 


Kousell: Glycogen 


107 


DETERMINATION OF GLYCOGEN CONTENT 
DURING THE METAMORPHOSIS OF THE 

MEALWORM (TENEBRIO MOLITOR LINNiEUS)* 

By Paul Gerald Rousell 
Department of Biology, Fordham University 

Many students of insect metamorphosis have reported a steady 
decrease in glycogen during the pupal period. Bataillon (1893), 
Vaney and Maigon (1905) and Kotake and Sera (1909) showed 
irregular but progressive decreases during the metamorphosis of 
the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Similar results were obtained by 
Weinland (1906) for the blowfly, Calliphora vomit aria; Strauss 
(1911) in the honeybee, Apis mellifica ; Rudolfs (1926) for the 
tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americana and Courtois-Drilhon 
(1931) for three species of Lepidoptera ( Attacus pernyi , Sphinx 
liqustri, and Saturina pyri). However, Ludwig and Rothstein 
(1949) found that in the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica there 
was a decrease in the glycogen content during the early part of 
the pupal stage, followed by a significant increase between the 
fourth and fifth days of pupal life at 25° C. This increase was 
then followed by a steady decrease during the remainder of this 
stage. 

Evans (1934) studied the changes in nitrogen, fat and total 
carbohydrate during the metamorphosis of the mealworm, Tene- 
brio molitor at 25° C. At this temperature, pupal life lasts 9.5 
days. He assumed that all the carbohydrate was glucose and on 
the basis of experiments performed at intervals of 48 hours, he 
found that the total carbohydrate content fell steadily through- 
out metamorphosis. However, Evans failed to include determi- 
nations on glycogen and up to the present time, to the writer’s 
knowledge, no studies on glycogen have been made using this 
insect. 

The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes 
in glycogen content of T. molitor during metamorphosis, and also 

* Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of 
Master of Science, Fordham University. 

The author wishes to express his appreciation for the interest and assist- 
ance of Dr. Daniel Ludwig. 


108 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


to ascertain whether these changes involve a progressive decrease 
as found by some workers or whether a synthesis occurs during 
part of the pupal stage as reported by Ludwig and Kothstein 
(1949). 

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS 


The results are given in Figure I. The values plotted in each 



Eig. 1. Changes in glycogen during the metamorphosis of the mealworm. 
PP, prepupa; JM, just molted pupa; A, adult. Numbers indicate days of 
pupal stage. 


case are averages of 10 individual tests. There was a consider- 
able variation in the weights of different insects at the same 


1955] 


Rousell: Glycogen 


109 


stage of metamorphosis. Since the amount of glycogen is greater 
in larger insects, the average percentage values for each determi- 
nation were plotted. The glycogen content increased from 0.71 
in the prepupal stage to 0.97 percent in the newly-molted pupa. 
During the pupal stage there was a gradual and progressive 
decrease, the percentage values reaching 0.64 in 5-day pupa and 
0.57 in newly-emerged adults. 

A statistical analysis was made of these results. Two means 
are said to be statistically significant when their difference divided 
by the standard error of the difference is equal to 2 or more. 
Marked changes in the amount of glycogen occur where this 
value is attained. This statistical analysis showed that there 
were significant changes between successive days of the pupal 
period with the exception of the newly-molted to 1-day pupa 
and 2-day to 3-day pupa. A weight loss accompanies the emer- 
gence of the adult, but it is not sufficiently great to cause an 
increase in the percentage concentration of glycogen. 

SUMMARY 

Determinations were made on the glycogen content of the 
mealworm Tenebrio molitor at the following stages of metamor- 
phosis : prepupa, newly molted, one, two, three, four and five day 
old pupas, and newly emerged adults. 

Glycogen content rises from 0.71 percent in the prepupa to 
0.97 percent in the newly molted pupa. During the pupal period 
there is a steady decrease in the glycogen content, continuing 
through the emergence of the adult. 

The increase in glycogen associated with pupation corresponds 
to the decrease in fat content reported by Evans (1934) and 
hence it appears probable that this glycogen is synthesized from 
fat. 

These results indicate the utilization of glycogen for energy 
during the pupal stage. 

Literature Cited 

Bataillon, E. 1893. La metamorphose du ver a soie et le determinisme 
evolutif. Bulletin Scientifique de la France et de la Belgique. 25: 
273-286. 

Courtois-Drilhon, Mme. 1933. Etudies biochemiques sur la metamorphose 
des Lepidopteres. Annales de physiologie et de physicochimie bio- 
logique. 7: 496-636. 


110 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


Evans, A. C. 1934. On the chemical changes associated with metamorpho- 
sis in a beetle ( Tenebrio molitor L.). Journal of Experimental Biol- 
ogy. 11: 397-401. 

Kotake, Y. and Y. Sera. 1909. Findet die Umwandlung von Fett in 
Glykogen bei der Seidenraupe wahrend der Metamorphose statt? Zeit- 
schrift fiir Physiologische Chemie. 62: 116-117. 

Rudolfs, W. 1926. Studies on chemical changes during the life cycle of 
the tent caterpillar ( Malacosoma americana Fab.). I. Moisture and fat. 
Jorunal of the New York Entomological Society. 34: 249-256. 

Strauss, J. 1911. Die chemische Zusammemsetzung der Arbeitsbienen und 
Drohnen wahrend ihrer verschiedenen Entwicklungsstadien. Zeitschrift 
fiir Biologie. 56: 347-397. 

Vaney, C. and F. Maignon. 1905. Variations subies par la glucose, le 
glycogene, le graisse, et les albumines solubles au cours de metamorphose 
due ver a soie. Compte Rendue hebdomadaire des seances de 1 ’Academie 
des Sciences. 140: 1192-1195. 

Weinland, E. 1906. tiber die Stoffumsetzungen wahrend der Meta- 
morphose der Fleischfliege ( Calliphoro vomitaria). Zeitschrift fiir 
Biologie. 47: 186-231. 


( Continued from page 94) 

Dr. Williams found, in the course of his investigations, that Culicoides 
breeds in certain species of sedges. Control measures would include the 
use of ‘ i weed-killers ” for killing off the sedges or bulldozing the sedges 
to bury them beneath the surface. It was brought out in subsequent dis- 
cussion that Culicoides requires a blood meal before it can successfully 
oviposit. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:25 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 
Meeting of April 21, 1953 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History, President Clausen in the chair. There were thirteen mem- 
bers and two guests present. The minutes of the preceding meeting were 
accepted as read. 

The speaker of the evening was Mr. Chris Olsen who in two series of 
Kodachrome slides illustrated his method of plastic construction of a Lampy- 
rid beetle and of a mosquito. Intriguing was the use of a green light, at- 
tached to an electric timer to simulate the flashing in the flrefly. Mr. 
Olson’s account was very well received. 

Mrs. Alice Hopf then demonstrated models of a butterfly and a spider 
made by her entomologically-minded son for a puppet show. The spider 
is to be the villain. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:30 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 
( Continued on page 134) 


1955] 


Alexander: Tipulhle 


111 


RECORDS AND DESCRIPTIONS OF NEOTROPICAL 
CRANE-FLIES (TIPULID^E, DIPTERA), XXIX 

By Charles P. Alexander 
Amherst, Massachusetts 

The present article continues the series of reports on tropical 
American crane-flies, the preceding part having been published 
in the Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 62 : 139- 
152 ; 1954. At this time I am considering chiefly species from 
Peru, collected by Senor Luis E. Pena and by Felix Woytkowski, 
the latter assisted by his son George. A few further species from 
various sources are acknowledged in the text. I am greatly in- 
debted to all these entomologists and friends who have so con- 
tinued to enlarge our knowledge of the vast crane-fly fauna of 
the Neotropics. The types are preserved in my personal collec- 
tion of these flies. 

Genus Limonia Meigen 

Limonia (Dicranomyia) altandina new species 

General coloration gray, the praescutum with a broad median stripe; 
antennae black, the basal flagellar segments subglobular; wings whitish 
hyaline, unpatterned ; Sc relatively short, cell 1st M 2 closed; male hypo- 
pygium with the ventromesal lobe of the basistyle large, dark-colored; ven- 
tral dististyle complex in structure. 
male. Length about 6.5-7 mm.; wing 7. 5-8.5 mm. 
female. Length about 7-7.5 mm.; wing 7.S-8.5 mm. 

Eostrum brownish black; palpi black. Antennae black, scape weakly 
pruinose; basal flagellar segments subglobular to short-oval, the outer ones 
slightly longer, exceeding their verticils; terminal segment not or scarcely 
exceeding the penultimate in length. Head gray, the vertex with a more or 
less distinct A 'Shaped brown area; anterior vertex broad, nearly three 
times the diameter of the scape. 

Pronotum infuscated above, gray on sides. Mesonotum gray, the praescu- 
tum with a broad median brown stripe that is weakly split behind, the 
lateral stripes ill-defined; scutal lobes weakly patterned with brown; scu- 
tellum somewhat lighter gray. Pleura and pleurotergite clear light gray; 
dorsopleural membrane dusky. Halteres with stem yellow, clearest at base, 
knob dark brown. Legs with the coxae obscure yellow, sparsely pruinose; 
remainder of legs yellowish brown to brownish black, the outer segments 
darkest. Wings whitish hyaline, unpatterned; prearcular field more yel- 
lowed; veins brown. Venation: Sc relatively short, Sc t ending just before 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


to opposite origin of Rs, SCj^ alone approximately four-fifths Rs; cell 1st M 7 
closed, subequal to vein M^; m-cu slightly variable in position, from shortly 
before to beyond the fork of M. 

Abdomen dark brown, sparsely gray pruinose, in cases the lateral tergites 
bordered laterally by pale; hypopygium dark brown. Male hypopygium 
with the tergite transverse, the caudal margin with a small median notch 
and dorsal furrow, leaving two obtuse lobes; scattered elongate setae on 
posterior two-thirds of tergite, concentrated on the lobes. Basistyle rela- 
tively small, its ventromesal lobe large, dark-colored, provided with unusu- 
ally long and abundant setae ; on face of lobe at near midlength with a small 
accessory lobule. Dorsal dististyle a slender strongly curved sickle, very 
gradually narrowed to the tip. Ventral dististyle with the body relatively 
small; rostral prolongation a broadly flattened plate that is extended into 
two spines, the outer one from a larger basal tubercle, on lower face of 
prolongation with a small oval setiferous lobule; distad of base of prolonga- 
tion with a conspicuous dark-colored lobe, occupying the notch between the 
prolongation and the main body of the style, provided with abundant short 
setae; inner margin of style just cephalad of the rostral prolongation with 
a linear row of long strong setae. Gonapophysis with the mesal-apieal lobe 
slender, gently curved. 

Holotype, J', La Raya, Cuzco, Peru, 4300 meters, February 
21, 1950 (L. E. Pena). Allotopotype, J. Paratopotypes, sev- 
eral J' 5- 

From other generally similar regional forms that have the 
male hypopygium complicated by outgrowths, the present fly is 
most like Limonia ( Dicranomyia ) andinalta new species, and a 
few others, all well distinguished from one another by marked 
hypopygial characters. Other species, including L. ( D .) diura 
Alexander, L. ( D .) humerosa Alexander, and A. (D.) muliercula 
Alexander, have comparable yet entirely distinct male hypopygia. 

Limonia (Dicranomyia) andinalta new species 

General coloration light gray, the prsescutum with indications of two 
intermediate brown stripes; antennae black, the flagellar segments monili- 
form; anterior vertex broad; halteres pale; legs dark brown to brownish 
black; wings whitish subhyaline, without a stigmal darkening; male hypo- 
pygium very complex, especially the basistyle and ventral dististyle, which 
bear distinctive outgrowths and modifications; rostral spines two, powerful, 
more or less recurved. 

male. Length about 6-6.5 mm.; wing 7-7.5 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi black. Antennae black throughout, moniliform; flagel- 
lar segments subglobular, the outer ones passing into short-oval; terminal 
segment oval, only a trifle longer than the penultimate; segments exceeding 
the longest verticils. Head light gray, the center of vertex more infuscated ; 
anterior vertex relatively broad, nearly four times the diameter of the scape. 


1955] 


Alexander : Tipulid^e 


113 


Thorax gray, the praescutum with indications of two intermediate brown 
stripes, the usual lateral pair obsolete. Halteres pale. Legs with the coxae 
light gray; trochanters obscure yellow; remainder of legs dark brown to 
brownish black, the femoral bases obscure yellow. Wings whitish subhya- 
line, more yellowed at base; stigma lacking; veins brown. Venation: Sc 
short, Sc 2 ending a little before origin of Es, Sc 1 long, approximately two- 
thirds Es; cell 1st M 2 closed, open by atrophy of m in one wing of type; 
m-cu at fork of M ; vein 2nd A nearly straight. 

Abdomen dark gray; hypopygium dark brown. Male hypopygium very 
complex in structure. Ninth tergite transverse, strongly narrowed out- 
wardly, the caudal margin with two obtuse lobes that are separated by a 
V-shaped notch, the lobes with abundant long setae. Basistyle relatively 
small, its ventromesal lobe unusually large, the area exceeding that of the 
remainder of style, appearing as an elongate appendage that widens out- 
wardly, the apex pale, unequally bilobed; at near midlength of face of 
lobe with a low blackened lobule; mesal face of basistyle at apex with a 
further development of blackened lobes and points. Dorsal dististyle a 
moderately curved rod, the tip relatively short. Ventral dististyle large 
and complex, especially the rostral prolongation which is slightly dilated 
outwardly, the apex with a dense brush or comb of setae; face of prolonga- 
tion beyond the spines more or less protuberant, blackened; rostral spines 
two, strong and powerful, from small tubercles, slightly recurved; from the 
base of style, lying between it and the basistyle a further conspicuous lobe 
that terminates in a dense brush of long yellow setae. GFonapophysis with 
the mesal-apical lobe slender, at apex curved to an acute point. Aedeagus 
relatively slender, glabrous. 

Holotype, La Raya, Cuzco, Peru, 4300 meters, February 
21, 1950 (L. E. Pena). Paratopotype, pinned with type. 

The most similar species is Limonia ( Dicranomyia ) altandina 
new species, with which it was associated in nature. The two flies 
are most readily told by the different structure of the male 
hypopygium. 

Limonia (Dicranomyia) clavistyla new species 

General coloration dark brown, pruinose, more heavily so on the thoracic 
pleura; halteres elongate; wings with a strong dusky ground; basal section 
of vein E J+5 long, approximately four-fifths Es ; inner end of cell 1st M 0 
arcuated; male hypopygium with the main body of the ventral dististyle 
a long clavate lobe, constricted at near midlength, the outer half more 
darkened. 

male. Length about 6.5 mm.; wing 6 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi black. Antennae black throughout; flagellar segments 
short-oval; verticils short. Head gray; anterior vertex relatively broad, 
nearly three times the diameter of the scape. 

Pronotum and mesonotum dark brown, sparsely pruinose; pleurotergite 
and pleura more heavily pruinose. Halteres long and slender, blackened. 


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[Yol. LXIII 


Legs with the coxae brownish testaceous; trochanters obscure yellow; re- 
mainder of legs blackened, the femoral bases restrictedly paler. Wings with 
a strong dusky tinge, the stigma scarcely indicated; prearcular and costal 
fields a very little more yellowed; veins brown. Venation: Sc t ending 
opposite origin of Rs, Sc 1 alone from two-thirds to three-fourths Rs; free 
tip of Sc 2 and R 2 in transverse alignment, both pale; basal section of R^ +5 
long, approximately four-fifths to five-sixths Rs ; inner end of cell 1st M' 2 
produced basad, arcuated; m-cu at fork of M. 

Abdomen elongate, tergites black, their caudal borders very narrowly 
pale; basal sternites obscure brownish yellow, the outer segments and hypo- 
pygium blackened; ventral dististyle paler. Male hypopygium with the 
tergite generally transverse-oval in outline, with both the caudal and cephalic 
borders convex; several strong setae on posterior half of tergite. Basistyle 
darkened; ventromesal lobe complex, stout, bearing on its face near base 
an even longer but more slender darkened lobe, this with a linear series of 
about five very powerful fasciculate setae. Dorsal dististyle a nearly straight 
slender rod, the apex very suddenly narrowed, extended at a right angle 
into a straight spine. Ventral dististyle very deeply divided, the main body 
a long clavate lobe, constricted at near midlength, the outer half more dark- 
ened; rostral portion of style complex, the basal half or more enlarged, 
the shorter slender apex beginning opposite the spines; in the notch at base 
of prolongation an oval lobe that bears numerous long scattered setae; lower 
edge of enlarged part of rostrum bearing a small dark-colored lobe. Gona- 
popliysis with mesal-apical lobe relatively slender, the tip acute, the margin 
back from tip coarsely roughened or erose. 

Holotype, Chinchao, Huanuco, Peru, on wooded hills, 2500 
meters, September 22, 1947 (George Woytkowski). 

The present fly is related to species such as Limonia ( Dicrano - 
myia) apposita Alexander, L. ( D .) boliviana Alexander, L. ( D .) 
malitiosa Alexander, L. (D.) muliercula Alexander, and some 
others, differing especially in the distinctive male hypopygium, 
particularly the clavate lobe of the ventral dististyle. 

Limonia (Dicranomyia) penana new species 

General coloration gray, the praescutum gibbous; antennae black; halteres 
black, the base of stem vaguely paler; wings narrow, subhyaline, unpat- 
terned; Sc relatively long, SCj ending a short distance beyond origin of 
Rs, Sc 1 long; cell M 2 open by the atrophy of m ; m-cu at or close to fork of 
M ; male hypopygium moderately complex in structure; a single rostral spine. 
male. Length about 6 mm.; wing 7 mm. 
female. Length about 6.5 mm.; wing 7.5 mm. 

Bostrum dark brown on dorsal surface, paling to light yellow beneath; 
palpi black. Antennae black, scape pruinose ; basal flagellar segments short- 
oval, the outer ones more elongate, the terminal one only slightly exceeding 
the penultimate; verticils shorter than the segments. Head brownish gray, 


1955] 


Alexander: Tipulid^ 


115 


•clearer gray behind, with indications of a still darker median vitta; ante- 
rior vertex of male narrow, of female broader, approximately three times 
the diameter of the scape. 

Pronotum above brownish gray, clearer on sides. Mesonotal prsescutum 
high and gibbous, dark gray, the usual stripes more infuscated to produce 
a vaguely patterned appearance; posterior selerites of notum brown, the 
central area of the scutum and scutellum light gray, the latter very flat; 
mediotergite gray, conspicuously patterned with darker. Pleura chiefly light 
gray, the ventral sternopleurite slightly darker. Halteres black, the base 
of stem narrowly and vaguely paler. Legs with the coxae dark brown, 
especially the fore pair, pruinose; trochanters obscure yellow; femora light 
brown, tibiae somewhat darker, especially at tips; tarsi brownish black. 
Wings narrow, whitish subhyaline, unpatterned, the base and costal margin 
slightly more yellowed; veins brown, those in the yellowed parts, together 
with M, paler. Venation: Sc relatively long, Sc 1 ending a short distance 
beyond origin of Rs, at near one-fifth the length of the vein, Sc 1 long; cell 
M a open by atrophy of m; cell M s subequal in length to its petiole; m-cu 
at or close to fork of M ; vein 2nd A evenly and gently convex, the cell of 
moderate width. 

Abdomen dark brown, sternites a trifle paler. Ovipositor with cerci very 
weak and slender, decurved (possibly a deformity of the type) ; hypovalvae 
strong, straight. Male hypopygium with the ninth tergite transverse, the 
caudal margin convexly rounded, with a narrow median incision, the lobes 
blackened, provided with numerous long yellow setae. Basistyle with the 
ventromesal lobe long and conspicuous, nearly as large as the body of style, 
bearing a small setiferous lobule on outer face near midlength. Dorsal 
dististyle a strongly curved pale sickle, the tip acute. Ventral dististyle 
with the body relatively small, only about two-thirds that of the comparable 
part of the basistyle, dark-colored; rostral prolongation large and power- 
ful, bearing a strong spine on outer margin at near midlength, arising from 
a strong basal tubercle that exceeds one-third the length of the spine. 
Oonapophysis with mesal-apical lobe pale, gently curved to the acute tip. 

Holotype, El Cuzco, Cuzco, Peru, February 28, 1950 (L. E. 
Pena). Allotype, J, La Raya, Cuzco, 4300 meters, February 21, 
1950 (L. E. Pena). 

Limonia ( Dicranomyia ) penana is named in honor of the col- 
lector, Senor Luis E. Pena, to whom I am indebted for very many 
Tipulidae from Bolivia, Peru and Chile. The allotype was associ- 
ated in nature with L. ( D .) altandina new species, L. (D.) 
andinalta new species, and L. ( D .) anax Alexander. In the wing 
shape and venation, the fly suggests the wide-spread Holarctic 
L. (L>.) longipennis (Schummel) but there evidently is no close 
affinity, the male hypopygium being entirely different and more 
suggestive of the associated species above mentioned. 


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New York Entomological Society 


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Limonia (G-eranomyia) macrauchenia new species 

Mesonotal praescutum gray with five dark brown stripes; femora obscure 
yellow with a dark brown subterminal ring; wings whitish subhyaline with 
a relatively heavy brown pattern; Sc 1 ending about opposite one-third 
the length of Es ; male hypopygium with the ventral dististyle large and 
fleshy, its area exceeding three times that of the basistyle ; rostral prolonga- 
tion slender, with a conspicuous basal or necklike portion before the spines; 
the latter long and slender, arising from the summit and side of a sclero- 
tized caplike plate. 

male. Length, excluding rostrum, about 7 mm.; wing 8 mm.; rostrum 
about 3.3 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi black, the former long, nearly one-half the remainder 
of body. Antennae with scape and pedicel black, flagellum dark brown; 
flagellar segments suboval to subcylindrical, longer than the verticils; ter- 
minal segment about one-third longer than the penultimate. Head light 
gray, the posterior vertex with two blackened lines delimiting a median 
vitta, the latter subequal in width to the anterior vertex. 

Pronotum buffy, patterned with dark brown, scutellum more brightened. 
Mesonotal praescutum light gray with five dark brown stripes, the central 
three narrow, a trifle wider than the gray interspaces; sublateral dark 
stripes beginning behind the obscure yellow humeral triangles, the extreme 
lateral borders blue-gray; posterior sclerites of notum dark gray, each 
scutal lobe with a semicircular dark border; posterior part of mediotergite 
with a pair of more brownish areas. Pleura and pleurotergite dark gray, 
dorsal sternopleurite light brown; dorsopleural membrane buffy. Halteres 
with stem pale yellow, knob dark brown. Legs with coxae dark brown, paler 
at tips ; trochanters yellow ; femora obscure yellow with a dark brown sub- 
terminal ring, this a little broader than the yellow apex; tibiae yellowish 
brown, tarsi passing into black; claws long and slender, a single well- 
developed tooth nearly basal in position. Wings whitish subhyaline, the 
costal interspaces more yellowed; a relatively heavy brown pattern, as fol- 
lows: A series of five darker costal areas, the third a major common one 
over origin of Es and fork Sc; fourth area stigmal, not confluent with a 
spot over fork of Es; other dark brown seams over cord and outer end of 
cell 1st M 2 ; paler brown marginal clouds at ends of veins, those on the 
anals large ; wing apex and cell M vaguely suffused ; veins yellow, darker in 
the patterned parts. Venation: >8c i ending about opposite one-third the 
length of Es, Sc 0 at its tip; Es nearly three times m-cu ; r-m much reduced 
by the approximation of veins M 1 + 2 and E^ + 5 ; m-cu shortly before fork of M. 

Abdomen, including hypopygium, dark brown, the incisures slightly paler. 
Male hypopygium with the ninth tergite transverse, narrowed posteriorly, 
the caudal margin with two rounded lobes that are separated by a narrower 
median notch; margins of lobes thickened or sclerotized, provided with 
numerous setae that are virtually restricted to the thickened borders. Basi- 
style with its ventromesal lobe large, obtuse, unmodified. Dorsal dististyle 
a gently curved rod, its tip extended into a straight spine. Ventral disti- 
style large and fleshy, its area exceeding three times the total area of the 


1955] 


Alexander : Tipulid^e 


117 


basistyle; rostral prolongation slender, especially the neck portion; spines 
from a sclerotized plate or cap, long and slender, straight, subequal in 
length but with one arising from the summit, the other from the face of the 
cap and thus appearing unequal. Gonapophysis with the mesal-apical lobe 
appearing as a slender curved terete spine, its tip acute. 

Holotype, J', Chinchao, Huanuco, Peru, on wooded hills at 
2500 meters, September 13, 1947 (George Woytkowski). 

The present fly is closest to Limonia ( Geranomyia ) destricta 
Alexander, differing in the coloration of the body and legs and 
in the structure of the male hypopygium, particularly the ventral 
dististyle. 

Limonia (Geranomyia) oneris new species 

Size medium (wing, male, over 7 mm.) ; praescutum gray, with three 
narrow dark brown stripes on disk, additional to the less evidently darkened 
lateral borders; femora infuscated, deepening to a broad black subterminal 
ring; wings grayish subhyaline, patterned with brown; male hypopygium 
with the basistyle small, its area about two-fifths that of the ventral disti- 
style; rostral prolongation short, the two long slender spines arising from 
a low common tubercle; mesal-apical lobe of gonapophysis long and slender, 
pale. 

male. Length, excluding rostrum, about 7.5 mm.; wing 7.2 mm.; rostrum 
about 3.2 mm. 

Rostrum elongate, about two-fifths the wing, black throughout. Antennae 
black; flagellar segments oval, verticils inconspicuous. Head light gray; 
posterior vertex extensively blackened on either side of the median ground 
line. 

Pronotum gray, with three darker areas. Mesonotal praescutum gray, the 
broad lateral borders more infuscated; disk with three narrow still darker 
stripes that are wider than the interspaces, the central one not quite reach- 
ing the suture; humeral region of praescutum restrictedly more yellowed; 
scutum dark gray, each lobe with a semicircular more blackened mark, the 
opening behind ; scutellum testaceous brown, narrowly more infuscated 
medially; postnotum dark gray. Pleura chiefly brownish black, pruinose; 
dorsal sternopleurite somewhat paler; dorsopleural region more buffy; 
region of the wing base reddened. Halteres with stem light yellow, knob 
brownish black. Legs with the coxae dark brown, sparsely pruinose, the tips 
pale; trochanters yellow; femora infuscated, deepening to a broad more 
blackened subterminal ring, this about three times the yellow tip; tibiae and 
tarsi brown, the outer segments of the latter brownish black. Wings pale 
grayish subhyaline, restrictedly patterned with medium brown, as follows: 
Stigma; a virtually common spot at fork of Sc and origin of Es ; supernu- 
merary crossvein in cell Sc; cord and outer end of cell 1st M 2 , and arculus; 
small paler marginal clouds at ends of certain of the longitudinal veins, 
largest and most evident on the Anal veins; veins brownish yellow, pale 
brown in the patterned areas. Venation: Sc 1 ending about opposite one- 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


third the length of Bs, Sc 2 near its tip; distal section of B^ +5 arcuated on 
basal third, slightly widening the cell; cell 1st M 2 subequal in length to 
distal section of vein M 3 ; m-cu 3lose to fork of M. 

Abdomen dark brown. Male hypopygium with the tergite relatively long, 
narrowed outwardly, the posterior border with a U-shaped notch; lateral 
lobes with long setae, some continued along the outer border to the base. 
Basistyle relatively small, its area about two-fifths that of the ventral dis- 
tistyle, the ventromesal lobe simple, slightly narrowed or constricted at 
base. Dorsal dististyle a gently curved rod, the tip acute. Ventral disti- 
style with the rostral prolongation short, with two long slender spines from 
a low common tubercle, one of the spines from a small further enlargement. 
Gonapophysis with mesal-apical lobe long and slender, pale, gently curved 
to the narrow obtuse tip. 

Holotype, J 1 , Sariapampa, Huanuco, Peru, 3600 meters, May 
12, 1946 (Felix Woytkowski). 

Although it bears a resemblance to Limonia ( Geranomyia ) 
amoenalis Alexander, the present fly differs in all details of col- 
oration and especially in the structure of the male hypopygium. 

Limonia (Geranomyia) stenoleuca new species 

Mesonotum and dorsal half of pleura black, the ventral pleurites abruptly 
yellow ; rostrum elongate, nearly two-thirds the body or wing ; femora yellow, 
the tips conspicuously blackened; fore and middle tarsi extensively whitish 
yellow, the posterior pair snowy white, not dilated; wings with a strong 
blackish tinge, the prearcular border and narrow costal field whitened, the 
color not involving the radial cells; Sc short, SCj ending opposite one-third 
to nearly one-half Bs; abdominal tergites black, sternites abruptly yellow. 
female. Length, excluding rostrum, about 7.5-8 mm.; wing 7.5-8 mm.; 
rostrum about 5-5.2 mm. 

Rostrum elongate, nearly two-thirds the body or wing, black, the tips of 
the labial palpi slightly paler. Antennae black; flagellar segments long- 
cylindrical; verticils of the intermediate segments unilaterally distributed, 
exceeding the segments. Head with the front and anterior vertex pale, the 
color continued backward over the center of the posterior vertex as a 
capillary pale line, the remainder brownish black. 

Pronotum brown. Mesonotum almost uniformly brownish black, the 
humeral region of the praescutum restrictedly more reddish ; posterior 
sclerites, especially the posterior border of scutellum and suture of the post- 
notum paler. Dorsal region of pleura similarly polished black, the ventral 
pleura and sternum abruptly yellow. Halteres with stem brown, paler at 
base, knob blackened. Legs with all coxae and trochanters light yellow; 
femora yellow, the tips conspicuously blackened, the amount subequal on all 
legs; tibiae brown, the tips narrowly more darkened; fore and middle tarsi 
pale yellow or whitish yellow, the terminal segment blackened, posterior 
tarsi snowy white but not dilated as in some other more or less similar 
regional species; outer tarsal segments of posterior legs broken. Wings 


1955] 


Alexander : Tipulid^e 


119 


with a strong blackish tinge, the prearcular field and narrow costal border 
white, the latter including cells C and Sc, together with Sc lf the pale color 
not crossing vein R; stigma oval, darker brown; vague to scarcely evident 
darker seams at origin of Rs and over the cord; veins brown, not conspic- 
uously paler in the whitened parts. Venation: Sc short, Sc 1 ending about 
opposite one-third to nearly one-half Rs, Sc 2 near its tip; supernumerary 
crossvein in cell Sc at near one-third the distance between h and the origin 
of Rs; free tip of Sc 2 and R 2 in approximate transverse alignment; cell 
1st M 2 long, subequal to vein M 1+2 beyond it; m-cu at or shortly beyond the 
fork of M. 

Abdominal tergites brownish black to black, sternites abruptly yellow; 
genital shield blackened; both cerci and hypovalvae yellow, the bases of the 
latter extensively blackened. 

Holotype, J, Fundo Sinchono, Huanuco, 1600 meters, August 
5, 1947 (J. M. Schunke). Paratopotype, on pin beneath the 
holotype. 

From the other regional species having whitened posterior 
tarsi, including Limonia ( Geranomyia ) lacteitarsis Alexander, 
L. (G.) luteimcona Alexander, and L. (G.) pallidapex Alexander, 
the present fly differs very evidently in the wing pattern, espe- 
cially the marked reduction of the pale costal border. The tarsi 
are slender, not more or less dilated as in the species above listed. 

Limonia (G-eranomyia) yunquensis new species 

Size small (wing of male 4.5 mm.) ; rostrum about one-third the length 
of wing; mesonotal prsescutum olive yellow with three poorly indicated more 
blackish stripes that are narrower than the interspaces; pleura obscure 
yellow; knobs of halteres blackened; legs medium brown, the outer tarsal 
segments darker; wings subhyaline, very restrictedly patterned with darker, 
including two costal areas additional to the stigma, including a common 
mark over the fork of Sc and origin of Rs ; Sc 2 ending just beyond origin 
of Rs; male hypopygium with the dorsal dististyle extended into a long 
straight apical spine; rostral prolongation of ventral dististyle obtuse at 
tip, the two rostral spines subequal, straight, from very low contiguous 
basal tubercles; mesal-apical lobe of gonapophysis heavily blackened, 
broad at tip, the outer angle pointed. 

male. Length, excluding rostrum, about 4 mm.; wing 4.5 mm.; rostrum 
about 1.5 mm. 

Bostrum relatively short, less than one-half the remainder of body, black 
throughout; palpi black. Antennae black; flagellar segments oval, terminal 
one pointed. Head black, with a continuous silvery median vitta from the 
narrow anterior vertex to the occiput. 

Pronotum infuscated. Mesonotum obscure olive yellow, with three poorly 
indicated more blackish stripes that are narrower than the interspaces; 
median stripe broader and more clearly delimited than the laterals; scutal 


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[Vol. LXIII 


lobes weakly infuscated; scutellum obscure yellow, parascutella darker; 
postnotum darkened medially, paling to obscure brownish yellow on sides, 
pleurotergite concolorous. Pleura obscure yellow, propleura slightly darker. 
Halteres with stem weakly darkened, knob blackened. Legs with the coxae 
and trochanters yellow; remainder of legs medium brown, the outer tarsal 
segments darker, tibiae not darkened at tips. Wings subhyaline, very 
restrictedly patterned with darker, including the subcircular brown stigma 
and two small spots over the supernumerary crossvein in cell Sc and a 
common area over the origin of Bs and fork of Sc, the two latter very faint 
and indicated chiefly by a darkening of the veins; anterior cord even less 
distinctly seamed with brown; veins brown. Venation: Sc short, Sc 2 ending 
just beyond origin of Bs, Sc 2 opposite or immediately before this origin; 
Bs long, about two and one-half times the basal section of B ; cell 1st M 
subequal in length to vein M J+2 beyond it ; m-cu immediately before fork of 
M, subequal in length to the distal section of Cu 1 ; cell 2nd A narrow, its 
outer end pointed. 

Abdominal tergites dark brown, sternites paler; hypopygium infuscated. 
Male hypopygium with the tergite transverse, the caudal margin shallowly 
emarginate, lateral lobes low, provided with numerous long coarse setae. 
Basistyle with ventromesal lobe oval, with coarse setae, at its junction with 
the main body of the style with a small lobule that is provided with about 
six strong setae. Dorsal dististyle strong, the apex drawn out into a long 
straight spine. Ventral dististyle relatively large, its total area nearly 
three times that of the basistyle; rostral prolongation relatively stout, the 
tip obtuse; two rostral spines that are a little longer than the prolongation 
beyond their bases; spines arising from very low tubercles that are placed 
close together and virtually contiguous. Gonapophysis with the mesal-apical 
lobe heavily blackened, the broad tip with the outer angle pointed. Aedea- 
gus with the outer lateral angles terminating in an acute pale spinous point. 

Holotype, q, El Yunque, Puerto Rico, in Sierra Palm forest, 
November 27, 1943 (Harry D. Pratt and Jenaro Maldonado 
Capriles). 

This small fly is most similar to Limonia ( Geranomyia ) subre- 
cisa Alexander, differing therefrom in the coloration of the body 
and wings and in the details of structure of the male hypo- 
pygium, especially the dististyles and gonapophysis. 

Genus Sigmatomera Osten Sacken 

Sigmatomera (Sigmatomera) felix new species 

General coloration of entire body fulvous yellow, the thorax polished, 
unpatterned; antennal flagellum very strongly binodose; knobs of halteres 
dark brown; femora obscure yellow, the tips brownish black; wings yellow, 
very restrictedly patterned with brown, including a narrow darker band at 
cord and the axillary region; B 2+3+u and B 3+i subequal; veins B 3 and B u 


1955] 


Alexander: Tipulid^e 


121 


diverging at outer ends; cell M 2 open by atrophy of basal section of M 3 . 
male. Length about 8 mm.; wing 9 mm.; antenna about 5.9 mm. 

Rostrum brownish yellow; first segment of palpi obscure yellow, the outer 
segments brown. Antennae with scape short, brownish yellow, darker out- 
wardly; remainder of antennae black; basal flagellar segments of the 
normal Sigmatomera type, very strongly sinuously binodose, less accentuated 
on the outer segments. Head polished fulvous, with a narrow black trans- 
verse band across the cephalic part of the posterior vertex, extending from 
behind the eyes, completely crossing the vertex; anterior vertex narrowed, 
.about two-thirds the diameter of the scape. 

Thorax uniformly fulvous yellow, polished, without pattern. Halteres 
with stem yellow, knob dark brown. Legs with all coxae and trochanters 
yellow; femora obscure yellow, the tips conspicuously brownish black, more 
intense immediately back from apex; tibiae brownish yellow, the tips nar- 
rowly infuscated; tarsi brownish black to black. Wings yellow, the prearcu- 
lar and costal regions more saturated; a restricted brown pattern, including 
a narrow darker band at cord, at its cephalic end involving the tips of Sc 
and E 1+2 in a Y-shaped fork, the posterior end of the band a little expanded 
and paler; axillary region extensively darkened; small and vague clouds 
at fork of M 1+2 and at tips of outer medial veins; a scarcely apparent cloud- 
ing in outer radial field ; veins yellow, darker in the patterned areas. 
Yenation: Es relatively short, straight; E 2 + 3 + ^ subequal to E 3 + u , E 2 thus 
far before the fork; cell E 3 not as deep as in amazonica, veins E 3 and E ; 
more divergent at outer ends, cell E 2 at margins being only about one-half 
more extensive than cell E s ; cell M z open, cell 2nd M 2 about as long as its 
petiole. 

Abdomen opaque yellow, the posterior borders of the tergites narrowly 
infuscated; hypopygium relatively large, brown. 

Holotype, <$, Santa Isabel, Cnzco, Peru, 1700 meters, December 
5, 1951 (Felix Woytkowski). 

This distinct fly is named in honor of the collector, Mr. Felix 
Woytkowski, outstanding student of the flora and fauna of Peru. 
The only other described species of the genus having cell M 2 of 
the w T ings open is Sigmatomera ( Sigmatomera ) amazonica West- 
wood, of Amazonian Brazil, which differs conspicuously in the 
black thorax, heavily patterned wings, and distinct venational 
details. 

Genus Erioptera Meigen 

Erioptera (Mesocyphona) celestior new species 

Belongs to the dulcis group; size relatively large (wing of female 5.4 
mm.) ; general coloration of praescutum light gray with four very distinct 
brownish black stripes; scutellum obscure yellow; pleura black with a broad 
whitish longitudinal stripe; knobs of halteres weakly infuscated; femora 
yellow, with a broad black subterminal ring; wings dark brown, variegated 


122 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


with about a dozen large white spots, with relatively few small white dots 

in the medial and cubital fields. 

female. Length about 4.6 mm.; wing 5.4 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi black. Antennae with the scape black, the succeeding 
segments obscure yellow, outer flagellar segments passing into black; flagel- 
lar segments oval. Head buffy above, more grayish beneath. 

Pronotum variegated obscure yellow and black ; pretergites narrowly 
whitened. Mesonotal praescutum with the ground light gray, with four very 
distinct brownish black stripes, the intermediate pair separated by a much 
narrower line, the outer pair lateral in position, humeral region more buffy; 
scutum variegated black and buffy; scutellum obscure yellow; postnotum 
black. Pleura and pleurotergite black with a broad whitish longitudinal 
stripe. Halteres with stem white, knob Aveakly infuscated. Legs with the 
coxae infuscated; trochanters yellow; femora obscure yellow, with a broad 
black subterminal ring, preceded and followed by narrower clear yellow 
annuli; basal and central parts of femora slightly infuscated, this color 
produced by very abundant linear scales and fewer setae; tibiae and tarsi 
light yellow, the tips of the latter infuscated. Wings with the ground dark 
brown, variegated by about a dozen large white spots, arranged about as 
in members of the dulcis group, together with slightly more numerous 
smaller white dots in the medial and cubital fields; proximal half of the 
costal field more brownish yellow; central part of cell 2nd A a little 
brightened; veins brown, white in the spotted areas. Venation: R 2+3+Jt 
rather strongly elevated, about twice the basal section of cell 2nd M' 0 
nearly twice its petiole. 

Abdomen dark brown ; cerci elongate, dark brown basally, paling to 
horn-yellow outwardly. 

Holotype, J, Cerro Punta, Chiriqui, Panama, 6000 feet, Octo- 
ber 1953 (Noel L. H. Krauss). 

This attractive fly is most similar to Erioptera ( Mesocyphona ) 
venustipes Alexander, differing conspicuously in the pattern of 
the legs and wings. The combination of spotted and dotted white 
markings on the w T ing give the fly a distinctive facies. 


1955] 


De Coursey & Webster: Decompression 


123 


STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF DECOMPRESSION ON 

CERTAIN INSECTS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE 
TO ANOPHELES QUADRIMACULATUS SAY 
AND AEDES SOLLICITANS WALKER 1 

By J. D. De Coursey 2 and A. P. Webster 3 
Department of Entomology 
Naval Medical Field Research Laboratory 
Camp Lejeune, North Carolina 

INTRODUCTION 

Studies on the reaction of insects to varying reduced baro- 
metric pressures may lead to a better understanding of their 
tolerance to high altitudes. This may aid in the determination 
of the insects of medical importance that can be transported 
alive in non-pressurized portions of high flying aircraft. 

Back and Cotton (1925) studied the effect of a vacuum vary- 
ing from 26 to 29 inches of mercury on the immature and adult 
forms of insect pests of stored products at 60 to 70 degrees 
Fahrenheit. The majority of the adults were killed by an ex- 
posure of one day, one species required two days and another 
four. Stemler and Hiestand (1951) observed that a tolerance 
to anoxia is formed by insects following repeated, rapid (“ ex- 
plosive’’) decompression. Working with five orders of insects 
they found that all adult species showed some tolerance with 
the second decompression. Tolerance occurred if the interval 
between the first and second decompression was ten minutes or 
several hours. Wellington (1946) has studied the reaction of 
flies at low pressure and simulated storm pressures. 

The purpose of the present study was to determine the mortal- 
ity curve of mosquitoes exposed to decompression at various 

1 The authors wish to express their appreciation to E. R. Babcock ; Miss E. 
McIntosh; LCDR M. R. Lewis, MSC, USN; LTJG R. H. Kathan, MSC, 
USN; J. G. Doub, HM1, USNR; H. G. Amerine, TSgt, USMC; H. C. Larue, 
Jr., HM2, USN; C. J. Harris, HM3, USN; R. W. Gay, HA, USNR; and L. 
L. Buck, HN, USNR, for their kind assistance in the conduct of this study. 

2 CDR MSC USN. 

3 CDR MSC USN, Deputy Director, Aviation Medical Acceleration Lab- 
oratory, Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, Pa. 

This work is not to be construed as necessarily reflecting the views of the 
Department of the Navy. 


124 


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New York Entomological Society 


[VOL. LXIII 


pressure altitudes, as well as observations on their reactions to 
such treatment. 

MATERIALS 

The strain of Anopheles quadrimaculatus used was obtained 
through the courtesy of the Orlando Florida Laboratory of the 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. The colony was reared through many genera- 
tions before experiments were initiated. The eggs were placed 
on the surface of tap water containing brewers’ yeast and brain 
heart infusion. Three days after the eggs hatched, the larvae 
were placed in 8 by 12 inch stainless steel pans, 200 per pan, and 
fed measured amounts of commercial dog food twice daily for 
the production of a uniform stock for test purposes. The colony 
was maintained in a constant temperature room at 85° F. with 
the humidity at 55 to 60 per cent. The adults were provided un- 
diluted honey in screened Stender dishes, five per cent dextrose 
solution on cotton wicks, and beginning at the age of three to 
five days, daily blood meals from a guinea pig. The rearing 
technique was similar to that of Heal and Pergrin (1945). The 
ages of the test insects varied from day to day, but similar age 
groups were used in all tests. It was found that vitality was 
lost after 14 days and adults above this age were generally un- 
suitable for tests. 

The Aedes sollicitans adults were collected in the field and 
utilized for tests. 

PROCEDURE 

The adult female mosquitoes were removed from screened 
cages with a suction tube and placed in an altitude chamber for 
observation at various simulated pressure altitudes. For obser- 
vation of the reaction of insects to various altitude levels, the alti- 
tude chamber developed by Perry and Webster (1950) was uti- 
lized. For extensive mortality tests the equipment was enlarged 
and modified to provide five chambers which were evacuated by a 
vacuum pump running continuously. Varied amounts of vacuum 
were maintained by adjusting an air bleeder valve located be- 
tween a calibrated gauge and the vacuum pump. By this system 
a given vacuum could be maintained without variation for eight 
or more hours. 


1955] 


De Coursey & Webster: Decompression 


125 


Ten adult females picked at random from the rearing cage 
were placed in each of the five chambers and raised rapidly to 
the desired mercury level. Thirty tests, involving 300 insects, 
were made for each one-half inch rise of mercury from 19 to 28.5 
inches. The tests were run for eight hours at a temperature of 
80° + -2°. After eight hours the mosquitoes were removed 
from the chambers by suction tube a few at a time to avoid injury. 
They were placed in groups of ten in 1,000 ml. beakers covered 
with 20 mesh copper screen, and fed five per cent dextrose solu- 
tion in cotton wicks lying over the tops of the screens. The liv- 
ing insects were determined after 16 hours using a criterion of 
any visible movement of an appendage upon disturbance. 

OBSERVATIONS OF REACTIONS OF INSECTS DURING 
ASCENTS AND DESCENTS 

Aedes sollicitans 

In order to observe the reactions of mosquitoes during the 
ascent to altitude and the subsequent descent, Aedes sollicitans 
was selected because of its relatively large size. Altitudes were 
measured as inches of Hg vacuum. Five vigorous field collected 
adult females were placed in the chamber for observation and 
raised an inch at a time at three-minute intervals to 28.5 inches 
of mercury. After three minutes at 28.5, they were returned to 
normal pressure at one-minute intervals. The results are given 
in Table 1. 

Following recompression, the insects were removed from the 
chamber and placed in a beaker with five per cent dextrose as 
food. There was no mortality after 16 hours. During the de- 
compression the mosquitoes were apparently normal up to 13 
inches of mercury when they became quiet and a slight enlarge- 
ment of the abdomen was noted. The abdominal distention 
gradually increased through the steps to 22 inches, at which 
level it was equal to that of a fully engorged female (Fig. 1). 
At the highest level, 28.5 inches, all were on their backs and quiet. 
On the return down to normal the insects began to walk at 21 
inches of mercury and to fly at 18. They were apparently nor- 
mal at the levels from six to zero. 

Musca domestica 

For comparison, ten six-day old laboratory reared house flies 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Yol. LXIII 


were treated in exactly the same manner as the Aedes sollicitans 
above (See Table 2). 

The flies were apparently normal, flying in approximately the 


TABLE l 

Reactions of Aedes sollicitans Females During Ascent and Descent 


Inches 

Hg 

vacuum 

Simulated 

altitude 

(feet) 

Reaction 

1-12 

1,000-13,571 

Normal 

13 

15,000 

Quiet except when vigorously disturbed by tap- 
ping. Slight abdominal distention 

14-19 

16,500-25,400 

Occasional flying 

20 

27,500 

Walk when disturbed, no flying 

21 

29,900 

One on feet, others inverted, no walking on dis- 
turbance 

22—26 

32,500-47,250 

Quiet with greatly enlarged abdomens, slight leg 
movement when disturbed 

26-28 

47,250-62,200 

Vigorous leg and wing movement during each 
change of level 

28.5 

68,500 

All 5 inverted with abdomens greatly distended. 
Slight leg movement with vigorous tapping of 
chamber 

28 

62,200 

Leg movements when disturbed 

27 

53,400 

Vigorous movement of legs and wings when dis- 
turbed 

26 

47,250 

Flying attempts when disturbed 

25 

42,500 

Two on feet, wing movement on tapping 

24 

38,600 

Five on feet, fly or jump % inch in air when 
disturbed 

23 

35,400 

Five on feet, moderate abdominal distention 

22 

32,500 

Fly or jump % inch in air on disturbance 

21-19 

29,900-25,400 

Walk without being disturbed, fly on disturbance 

18 

23,286 

One flew to top of chamber, incoordinated flight 
in others when disturbed 

17-11 

21,473-12,143 

Walking, attempted flights 

10- 9 

10,364- 9,455 

Normal abdomen, 3 flew % inch on disturbance 

8- 7 

8,375- 7,222 

Attempts at flight, one flew to top of chamber 

6- 0 

6,111- 0 

All 5 apparently normal, abdomens normal 


same ranges as the mosquitoes (0-21 inches in mercury). There 
was no visible distention of the abdomens. At 28.5 inches Hg 
there was no movement visible and this remained true on the way 


1955] 


De Coursey & Webster : * Decompression 


127 


down to 26 inches when the first movement was observed. The 
insects began righting themselves at 24 inches and all were on 
their feet by 17 inches. All were apparently normal from 15 
inches on down. Sixteen hours after exposure, one fly was dead 
while the controls remained normal. 

It is evident from these tests that both Aedes sollicitans and 
Musca domestica females can withstand gradual decompression 



Dig. 1. Mosquitoes under decompression (note distended abdomens). 


to 28.5 inches of mercury and return to normal pressure without 
ill effects, that they seem to be not adversely affected by the 
ascent to from 19 to 21 inches, are relatively quiet at higher 
levels, and that the mosquitoes acquire greatly distended abdo- 
mens at extremely low pressures. The two insects vary in ability 
to withstand a high vacuum sustained over a period of time. 
The flies were found to withstand 28.5 inches of mercury for one 
hour with no mortality 16 hours later. However, when ten field 
collected Aedes sollicitans were raised within 15 seconds to 28.5 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


inches of mercury for 30 minutes, then dropped suddenly to 
normal, 70 per cent were dead, 16 hours after exposure, while the 
controls remained normal. Within three minutes after decom- 
pression, all were quiet except for the slight movement of wings 
on one insect, and all abdomens were greatly distended. Upon 


TABLE 2 

Reactions of Musca domestica Adults During Ascent and Descent 


Inches 

Hg 

vacuum 

Simulated 

altitude 

(feet) 

Reaction 

1-15 

1,000-18,000 

Apparently normal, walking and flying 

16-21 

19,800-29,900 

Quiet, preening wings, flying on disturbance 

22 

32,500 

Quiet, 4 preening wings, do not fly on dis- 
turbance 

23 

35,400 

Three lying flat on ventral portion of thorax,. 
1 flew when disturbed 

24 

38,600 

One rubbing legs together, 2 attempting to fly, 
remainder, no noticeable movement on dis- 
turbance 

25 

42,500 

One walking, 4 moving legs 

26 

47,250 

Mouthparts moving in 1, no noticeable move- 
ment in remainder 

27-28.5 

53,400-68,500 

No movement on disturbance 

28-27 

62,200-53,400 

No movement 

26-25 

47,250-42,500 

One wing moved, right and left rear legs 
moved on 1 

24 

38,600 

One moving legs, one upright on feet 

23-21 

35,400-29,900 

Two on feet rubbing legs together 

20 

27,500 

Six on feet preening wings 

18 

23,286 

Eight on feet 

17 

21,470 

Ten on feet preening heads and wings 

16 

19,800 

One flew to top of chamber 

15- 0 

18,000- 0 

Normal 


sudden recompression to normal after 30 minutes, movement was 
noted in two insects immediately, but it was 14 minutes before 
five moved and two attempted flights. During one-hour ex- 
posure under the same conditions, there was great activity during 
decompression, but all were quiet in one minute. No movement 
was noted for six minutes when slight leg and proboscis move- 
ments were seen. At 14 minutes convulsive movements were seen 


1955] 


De Coursey & Webster: Decompression 


129 


in one mosquito. There was no movement immediately upon 
return to normal. Leg motion was noted in two insects after 
two minutes. Sixteen hours later, all were dead. 

ALTITUDE-MORTALITY DATA 
Anopheles quadrimaculatus 

Having studied the visible effect of decompression on mosqui- 
toes and flies, the altitude-mortality curve was determined for 
Anopheles quadrimaculatus. This species was chosen because of 
its connection with disease transmission. A constant exposure 
time of eight hours was chosen because initial tests indicated 
that the insects could withstand considerable decompression over 
this period of time. The gauge on the altitude chamber was 
calibrated with a mercury manometer, and the estimated altitude 
computed from the Standard Atmosphere Tables of Diehl (1925). 
Exposures were made for each one-half inch rise in mercury 
level from 19 to 28.5 inches. The results were combined for 
each one-inch rise for the data shown in Table 3. 


TABLE 3 

Tolerance of Anopheles quadrimaculatus to Decompression 
3,014 Females, 8 Hours’ Exposure 


Inches Hg 
vaeuum 

Simulated altitude 
(feet) 

Per cent 
dead 

19-19.5 

25,400-26,440 

17 ±3 

20-20.5 

27,500-28,700 

27 ±4 

21-21.5 

29,900-31,200 

37 ±5 

22-22.5 

32,500-33,800 

40 ±5 

23-23.5 

35,400-36,900 

46 ±7 

24-24.5 

38,600-40,460 

56 + 8 

25-25.5 

42,500-44,700 

71 ± 5 

26-26.5 

47,250-50,100 

87 ± 5 

27-27.5 

53,400-57,400 

96 ±2 

28-28.5 

62,200-68,500 

100 ! 

Controls 

Sea Level 

3 ± .1 


Three hundred tests averaging ten insects each were conducted 
(30 for each combined one-inch mercury level) utilizing a total 
of 3,014 insects. The controls contained 73 units of ten insects 
each. Mortality based on the vast visible movement of an insect’s 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


appendage 16 hours after exposure, ranged from 17 per cent at 
19-19.5 inches of mercury to 100 at 28-28.5 inches. From the 
smooth curve, the 50 per cent mortality point occurred at 36,800 
feet corresponding to approximately 23.5 inches of vacuum. The 
altitude mortality curve is shown in Figure 2. On the basis of 
recovery over a period of 24 hours, however, 100 per cent mor- 
tality occurred at 26.5-27 inches of mercury with 98 per cent 
mortality occurring at 26 inches. It is therefore evident that 
very little ultimate survival occurs following eight hours’ decom- 
pression above this level. 

Since 26 inches of mercury appears to be the critical level for 
total mortality, ten Anopheles quadrimaculatus females, ten days 
old, were observed at this level for eight hours to determine their 
cumulative reactions. A summary of these observations is given 
in Table 4. 

Sixteen hours after exposure all were dead. The ten controls 
were normal. Table 4 shows that the mosquitoes retained some 

TABLE 4 

Reaction of Anopheles quadrimaculatus to Decompression 
(26 Inches Hg Vacuum) 


Time 

(minutes) 


Reaction 


1 

15- 75 

105 

135 

165-255 

285-345 

375-435 

465-480 

480 


Very ataxic immediately following decompression 
Two active, opening and closing wings rapidly, ataxic, one flew 
across chamber 

All quiet, one on back, all active when disturbed 

Three on backs, remainder very ataxic but active 

Five on backs, others quiet, unable to walk when disturbed 

Six to nine on backs, one attempted walking and flying, ataxic 

Nine to ten on backs, slight leg movement when disturbed 

Ten on backs, no movement 

Vacuum released, one righted itself immediately, one flew around 
chamber when disturbed, one moving legs, others immobile 


movement for seven-and-a-quarter hours at 26 inches of mercury 
vacuum and two were apparently normal immediately after ex- 
posure. However, they were apparently sufficiently affected to 
cause death in 16 hours. Subsequent tests (30, involving 300 
insects) at 26-26.5 inches of mercury indicated that this single 


1955J 


De Coursey & Webster: Decompression 


131 


test is not a true indication of mortality. The greater number 
of tests showed 87 per cent mortality in 16 hours increasing to 
98 per cent in 24 hours. 

Aedes sollicitans 

An altitude mortality test was run on Aedes sollicitans adult 
females under the same conditions described above for Anopheles 
quadrimacidatus except one-inch mercury intervals were used. 
This test was for comparison only and did not involve as many 
individuals (370 insects, 37 chambers of ten each). The results 
are given in Table 5 and shown diagrammatically in Fig. 3. 


TABLE 5 

Tolerance of Aedes sollicitans to Decompression 
370 Females, 8 Hours’ Exposure 


Inches Hg 
vacuum 

Simulated altitude 
(feet) 

Number 

females 

Per cent 
dead 

18.5 

24,400 

50 

6 ± 6 

21 

29,900 

50 

62 ±10 

22 

32,500 

50 

70 ± 7 

23 

35,400 

50 

80 ± 7 

24 

38,600 

30 

87 ± 6 

25 

42,500 

50 

92 ± 4 

26 

47,250 

50 

94 ± 3 

26.5 

50,100 

40 

100 

Controls 

Sea Level 

82 

9 ± 3 


These data indicate that Aedes sollicitans reaches 100 per cent 
mortality at 26.5 inches of mercury 16 hours after exposure. 
Anopheles quadrimacidatus reached this point 24 hours after 
exposure to 26.5-27 inches of mercury. It is probable that there 
is very little difference in the tolerance of these two species. 
With reference to simulated altitudes, it will be necessary to 
expose the insects to the approximate temperatures inherent at 
the various levels. The extreme temperatures at the high alti- 
tudes may lower the tolerance level considerably. On the other 
hand, lowered metabolism may somewhat increase tolerance. 

Cidex rest uans 

Field collected Culex restuans were exposed to decompression 
at 26 inches of mercury for eight hours at 78° F. Ten chambers 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. lx in 



FIGURE 2 Altitude- Mortolity Curve for Anopheles ouodrimoculotus 8 hour exposure 



Figure 3 Altitude -Mortolity Curve for Aedes solhcitons 8 hour exposure 


1955] 


De Coursey & Webster: Decompression 


133 


were utilized averaging 11 females per chamber. One hundred 
per cent mortality was attained 16 hours after completion of the 
exposure with three per cent mortality in the controls. This in- 
dicates that Culex restuans probably does not withstand decom- 
pression greater than the critical level for Anopheles quadri- 
maculatus and Aedes sollicitans. Sufficient tests were not made 
to give more than an indication on the tolerance of this species 
and the critical mortality level could conceivably be much lower. 

SUMMARY 

Observation of Aedes sollicitans adult females at various as- 
cending levels of decompression at room temperature showed 
gradual abdominal distention ultimately equaling that of a fully 
engorged female at 22 inches of mercury (32,500 feet). The 
insects w T ere immobile at 28.5 inches (68,500 feet) and inverted. 
On descending to normal, they began to walk at 21 inches of 
mercury (29,900 feet), to fly at 18 (23,280 feet), and were ap- 
parently normal at levels from six inches (6,100 feet) to zero. 

Houseflies acquired no abdominal distention at 28.5 inches of 
mercury (68,500 feet), were immobile from this level down to 
26 inches (47,250 feet), were on their feet at 17 inches (21,470 
feet), and were apparently normal from 15 inches (18,000 feet) 
down. Both the mosquitoes and flies withstood temporary de- 
compression to the above level without apparent injury. The 
flies withstood 28.5 inches of mercury (68,500 feet) for one hour, 
while after 30 minutes exposure there was 78 per cent mortality 
in the mosquitoes. 

Studies on the tolerance of Anopheles quadrimaculatus to eight 
hours’ exposure at various mercury levels indicated that at room 
temperature 100 per cent mortality occurred at 28 inches (62,200 
feet), based on the visible movements of appendages 16 hours 
after exposure, and based on recovery after 24 hours, at 26.5-27 
inches (50,100-53,400). Aedes sollicitans reached 100 per cent 
mortality at 26.5 inches (50,100 feet) indicating that there is 
probably very little difference in the tolerance of the two species 
of mosquitoes. It is possible that decompression to various levels 
together with the extremely low temperatures found at high alti- 
tudes may lower the tolerance level. On the other hand the re- 
sulting low metabolism may have a tendency to increase tolerance. 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Yol. lxiii 


References 

Back, E. A., and R. T. Cotton. 1925. The use of vacuum for insect control. 
J. Agric. Res. 31: 1035-1041. 

Diehl, W. S. 1925. Standard atmosphere — tables and data. National Ad- 
visory Committee for Aeronautics. Rep. No. 218. Washington, D. C. 

Deal, R. E., and M. M. Pergrin. 1945. A technique for laboratory rearing 
of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. N. J. Mosquito Extermination 
Assoc. Proc. 32: 105-112. 

Perry, W. J., and A. P. Webster. 1950. Simple high altitude observation 
chamber for the study of insect physiology. Mosquito News 10: 209-211. 

Stemler, F. W., and W. A. Hiestand. 1951. Rapid acclimatization of 
insects to anoxia with special reference to the housefly. Science 114: 
440-441. 

Wellington, W. G. 1946. Some reactions of muscoid Diptera to changes 
in atmospheric pressure. Canad. J. Res. 24: 105-117. 


( Continued from page 110) 

Minutes of meetings of May 5, 1953 and May 19, 1953 are not available. 

Meeting of October 6, 1953 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. President Clausen was in the chair. There were seven 
members and four guests present. 

Dr. Marion R. Smith of the Agricultural Research Service, Dept, of 
Agriculture, Washington 25, D.C. was proposed for membership. On mo- 
tion duly made and seconded, the By-Laws were suspended and Dr. Smith 
was duly elected. 

The meeting was devoted to the summer activities of the members. 

Dr. Clausen mentioned that Dr. Klots had been to Europe during the 
past summer and that he would be a speaker at some future date. She also 
mentioned a visit to Mrs. Mutchler who was much impressed by the article 
on Mr. Mutchler in a recent issue of the Journal. 

Dr. Vishniac called attention to the fact that his son, DeWolf Vishniac, 
had made some significant contributions to the mechanisms of photosynthe- 
sis. Dr. Vishniac then treated the Society to a description of his own ac- 
tivities both in the entomological and non-entomological fields of interest. 
With monotonous regularity it seems that Dr. Vishniac is called on to do 
the impossible. Among other things he was asked to photograph the facial 
expression of a dying mosquito. The high point of the evening was his 
description of the conflict between a reluctant sea bass and a squid fre- 
quently requiring artificial respiration. The sea bass ate the squid — the 
squid discharged its ‘ ‘ ink ’ ’ — the only victor, triumphant and unsullied 
was — Dr. Vishniac. 

Dr. Pohl spoke about fine collections of Coleoptera he had seen exhibited 
in France. At an exhibition there, he had also seen an excellent display of 
Lepidoptera of Madagascar. 

( Continued on page 137) 


1955] 


Barber: Cryphula 


135 


THE GENUS CRYPHULA STAL, WITH THE 
DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES 
(HETEROPTERA: LYGiEIDiE ) 

By Harry G. Barber 

Collaborator, Entomological Research Branch, 

Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture 

The genus Cryphula has a wide distribution in the Western 
Hemisphere. It was erected by Stal in 1874 to contain the single 
species par allelo gramma from Texas. Distant in 1882, not recog- 
nizing Stal’s genus, described three species under the generic 
name Trapezus. Only one species abortiva Barber has been 
added since, disregarding Distant’s affinis which is a synonym 
of his fasciata. Two new species are herewith added to the genus. 

Cryphula nitens, new species 

= apicatus Barber (not Distant) Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. Yol. 26, 63, 1918. 

Head, pronotum in part, scutellum and beneath, castaneous, highly 
polished ; antennae testaceous ; legs castaneous ; pronotum with narrow 
anterior, posterior, lateral margins and humeral angles ochraceous. 

Head one-third wider than long, impunctate. Antenna with the second 
and terminal segments subequal, third segment somewhat shorter than either 
the second or terminal segment, proportionate lengths of the segments: 
12:27:20:25; each segment with several long semi-erect setae, which are 
over twice as long as diameter of the segment. Pronotum much wider than 
long (65x35), sparsely punctate anteriorly, along the margins and on the 
posterior one-third; lateral margins with a few long setae, often abraded. 
Scutellum equilateral, very sparsely punctate with a series of punctures 
along the margins, extreme apex pale. Veins of corium obscurely pale, 
surface sparsely punctate. Occurs in both macopterous and brachypterous 
forms. 

Length 3.50 mm. 

Type: Male. San Diego, California, Mch. 22, 1928. H. G. 
Barber, United States National Museum Cat. No. 63245. Para- 
types, males and females ; California : 4 with the same data as 
type, 12 Mch. 24, 1928, Barber; 5 Jan. 30, Hubbard; 5 Pasadena, 
Mch. and Apr. 1928 and 1 Los Angeles, Mch. 30, 1928, Barber ; 
1 Los Angeles Co. Coquillette. 

Arizona : 17 Huachuca Mts., July 1905, under dead leaves, 


136 


New York Entomological Society 


[Yol. lxiii 


Barber; 1 Santa Rita Mts., July 20, 1932, Ball; 1 Sept. 20, 1936, 
Bryant ; 1 May 20, Schwarz ; 1 Chiricahna Mts., Sept. 5 and 1 
Ft, Grant July 23, Hubbard; 1 Atascosa Mts. Oct. 27, 1937, Ball 
and 1 Oct. 24, 1937, Oman. 

Utah : 9 Simpson Buttes, Dugway Co. Feb. 9, 1954, Gering ; 6 
Johnson’s Pass, Tooele Co. June 2, 1954 and 5 Whiskey Spg. 
Can. Tooele Co., June 18, 1954, Ashlock. 

Texas: 2 ‘‘Tex” Uhler collection. 

Idaho : 2 Kendrick, Aug. 13, 1938, Harris. 

C. nitens is most closely related to apicatus ( Dist. ) from which 
it differs in the coloration of the pronotum, less conspicuous 
veins of the corium and in having the antennae provided with 
several long, semi-erect setae. All of the specimens from Utah 
have the corium more fuscous than the California specimens. 

Cryphula subunicolor, new species 

Nearly uniformly colored, castaneous, surface duller than in the preceding 
species; narrow lateral margins of pronotum, corium, apex of scutellum,. 
connexivum, antennae and legs testaceous. 

Head smooth, impunctate, one fourth wider than long, preocular part equal 
to remainder. Antennae rather long and slender, second segment over twice 
as long as basal, and one-fourth longer than terminal, proportionate lengths 
of the segments, 15 : 40 : 25 : 30, each provided with a few long, semi-erect 
setae. Pronotum about one-third wider than long, sparsely punctate an- 
teriorly and on the posterior third. Scutellum but little longer than wide,, 
very sparsely punctate. Corium with veins concolorous, rather evenly 
coarsely punctate between median and claval vein, more sparsely punctate 
elsewhere. Membrane dark brown. Macropterous and brachypterous. 
Length 4 mm. 

Type : Male, Tucson Mts., Ariz., Jan. 1, 1936, 3500 ft. el., O. 
Bryant, United States National Museum Cat. No. 63246. Para- 
types, 2 with the same data as type, 1 “Ariz.”, Casey collection. 

Very easily distinguished from other members of the genus 
by reason of its nearly uniform, castaneous color. 

Key to Species of Cryphula 

1. Scutellum Avith three pale spots; antennas with long semi-erect setae 

2 

— Scutellum with only the apex pale; antennae without or with long erect 
setae 3 

2. Corium with a distinct transverse castaneous fascia on a pale surface or 
otherwise colored. Posterior margin of pronotum conspicuously pale 

(= affinis (Dist.)) trimaculata (Distant) 


1955] 


Barber: Cryphula 


137 


— Corium without conspicuous transverse fascia; posterior margin of 

pronotum inconspicuously pale parallelogramma Stal 

3. Corium with conspicuous transverse castaneous fascia; antennae without 

long setae fasciata (Distant) 

— Corium without conspicuous transverse fascia 4 

4. Dorsum pilose; antennae without long setae abortiva Barber 

— Dorsum not pilose 5 

5. Dorsum uniformly castaneous; antennae with long semi-erect setae 

subunicolor new species 

— Dorsum, not uniformly colored, more or less fasciate with pale 6 

6. Posterior margin of pronotum, with a spot on each side of the middle 

often connected with humeral angles, pale. Veins of corium con- 
spicuously pale; antennae without setae apicatus (Dist.) 

— Humeral angles of the pronotum pale; veins of corium rather inconspicu- 

ous. Antennae with long, semi-erect setae nitens new species 

LIST OF SPECIES 

1. C. parallelogramma Stal, Enum. Hem., Pt. 4, 165, 1874. Texas. Entire 
Eastern United States, south to Florida and west to Colorado and Texas. 

2. C. trimaculata (Distant), B.C.A.Rhynch. 2, 217, 1882, Guatemala. Mex., 
C. Amer., Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador. 

3. C. fasciata (Distant), B.C.A.Bhynch 2, 217. 1882, Guat. Panama -affinis 
(Distant), H.M.N.H. (7)7, 500, 1901, Grenada, W.I. 

4. C. apicatus (Distant), B.C.A.Rhynch. 2, 217, 1882, Mex. Guat. Mex., C. 
Amer., Venezuela. 

5. C. nitens new species. So. Cal., Ariz., Tex., Utah, Idaho. = apicatus 
Barber (not Distant), Jl. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 26.63, 1918. 

6. C. abortiva Barber, Jl. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 26, 63, 1918 — Arizona. 

7. subunicolor Barber, new species — Arizona. 


( Continued from page 134) 

Dr. Forbes called the Society ’s attention to Dr. Lepeg ’s theory on ‘ 1 The 
Struggle of the Bees”. There was some discussion by the members on this 
subject. 

Dr. Marks briefly mentioned his latest work on Papilio and reported 
progress in his studies. 

Dr. Mullen then gave the report of the Field Committee and a resume of 
the recent Massapequa Park trip made by a number of the members of the 
Society. He showed some black and white pictures and Dr. Clausen showed 
kodachromes of the trip. 

Dr. Clausen shocked the members with the announcement of the untimely 
death of esteemed member, Dr. Ralph B. Swain. It was voted that the 
Secretary send a letter of condolence to Mrs. Swain. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:40 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 
( Continued on page 138) 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. lxiii 


( Continued from page 137 ) 

Meeting of October 20, 1953 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. There were fourteen members and sixteen guests present. 

There were three proposals for membership: Dr. Paul Ludwig, Boyce 
Thompson Institute, Yonkers, New York, who was proposed by Dr. Albert 
Hartzell, Mr. R. Cronin, S. J., Fordham University, New York 58, New York, 
proposed by Dr. L. S. Marks, and Mr. Pastor Alayo Dalman, Oriente, Cuba. 

The program of the evening was a symposium on 1 1 Ants as Biological 
Subjects ’ ’. Dr. J ames Forbes spoke on the anatomy and taxonomy of ants. 
He pointed out that because of Dr. Creighton’s recent excellent work in 
taxonomy, he would confine his remarks to the anatomy of ants. Ants are 
poorly known anatomically. The pumping stomach has been known for many 
years, yet it is still not well understood. In the nervous system, the in- 
nervation of structures is unknown. 

Dr. Smith and also Dr. Forbes have worked on characteristics of male 
genitalia, which can be used to segregate genera and perhaps subgenera. 

Dr. Haskins spoke on three problems: sex determination, caste deter- 
mination, and the phylogeny of colony formation. Polyploidy he pointed 
out is common in ants. Working on a very primitive Australian family 
of ants, he could work out its development from a solitary to a social ant. 

Dr. Schneirla, after paying due homage to Wheeler’s work on ants, dis- 
cussed problems of orientation in ants and social behavior in Eciton. 

After a discussion the meeting adjourned at 10:00 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 

Meeting of November 17, 1953 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. There were fifteen members and twenty guests present. 
The minutes of the preceding meeting were accepted as read. 

The following persons proposed at the October 20 meeting were elected 
to membership: Dr. Paul Ludwig, Boyce Thompson Institute, Yonkers, New 
York; Mr. R. Cronin, S. J., Fordham University, New York 58, New York, 
and Mr. Pastor Alayo Dalman, Oriente, Cuba. The following persons were 
proposed for membership by Dr. Forbes: Mr. Peter H. Dix, 29 West 71 
Street, New York 23, New York, and Mr. Wayne Boyle, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York. 

The Secretary then read the following proposal to the Society: 

Whereas, the late Dr. Ralph B. Swain was an honored member 
of the New York Entomological Society and whereas, he was at the 
time of his death engaged in notable entomological service, and 
whereas, Su Zan N. Swain has long been the collaborator of the late 
Dr. Ralph B. Swain, and also a member of the New York Entomologi- 
cal Society, therefore, in honor and recognition of the services of 
the late Dr. Ralph B. Swain to entomology and to the Society,, ? it is 
hereby proposed to confer honorary membership on Su Zan N. Swain. 

( Continued on page 153) 


1955] 


Benton: Fleas 


139 


NOTES ON SOME RARE OR LITTLE-KNOWN 
NEW YORK SIPHONAPTERA 

By Allen H. Benton 

Dept, of Biology, New York State College for Teachers, 
Albany, New York 

The collection of the Department of Biology, New York State 
College for Teachers, Albany, N. Y., contains several specimens 
of Siphonaptera which are of special interest. In view of our 
limited knowledge of distribution or taxonomy of these partic- 
ular species, these notes may be of interest to students of fleas. 

Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis) — Geary (1954) lists six records 
of this species from New York, one of which is based on an 
erroneous determination by the present author. The species is 
apparently much less common than its near relative, C. f. felis. 
AYe have one female C. canis from Albany, Albany county, 
taken from a red fox, Vulpes fulva, on December 4, 1954. The 
specimen was collected by Nancy Harrington. 

Catallagia onaga Jordan — The taxonomic status of this species 
is uncertain. It is probable that it represents the male of C. 
borealis Ewing, (,cf. Fuller, 1943), but until the synonymy is 
established it seems best to follow Jellison et. al. (1954) in re- 
taining the two names. 

A single male of this species, taken at Hardenburg Pond, Ulster 
county, from a red-backed mouse, Clethrionomys gapperi, on 
December 12, 1954, was collected by Daniel Smiley. Previous 
records from New York include only two collections from Essex 
county and one from Tompkins county. 

Conorhinopsylla stanfordi Stewart — This species was described 
from specimens taken at Ithaca, N. Y., but has not been reported 
from elsewhere in the state. Our collection includes a female, 
taken at Mohonk Lake, Ulster county, from a gray squirrel, 
8 ciurus carolinensis leucotis, on December 27, 1954. The speci- 
men was collected by Daniel Smiley. 

Orchopeas ccedens durus (Jordan) — Some workers have ex- 
pressed doubt as to the validity of this subspecies. Holland 
(1949), working with long series of specimens, has concluded 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


that two valid subspecies exist, although males are not separable. 
Our collection includes six males and nine females taken at 
Raquette Lake, Hamilton county, from red squirrels, Tamiasci- 
urus hudsonicus, on November 27, 1953. The collector was Cus- 
ter Quick. All females in this series agree with Holland’s diag- 
nosis of the subspecies 0. c. durus, and tend to support his con- 
tention that the subspecific designation should be retained. 
Eptescopsylla chapini (Jordan) — Although it has long been ex- 
pected that this species would eventually be found to have a 
wide distribution (cf. Geary, 1954), it has been reported only 
from Maryland, Ohio and Kentucky. We have four males and 
five females of this species, taken at Sprakers, Montgomery 
county, from Eptesicus f. fuscus and Myotis subulatus leibii, on 
January 27, 1955. The specimens were collected by Harold 
Schwager, who is carrying out a study of bats in a small cave. 
The occurrence of this species at this location in midwinter 
strengthens the probability that it will be found to occur through- 
out the northeastern states and southeastern Canada. 

Literature Cited 

Fuller, H. C. 1943. Studies on Siphonaptera of eastern North America. 

Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 38 (1) : 18-23. 

■Geary, John. 1954. The Siphonaptera of New York. Cornell Univ. 
Thesis. 163 pp. 

Holland, G. P. 1949. The Siphonaptera of Canada. Canad. Dept, of Agr. 
Bulletin 70: 1-306. 

Jellison, W. L., Betty Locker and Roma Bacon. 1953. A Synopsis of 
North American fleas, north of Mexico, and notice of a supplementary 
index. Journ. of Parasit. 39 (6) : 610-618. 


1955] 


DelVecchio: House 


141 


CHANGES IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF NITROGEN 
DURING GROWTH AND METAMORPHOSIS OF THE 
HOUSEFLY, MUSCA DOMESTICA (LINNiEUS)* 

By Robert J. DelVecchio 
Department of Biology, Fordham University 

Needham (1929), pointed out that when histolysis of larval 
structures occurs, their constituent proteins are presumably 
broken down resulting- in a raised proportion of proteoses, pep- 
tones, and amino acids. As imaginal organs are constructed, 
this trend should be reversed, and the relative concentration of 
complete protein should increase. In addition, if some nitrogen- 
ous compounds are destroyed during metamorphosis, the fact that 
nothing, except gases, may leave the body during the pupal stage, 
should result in an increase in the concentration of end-products 
and in the proportion of non-protein nitrogen from this source. 

Anderson (1948) working on the changes in the distribution 
of nitrogen in the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, showed 
that there was no significant loss of nitrogen during the course 
of metamorphosis. However, at pupation there was a sudden 
large decrease in the nitrogen of the water-insoluble fraction, 
followed by gradual increases during subsequent days of pupal 
life. An increase in amino acid nitrogen occurred at pupation 
followed by a decrease, which became more gradual during the 
remainder of pupal life. Soluble protein, proteose and peptone 
nitrogen decreased significantly between larval and early pre- 
pupal stages. They showed no change in the late prepupa but 
subsequently rose to a maximum percentage of the total nitrogen 
on the second to third day of the pupal period at 25° C. By the 
sixth to seventh day they had returned to the former level and 
maintained this concentration through emergence. These com- 
plimentary shifts may be interpreted as indicative of the destruc- 
tion of mature larval tissues at pupation, followed by gradual 

* Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Biology at Fordham University. 
The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. Daniel Ludwig 
under whose direction and guidance this investigation was carried out. 


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[Vol. LXIII 


construction, from the materials thus made available, of the 
definitive structures of the adult. 

Most investigators confined their analyses to larvse, pupae or 
adults, without making a complete analytical study during these 
stages to determine exactly when the changes first occurred and 
when they are reversed. Therefore it was decided to investigate 
the changes in nitrogenous components in the housefly, Musca 
domestica, and to analyze insects during each day of the larval 
and pupal periods, and finally as young and old adults. These 
data should be of value in comparative studies of the develop- 
mental physiology of insects in general. 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 

Larvae of the housefly were raised on whole milk. A finger- 
bowl containing cotton saturated with this food served as the 
feeding medium. Eggs were transferred daily to a humidifier 
regulated at approximately 30° C. and a humidity near satura- 
tion. The eggs hatched in approximately 24 hours under these 
conditions, and the time of hatching was recorded. In this 
manner carefully timed records, within 24 hours, were obtained 
for each group of experimental animals. The flies were tested 
in samples of approximately 100 mg. at the following stages: 
one-, two-, three-, four-, five-, and six-day larvae ; one-, two-, three-, 
and four-day pupae ; newly emerged adults, and old adults (seven 
to ten days after emergence). 

Fractionation was accomplished by the techniques used by 
Ludwig and Rothstein (1952), Anderson (1948), and also by a 
modification of these techniques. By the first method, Fraction 
A (lipid nitrogen) was extracted with a solution of ether-alcohol. 
Fraction B was then extracted with hot water and separated 
from Fraction C by the addition of sodium tungstate and sulfuric 
acid. Fraction B probably contained amino acids, ammonia, 
urates, and urea, while Fraction C (water-soluble nitrogen pre- 
cipitated by tungstic acid) probably consisted of soluble proteins, 
proteoses, peptones and polypeptides. Fraction D, the residue 
remaining after the previous extractions, contained complex 
proteins and chitin. With the technique used by Anderson 
(1948), cold water extraction was made but no lipid nitrogen was 
removed. Hence, this method gave Fractions B, C, and D. The 


1955] 


DelVecchio: Housefly 


143 


third method consisted of cold water extraction prior to lipid re- 
moval with alcohol-ether. The remaining fractionations were 



Fig. 1. Graph showing the per cent of total nitrogen of the various frac- 
tions at different stages of metamorphosis (technique used by- 
Ludwig and Rothstein 1952). 


performed according to the procedure of Ludwig and Rothstein 
(1952). This method yielded Fractions A, B, C, and D. The 
Kjeldahl procedure was employed to make the nitrogen determi- 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


nations. A minimum of 10 determinations was made on each day 
of growth and metamorphosis tested. 

OBSERVATIONS 

No loss of nitrogen occurred during the process of metamor- 
phosis from the larva to pupa. However, there was an increase 
in the total nitrogen content per 100 mg. The average nitrogen 
of all three series of experiments increased from 1.35 per cent in 
the six-day larva to 2.27 in the one-day pupa, and 2.55 per cent 
in the young adult. This increase in total nitrogen is thought 
to be associated with the decrease in the amount of water, since 
pupae and adults contain less water than larvae. 

The changes in the distribution of nitrogen for each day of 
metamorphosis as derived by the technique used by Ludwig and 
Rothstein (1952), are shown in Table 1, and in Figure 1. Each 

TABLE 1 

Changes in the Distribution of Nitrogen during the Metamorphosis of 
the Housefly. Nitrogen as Per Cent Total Nitrogen 
and Standard Errors. 



FRACTION 

FRACTION 

FRACTION 


A 

B 

D 

1-clay larva 

7.22 ±.0217 

10.96 ±.0107 

81.81 ±.0107 

2-day larva 

8.78 ±.0176 

11. 16 ±.0220 

80.04 ±.0117 

3-day larva 

11.30 ±.0206 

10.27 ±.0135 

78.44 ± .0067 

4-day larva 

8.79 ±.0107 

12.39 ±.0220 

80.71 ±.0075 

5-day larva 

8.89 ±.0075 

11.18 ±.0082 

79.92 ±.0118 

6-day larva 

8.92 ±.0119 

10.62 ±.0119 

80.45 ± .0142 

1-day pupa 

7.26 ±.0144 

18.96 ±.0066 

76.04 ±.0083 

2-day pupa 

8.78 ±.0120 

23.92 ±.0085 

67.62 ±.0119 

3-day pupa 

6.25 ±.0082 

14.09 ± .0065 

79.68 ±.0118 

4-day pupa 

4.30 ±.0116 

16.06 ±.0118 

79.51 ±.0114 

Early adult 

4.15 ± .0142 

14.86 ±.0169 

80.97 ±.0247 

Late adult 

10.53 ±.0219 

9.67 ±.0085 

79.93 ±.0221 


fraction is expressed as per cent total nitrogen. Fraction A, 
increased during the larval period from 7.22 in the one-day, to 
8.92 per cent in the six-day larvae. During the latter part of 
the pupal period it decreased to a value of 4.30 per cent. No 
change occurred on emergence, but this fraction increased to 
10.53 per cent in the old adult. Fraction B remained constant 


1955] 


DelVecchio: Housefly 


145 


during the larval period at approximately 11 per cent of total 
nitrogen. However, it increased to 23.92 per cent in the two- 
day pupa and then decreased to 16.06 per cent in the four-day 
pupa. During the adult stage, this fraction showed a further 



Fig. 2. Graph showing the per cent of total nitrogen of the various frac- 
tions at different stages of metamorphosis (technique used by 
Anderson 1948). 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


decrease to 9.67 per cent in the old adult. No Fraction C ap- 
peared with this procedure. Fraction D remained constant at 
approximately 80 per cent of the total nitrogen during the larval 
stage. It decreased to 67.62 per cent in the two-day pupa and 
returned to the larval value of approximately 80 per cent in the 
three- and four-day pupae, retaining this value in the young and 
old adults. 

The changes in the distribution of nitrogen for each day of 
metamorphosis as derived by the technique of Anderson (1948), 
are expressed in Table 2, and in Figure 2. No fraction A was 

TABLE 2 

Changes in the Distribution of Nitrogen during the Metamorphosis of 
the Housefly. Nitrogen as Per Cent Total Nitrogen 
and Standard Errors. 



FRACTION 

B 

FRACTION 

C 

FRACTION 

D 

1-day larva 

17.68 ±.0141 

14.01 ±.0103 

68.49 ±.0107 

2 -day larva 

18.43 ±.0179 

16.37 ±.0115 

65.22 ±.0115 

3-day larva 

16.95 ±.0117 

14.89 ±.0119 

68.17 ± .0141 

4-day larva 

14.05 ±.0115 

17.17 ±.0179 

68.77 ±.0177 

5-day larva 

17.01 ±.0063 

14.77 ±.0107 

68.21 ±.0177 

6-day larva 

17.24 ±.0107 

14.14 ±.0117 

68.62 ±.0083 

1-day pupa 

14.95 ± .0067 

9.56 ±.0332 

75.48 ±.0176 

2-day pupa 

19.08 ±.0070 

14.63 ±.0035 

65.92 ±.0176 

3-day pupa 

19.05 ±.0089 

18.41 ±.0017 

62.67 ±.0108 

4-day pupa 

19.34 ±.0067 

14.59 ± .0075 

66.06 ±.0108 

Early adult 

15.85 ±.0019 

12.72 ±.0216 

71.39 ±.0107 

Late adult 

22.38 ±.0019 

8.14 ±.0107 

69.48 ± .0102 


obtained with this procedure. Fraction B remained relatively 
constant at approximately 17 per cent of total nitrogen during 
the larval period. Increased to 19 per cent in the two-day pupae 
and retained this value until the end of the pupal stage, decreas- 
ing to 15.85 on emergence. During the adult stage it increased 
to 22.38 per cent. Fraction C remained relatively constant at 
about 14 per cent of total nitrogen during the larval stage. It 
increased to 18.41 per cent in the three-day pupa. This fraction 
then decreased steadily during the remainder of the life cycle to 


1955] 


DelVecchio: Housefly 


147 


14.59 in the four-day pupa, 12.72 in the young adult, and finally 
to 8.14 per cent in the old adult. Fraction D remained constant 
at 68 per cent throughout the larval period. It decreased to 
62.67 per cent in the three-day pupa. This decrease was then 



Tig. 3. Graph showing the per cent of total nitrogen of the various frac- 
tions at different stages of metamorphosis (water extraction 
prior to lipid extraction). 


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[Vol. LXIII 


followed by an increase to 66.06 in the four-day pupa and to 
71.39 per cent in the youpg adults. 

The results obtained when the water-soluble materials were 
extracted prior to lipid extraction are shown in Table 3, and in 
Figure 3. Fraction A remained constant at approximately 2 
per cent of the total nitrogen throughout the life cycle. Fraction 
B remained constant at 17 per cent during the first three days of 
the larval period, and then decreased to 13.39 per cent in the 
four-day larva. This decrease was followed by an increase to 
16 per cent where it remained up to and including the one-day 

TABLE 3 

Changes in the Distribution of Nitrogen during the Metamorphosis of 
the Housefly. Nitrogen as Per Cent Total Nitrogen 
and Standard Errors. 


FRACTION 

FRACTION 

FRACTION 

FRACTION 

A 

B 

C 

D 


2.076 ±.0117 
1.848 ±.0119 
2.159 ±.0107 


1- day larva 

2- day larva 

3- day larva 

4- day larva 

5- day larva 

6- day larva 

1- day pupa 

2- day pupa 

3- day pupa 

4- day pupa 
Early adult 
Late adult 


2.364 ± .0084 
2.252 ±.0102 
2.187 ±.0102 
2.434 ±.0177 
2.411 ±.0177 
2.346 ±.0076 
2.563 ±.0102 
2.257 ±.0176 
1.987 ±.0107 


17.19 ±.0141 

17.38 ±.0179 
16.51 ±.0117 

13.39 ±.0115 
15.84 ±.0063 
16.06 ±.0107 
16.50 ±.0067 
20.37 ±.0070 
19.73 ±.0089 
15.31 ±.0067 
15.33 ±.0019 
22.49 ±.0019 


13.63 ±.0103 
15.44 ±.0115 
14.53 ±.0119 
16.37 ±.0179 
13.75 ±.0107 
13.17 ±.0117 

10.55 ±.0332 
16.01 ±.0035 
18.91 ±.0017 

11.55 ±.0075 
12.25 ±.0216 

8.18 ±.0107 


67.09 ± .0289 
65.32 ±.0219 
66.81 ±.0102 
67.88 ±.0142 
68.16 ±.0135 

68.58 ±.0287 
70.52 ±.0083 
61.21 ±.0083 

59.03 ±.0107 

70.58 ±.0126 

70.03 ±.0107 
67.35 ±.0107 


pupa. It then increased to 20 in the two-and three-day and then 
decreased to 15 per cent in the four-day pupae and young adults. 
Finally it increased to 22.49 per cent in the old adults. Fraction 
C increased from 13.63 per cent in the one-day and to 16.37 in 
the four-day larvae. This increase was followed by a decrease to 
13 in the five- and six-day larvae and to 10.55 per cent in the one- 
day pupa. It then increased to 18.91 per cent in the three-day 
pupa and decreased to 12 in the four-day pupa and young adult, 
and finally to 8.18 per cent in the old adult. Fraction D re- 
mained constant at about 68 per cent throughout the larval 


1955] 


DelVecchio: Housefly 


149 


period. It decreased to 59.03 in the three-day pupa, returning 
to its former level of about 70 per cent in the four-day pupa and 
young adult. 

DISCUSSION 

Many authors have reported that the process of metamorphosis 
in holometabolous insects is accompanied by no significant loss 
of nitrogen (Kellner, Sako, and Sawano 1884 ; and Inonye 1912, 
for the silkworm Bombyx mori ; Heller 1924, for the moth Deile- 
phila eupliorbice ; Frew 1929, for the blowfly Calliphora; Evans 
1932, for the blowfly Lucilia sericata ; Anderson 1948, for the 
Japanese beetle Popillia japomica; and others). No loss of nitro- 
gen was evident in the present study, during the metamorphosis 
of Musca domestica, although at pupation the larval skin is shed, 
and upon emergence of the adult, the pupal skin is also shed. 
Both these exuviae may be shown to contain nitrogen. 

An examination of the data presented in Figures 2 and 3, 
reveals that Fraction D remains at a high value while Fraction 
C remains low throughout the larval period. During the pupal 
period Fraction D decreased and Fractions B and C increased 
during the second and third days. This shift in nitrogen indi- 
cates a breakdown of larval protein and an increase in the de- 
composition products. At the end of the pupal stage, this change 
is reversed indicating a utilization of these products for the syn- 
thesis of tissue. Evans (1932), for the metamorphosis of Lucilia 
sericata, also found that when the highest value for insoluble 
protein was obtained there was a corresponding low value of sol- 
uble protein nitrogen. In 1934, he obtained similar changes in 
the mealworm, T&nebrio molitor. Anderson (1948), found that 
during the metamorphosis of the Japanese beetle, pupation is ac- 
companied by a relatively tremendous change in nitrogen distri- 
bution, water-insoluble nitrogen undergoing a marked decrease, 
while the water-soluble fractions show significant increases. 

A possible explanation for the disappearance of Fraction G, 
containing the water-soluble compounds precipitated by tungstic 
acid, with the technique used by Ludwig and Rothstein (1952), 
is that when the lipid fraction is removed prior to water extrac- 
tion, some of the proteins which are water-soluble and which 
would ordinarily be precipitated by tungstic acid are also re- 
moved. The possible removal of water-soluble protein with the 


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[Vol. LXIII 


lipids would also explain the larger lipid fraction with this tech- 
nique than that obtained when water extraction is made prior to 
lipid extraction. Furthermore, alcohol is a protein precipitating 
agent. Hence it precipitates some of the proteins which would 
also appear in Fraction C. These proteins then appear as insol- 
uble proteins in Fraction D. A comparison of values in Table 1 
with those in Tables 2 and 3 shows a greater amount of nitrogen 
in Fraction D with this procedure. On the other hand, when the 
water-soluble compounds are removed first, some of the lipid 
fraction may also be removed, therefore accounting for the larger 
percentages of these fractions, when compared with the technique 
of Ludwig and Rothstein (1952). 

The results obtained with the three methods of fractionation 
indicate that little change occurs in the various fractions during 
the entire larval period. However, during the pupal period each 
method of fractionation indicated an increase in the water-sol- 
uble nitrogen during the second and third days of the pupal 
stage which was then followed by a steady decrease during the 
remainder of metamorphosis. The insoluble nitrogen decreased 
at the time when water-soluble nitrogen increased. 

The difference in timing of metamorphosis is of utmost impor- 
tance when correlating these results with the work of other in- 
vestigators. Anderson (1948) reported changes which occur at 
or after pupation. This description suffices for the Japanese 
beetle, for in this insect the shedding of the last larval skin is 
visible. However, in the housefly, the molt which results in the 
formation of the pupa cannot be seen due to the presence of a 
puparium. Consequently, the results tabulated are timed from 
puparium formation and not from pupation. The latter process 
probably occurs within a 24 hour period after puparium forma- 
tion at the temperature employed. If this 24 hour interval is 
subtracted from the time values given in this work for the pupal 
stage, the increase in water-soluble and the decrease in water-in- 
soluble nitrogen occur at approximately the same time with re- 
spect to pupation, as that reported in the Japanese beetle by 
Anderson (1948). 

summary 

One hundred milligram samples of houseflies, Musca domestica , 
collected at 24 hour intervals during growth and metamorphosis, 


1955] 


DelVecchio: Housefly 


151 


at 30° C. were analyzed for nitrogen by different fractionation 
methods. The determinations were made of the following frac- 
tions : Fraction A (lipid nitrogen), Fraction B (water-soluble 
nitrogen not precipitated by tungstic acid), Fraction C (water- 
soluble nitrogen precipitated by tungstic acid), and Fraction D 
(water-insoluble nitrogen). 

No changes occurred in the distribution of nitrogen among 
these fractions during the larval period. 

No loss of nitrogen was evident in the present study. There 
was an increase in the percentage of total nitrogen during meta- 
morphosis from larva to pupa due to a loss of water. 

During the pupal stage, a decrease in water-insoluble nitrogen 
and a corresponding increase in water-soluble nitrogen occurred 
in the second and third days following puparium formation. The 
reverse shifts occurred during the latter part of the pupal stage. 

These complimentary shifts between the nitrogenous fractions 
may be interpreted as indicative of the destruction of mature 
larval tissues in the early pupae, followed by gradual construc- 
tion from the materials thus made available of the definitive 
structures of the adult. 

When lipid extraction was done prior to water extraction, 
some of the water-soluble proteins which would ordinarily be 
precipitated by tungstic acid are also removed, therefore giving 
a greater percentage of total nitrogen in this fraction. Also, 
alcohol precipitates proteins which would ordinarily be present 
in Fraction C, but consequently appear as insoluble proteins 
in Fraction D. 

When water extraction was done prior to lipid extraction, some 
of the lipids, not tightly bound, were also removed, therefore 
adding to a larger value for the water-soluble fractions. 

Literature Cited 

Anderson, J. M. 1948. Changes in the distribution of nitrogen in the 
Japanese beetle ( Popillia japonica Newman) during metamorphosis. 
Physiol. Zool. 21: 237-252. 

Evans, A. C. 1932. Some aspects of chemical changes during insect meta- 
morphosis. Jour. Exp. Biol. 9: 314—322. 

. 1934. On the chemical changes associated with metamorpho- 
sis in a beetle ( Tenebrio molitor L.). Jour. Exp. Biol. 11: 397-401. 
Frew, J. G. H. 1929. Studies on the metabolism of insect metamorphosis. 
Jour. Exp. Biol. 6: 205-218. 


152 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


Heller, J. 1924. Sur la transformation des matieres albuminoides pendant 
la metamorphose des Lepidopteres. Compt. rend. Soc. biol. 90: 
1360-1361. 

Inouye, R. 1912. A contribution to the study of the chemical composition 
of the silkworm at different stages of metamorphosis. Jour. Coll. Agri. 
Univ. of Tokyo 5: 67-68. 

Kellner, O., T. Sako and J. Sawano. 1884. Chemische untersuchungen 
iiber die Entwicklung und Ernahrung des Seidenspinners ( Bombyx 
mori). Landw. Vers. 30: 59-68. 

Ludwig, D. and F. Rothstein. 1952. Changes in the distribution of nitro- 
gen during the embryonic development of the Japanese beetle ( Popillia 
japonica Newman). Physiol. Zool. 25: 263-268. 

Needham, D. M. 1929. The chemical changes during the metamorphosis 
of insects. Biol. Rev. 4: 307-326. 


(Confined from page 138) 

Dr. Vishniac seconded the motion and it was carried without dissent. 

Dr. Clausen appointed a nominating committee of Mrs. Vaurie, Dr. James 
A. Mullen and Mr. Sam Harriott. 

Dr. Vishniac introduced the speaker of the evening, Dr. Louis S. Marks 
of Fordham University, who spoke on 11 Notes on the Genus Papilio”. Dr. 
Marks traced the generic concepts within the genus from the time of 
Linnaeus, and presented new evidence for the creation of three genera — 
Battus Scopoli, Papilio Linnaeus, and Graphium Scopoli. He then outlined 
briefly our present concept of populations within the various species. His 
talk was illustrated by Kodachromes and an exhibit. The exhibit con- 
sisted of five boxes of Papilio (sensu lato). At least one specimen from 
each of the minor groups into which the genera are subdivided was exhibited. 
Noteworthy and rare swallowtails included Papilio aristor, Papilio aristode- 
mus ponceana, the female of Papilio alexandrae, and a dwarfed Papilio 
glaucus. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 

Minutes of meeting of December 8, 1953 are not available. 

Meeting of December 15, 1953 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. There were nine members and six guests present. 

Miss Eleanor Lappano of Fordham University was proposed for member- 
ship by Dr. Forbes. 

The speakers of the evening were Dr. Roman Vishniac and Dr. Szybalski 
of Cold Spring Harbor Biological Labs on 11 Resistance in Insects and 
Bacteria”. 

Dr. Vishniac explained the phenomenon of resistance on a genetic basis. 
He pointed out that the resistant population has always been present, and 
(Continued on page 159 ) 


1955] 


Crabill : Chilopods 


153 


NEW MISSOURI CHILOPOD RECORDS WITH 
REMARKS CONCERNING GEOGRAPHICAL 
AFFINITIES 

By Ralph E. Crabill, Jr. 

Department of Biology, Saint Louis -University 

The following records are based upon a considerable mass of 
material most of which was collected by a local naturalist, 
Brother Charles Roe, F.S.C., a teacher at the Christian Brothers 
College. I should like to express my gratitude to Brother Charles 
and also to one of his students, Maurice Pickard, who contributed 
a, number of the Saint Charles and Franklin county specimens. 
The centipedes from Crawford, Iron, Carter, and Oregon coun- 
ties were captured by me. 

In the ensuing discussion, collecting stations are identified by 
a formula following each species name. A capital letter refers 
to a county, and the associated number to a locality within the 
county from which the species is recorded. The following refer- 
ence list of counties and localities is arranged such that the 
counties are presented as they occur from north to south. Au- 
drain county, on the drier prairie, and Saint Charles county, at 
the edge of the somewhat wetter Ozark highland region to the 
south, both occur on the glacial drift plain north of the Missouri 
river; the remaining counties are south of the Missouri. Al- 
though the present site of the city of Saint Louis seems to have 
been covered by Illinoian ice, apparently Saint Louis county was 
never completely glaciated. The remaining counties, in the list 
E through J, occupy part of the driftless Ozark highlands, a 
region celebrated as a refuge for a number of ancient plant and 
animal types. 

A. Audrain County 
1. Mexico 

B. Saint Charles County 

1. Dardenne Slough (5 miles northeast of Saint Charles 
on the Mississippi river flood plain). 

C. Saint Louis (An independent city, not included in any 
county) . 


154 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


1. Forest Park 

2. Missouri Botanical Gardens 

D. Saint Louis County 

1. Brentwood 

2. Rock Woods Reservation 

3. Webster Groves 

4. Clayton 

5. Manchester 

6. Ladue 

7. Valley Park 

8. Chesterfield 

9. Glencoe 

10. Creve Coeur 

11. Ranken (23 miles southwest of Saint Louis on U. S. 66, 
5 miles west of Valley Park; the Beaumont Boy Scout 
Reservation). 

E. Franklin County 

1. Sullivan 

2. Stanton 

F. Jefferson County 

1. High Ridge 

2. Big River 

3. Vaugirard (8 miles southwest of House Springs). 

G. Crawford County 

1. Saint Louis University biological station (5 miles west 
of Berryman in Washington County). 

H. Iron County 

1. Taum Sauk mountain (1700', 8 miles southwest of Iron- 
ton). 

2. Graniteville 

I. Carter County 

1. Big Springs State Park (5 miles south of Van Buren). 

J. Oregon County 

1. Grand Gulf (at Thayer). 

Information based upon chilopodous material from so few, 
geographically restricted localities makes it difficult to discuss 
the zoogeographical affinities of the fauna of the entire state. It 
may be significant too, that all but one county (Audrain, on the 
glaciated prairie) belong in only one of the state’s four phyto- 


1955] 


Crabill : Chilopods 


155 


geographic regions. 1 Yet the available records do tempt one to 
speculate upon the affinities at least of the areas investigated 
here, roughly east-central and parts of south-central Missouri. 
This fauna is essentially, though not exclusively, Carolinian, 2 an 
association perhaps best reflected by the Geophilomorpha, most 
of the Missouri representatives of the order being prevalent in 
Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, the Carolinas, and Virginia. Simi- 
larly, the scolopendromorph genus Theatops enjoys a broad 
Austral distribution in eastern North America. This Carolinian 
habitus is equally true of a number of the Lithobiomorpha but 
■with this probably significant distinction. A number of the east- 
ern Missouri lithobiomorphs seem more representative of the 
midwestern than of the southeastern states, so that instead of 
ranging over the entire Carolinian Region, species such as Poka- 
bius bilahiatus (Wood), Sonibius politus (McNeill), Sigibius 
urbanus Chamberlin, and Neolithobius voracior (Chamberlin) 
on the basis of existing records seem to be restricted to a sector 
of this vast area. 

LITHOBIOMORPHA 

Neolithobius voracior (Chamberlin). (C-l, D-2-3, E-l, F-l, 
H-l-2, 1-1, J-l) . This large lithobiid is now known from Florida, 
Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois. Although common in the 
localities collected to the south of the Missouri river, voracior 
has not yet been encountered on the drift area north of the river. 
The admittedly fragmentary data on hand suggest it there to be 
replaced by the closely related N. suprenans, discussion of which 
follows. It may be of some interest to note that I have found 
active specimens of the former species beneath rocks on top of 
Taum Sauk mountain while the temperature was close to 50° F. 

Neolithobius suprenans Chamberlin. (B-l). This form is 
known in Missouri presently only from Saint Charles county; it 
has also been recorded from New Mexico, Colorado, Texas, Okla- 
homa, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Arkansas. The specimens I 

1 Palmer and Steyermark (Ann. Mo. Bot. Gardens, XX, pp. 399-442, 
1935) recognize four regions: glaciated prairie, unglaciated prairie, Ozark, 
and southwestern lowlands. All but Audrain county are included in the 
Ozark region. 

2 See the Carolinian Region as defined by L. R. Dice in ‘ 1 The Biotic 
Provinces of Xorth America”, pp. 16-18, 1943, University of Michigan 
Press. 


156 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


have studied, from Nebraska and Kansas, agree favorably with 
the Missouri samples. 

Nadabius iowensis (Meinert). (D-3-11, F-2, G-l, H-2). This 
species is very common throughout the present range where, to 
the south, it is rivalled only by N eolithobius voracior. I can 
detect no significant differences between local populations and 
those inhabiting other midwestern areas. 

Lithobius forficatus (Linne). (C-2). As Chamberlin has 
noted previously, members of this genus appear to be replaced in 
the south by those of N eolithobius. The present species, extremely 
common in Europe and temperate America, is represented in 
this survey by a single specimen captured in the Missouri Botani- 
cal Gardens, where it may have been introduced in a floral ship- 
ment from some other part of the country. 

Pokaibius bilabiatus { Wood). (B-l). Apparently not common 
in this state, bilabiatus is typically midwestern and is not known 
to occur east of Ohio. 

Sozibius proridens (Bollman). (D-2). One specimen was 
collected. 

Sonibius politics (McNeill). (B-l, D-6-8-10-11, E-2, G-l). 
Saint Charles and Saint Louis counties yielded numerous speci- 
mens. This form seems to prefer the more northern states and is 
not now known to occur south of Missouri and Kentucky. It has 
been reported from Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Missouri, 
Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario. 

Sigibius urbanus Chamberlin. (D-3). This interesting micro- 
lithobiid is known presently only from Missouri and the type 
locality, Chicago, Illinois. My specimen is a female like the holo- 
type and agrees favorably with the original description. The 
following notes pertain to the Missouri specimen. Antennae : left 
with thirty-one articles ; right broken. Prosternum : with 2 + 2 
teeth ; diastema distinctly U-shaped. Female gonopods : claw 
tridentate ; spurs 2 + 2, not markedly long and slender as in 
Paitobius (in some respects urbanus resembles certain species 
in the latter genus). Plectrotaxy: IV (00001), 2V( 00011), 
14V (01331), 15V (01310) ; 14D(left = 00210/right = 00310), 

15D (00200). 

Bothropolys multidentatus (Newport). (B-l, C-l, D-6-7-8-9-10, 
E-2, F-l, G-l). Extremely common throughout the eastern 


1955] 


Crabill: Chilopods 


157 


United States, multidentatus has been found to be prevalent in 
all but the south-central Missouri counties : it is known, however, 
from Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas to the south. Apparently 
dependent upon high environmental moisture, it is almost always 
taken beneath loose bark and only occasionally upon the ground. 

SCOLOPENDROMORPHA 

Theatops spinicauda (Wood). 3 (B-l, C-l, D-2-8-9, E-l, F-l-3). 
The species seems relatively common in the state, where its 
familiar congener, postica Say, remains as yet unknown. 

Scolopocryptops sexspinosa (Say). (D-2-11, F-3). Owing to 
the marked latitude of variation observed in what I take to be 
specimens of nibiginosa Koch, the present determinations can 
only be provisional. The Koch species is readily identifiable in 
Kansas and Nebraska by the presence of complete paramedian 
sutures on most of the tergites, and the Say form in the vast 
area east of the Mississippi by the absence of complete para- 
median sutures on any tergite. Until the present time this had 
been the only good point of difference between them. Yet quite 
unexpectedly in eastern Missouri considerable variability in this 
character has been encountered in specimens still referable to 
nibiginosa. For example, although the sutures are complete (or 
rarely very minutely broken) on most of the tergites that show 
complete sutures in Kansan material, they are often at the same 
time thin and shallow to the point of being vague. And it is not 
uncommon to find widely, distinctly broken sutures on anterior 
and posterior tergites that in Kansan specimens have complete, 
unbroken sutures. The variation here is impressive. This sort 
of evidence suggests intergradation between geographical races, 
i.e. subspecies, a possibility that cannot be substantiated now 
because of a lack of adequate material. In a very few specimens 
no complete sutures were observed; these have been referred to 
sexspinosa hesitantly because of the possibility of their being 
extreme variants of a highly variable hybrid population existing 
in eastern Missouri between two subspecies, nibiginosa centering 

3 In the past there has been a great deal of vacillation between masculine 
and feminine renditions of trivial names following the cryptopid “-ops” 
genera. I propose for the sake of future stability that we follow the 
recommendation in the recent “ Copenhagen Decisions” (p. 51) that all 
names terminating in -ops be considered feminine. 


158 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


around the north-central states and sexspinosa in the east. But 
until the problem can be resolved, I feel it preferable to treat 
the two as distinct species. 

Scolopocryptops rubiginosa Koch. (D-3-7-8-9, E-l, F-2). This 
form is quite common in its localities. See the discussion under 
sexspinosa. 

GEOPHILOMORPHA 

Geophilus mordax Meinert (sens. str.). (G-l, H-l, 1-1). As 
do the other specimens that I have studied, from Kansas, Ala- 
bama, Florida, North Carolina, and Virginia, the Missouri forms 
display heavily sclerotized, consolidated paxilli and sacculi, and 
the ventral coxopleural pores of the present forms are concen- 
trated under or adjacent to the last ventral sternite. Each coxo- 
pleuron possesses a distinctive closed pore. The series consists 
of three specimens : a female with 53 pairs of legs, two males with 
53 and 55 pairs of legs. 

Geophilus vittatus (Rafinesque). (formerly rubens Say, 
1821). (B-l, C-l, D-8, F-3). The pedal counts fall within the 

usual dispersions, i.e., J* 49-51, 5 49-53. 

Arenophilus bipuncticeps (Wood). (A-l, D-2-3-4-8-9-10, 
F-3 ) . This is apparently the first record of this ubiquitous Aus- 
tral species from the state, where previously the genus was known 
to be represented only by watsingus Chamberlin. The Wood 
form is by far the most common geophilomorph wherever it is 
found in the present localities. The following pedal dispersions 
have been observed in the Missouri specimens : £ 47-55, § 55-63. 

Pachymerium ferrugineum (C. L. Koch). (D-8, F-2). All 
of the Stanton specimens are females, four with 47 and two with 
45 pairs of legs. The single Chesterfield female has only 39 pairs 
of legs, to my knowledge the lowest pedal count ever ascribed a 
female of this widespread Holarctic species. 

Ar do geophilus fulvus (Wood). (B-l, D-2-8-9). All of the 
specimens are females, three of which have 57 and one 55 pairs 
of legs. 

Strigamia bidens Wood. (D-8). A female with 73 and a male 
with 69 pairs of legs were collected. 

Strigamia bothriopa Wood. (C-l, H-l). The Saint Louis 
county male has 47, the two Iron county males have 51 pairs of 
legs. 


1955] 


Crabill: Chilopods 


159 


Tomotcenia urania Crabill. (D-3). This male with 55 pairs 
of legs is the second specimen of the species to be collected ; the 
female holotype has 59 pairs of legs. Both were taken in Saint 
Louis county, and both agree in all essentials. 

Garrina parapoda (Chamberlin). (F-l). This tiny form is 
known now only from its Texan type locality and from High 
Ridge in Missouri where a single male with 63 pairs of legs was 
taken. 

SCUTIGEROMORPHA 

Scutigera coleoptrata (Linne). (D-l-4-5-8-10). Contrary to 
its habits farther north, where its haunts seem restricted to hu- 
man dwellings, in the Saint Louis area coleoptrata is found quite 
commonly out of doors as well as indoors. This might be ex- 
plained on the basis of the milder climate of Missouri. 


(Continued from page 152 ) 

it is merely a question of selection in a population. He pointed out that 
mutations are not necessary to provide resistant insects. 

Dr. Szybalski, speaking about bacteria, approached the problem from a 
genetic and statistical point of view. He explained resistance not only on 
the basis of selection within a population but also on the evolution of 
bacterial populations. There are two types of resistance — multi-step and 
single-step resistance. These were both explained on the basis of a creation 
of a microenvironment by the population. Resistance in bacteria is chiefly 
due to mutation. For Hinshelwood ’s claim that resistance is due to adapta- 
tion, there is no experimental evidence. 

In the discussion which followed, Dr. John Rehn pointed out that the 
phenomenon of insect resistance to poisons has been much overrated. 
Pseudo-resistance is often traced to disintegration of non-stable insecticide 
or poor application. 

Dr. Marks pointed out how much of the published work on resistance 
implies a belief in the inheritance of acquired characteristics. 

The meeting adjourned at 10 : 00 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 
Meeting of January 5, 1954 

The annual meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. President Clausen was in the chair. There were 15 
members and 6 guests present. 

In opening the meeting, President Clausen extended the Society’s greet- 
ings to Dr. and Mrs. Monros from Tucaman, Argentina, two of our honored 
guests. 


(Continued on page 160) 


160 


New York Entomological Society 


[Yol. lxiii 


( Continued from page 159) 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. The 
Secretary, in accord with the procedure laid down in the By-Laws verified 
that a quorum was present. There were no proxy ballots. The Secretary’s 
annual report was read. A copy is appended to these minutes. 

The Editor, Mr. Soraci, reported that the December 1953 issue of the 
J ournal will be three months late in appearing. However he has now caught 
up with the backlog of papers submitted for publication. A decision has 
been reached to change the printer for future issues of the Journal and it 
was the Editor’s hope that the forthcoming version of the magazine will 
be as satisfactory as have been the past issues. The numbers will still be 
held to 64 pages. 

Dr. Mullen reported for the Field Committee. During the first week of 
June 1953 eight members of the Society went to Massapequa Long Island 
to study the emergence of the brood of 17-year cicadas there. Pictures 
were taken by various members and a report of the trip appeared in the 
New York Herald Tribune. 

The Nominating Committee, consisting of Mrs. Patricia Vaurie (Chair- 
man), Dr. J. A. Mullen and Mr. Sam Harnott proposed the following slate 
of officers for 1954: 

President — Dr. Lucy Clausen 

Vice President — Dr. Roman Vishniac 

Secretary — Dr. Louis S. Marks 

Asst. Secretary — Dr. Frederick Rindge 

Treasurer — Mr. John Rehn 

Asst. Treasurer — Mrs. Patricia Vaurie 

Editor Emeritus — Dr. Harry B. Weiss 

Editor — Mr. Frank Soraci 

Asst. Editor — Mr. Herbert F. Schwarz 

Trustees — Mr. E. W. Teale, Mr. E. I. Huntington, Dr. A. B. Klots, Dr. 
Mont A. Cazier 

Publication Committee — Mr. Frank Soraci, Mr. Edwin W. Teale, Mr. 
Herbert F. Schwarz, Dr. James Mullen. 

There were no other nominations. A motion to close the nominations was 
made and passed. The Secretary cast one ballot for the election of the 
above slate. 

Dr. Forbes then moved that the Society send a vote of thanks to the 
outgoing Treasurer, Mr. Arthur Roensch. This was passed without dissent. 
President Clausen then thanked all officers and members of committees who 
had served with her during the past year. 

The Secretary then spoke to the membership regarding the forthcoming 
sale of the Journal, numerous copies of which are now in storage. 

Upon motion made and seconded, Miss Eleanor Lappano, Biological 
Laboratories, Fordham University, New York 58, N. Y. was elected to mem- 
bership in the Society. 

The Secretary then read a proposal, advanced by Dr. Mont Cazier and 
( Continued on page 169) 


1955] 


Ludwig & Barsa: Japanese Beetle 


161 


THE ACTIVITY OF SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE 
DURING DIAPAUSE AND METAMORPHOSIS 
OF THE JAPANESE BEETLE (POPILLIA 
JAPONICA NEWMAN)* 

By Daniel Ludwig and Mary C. Barsa 
Department of Biology, Fordham University 

Insect diapause may occur in any stage of the life cycle. How- 
ever, the nature of this resting condition appears to be very dif- 
ferent in the egg or pupal stages from that which occurs in the 
larval stage. Bodine (1934) showed that the respiration of dia- 
pause eggs of the grasshopper, Melanoplus differentialis, is cya- 
nide insensitive, while that of the pre- and postdiapause egg is 
markedly inhibited by cyanide. Williams (1948) reported that 
the pupal diapause of the moth, Platysamia cecropia, is charac- 
terized by a disruption of the cytochrome system. In this insect, 
the respiration of the diapausing pupa is also resistant to cyanide. 
On the other hand, Levenbook (1951) found that the respiration 
of the diapause larva of the horse bot fly, Gastrophilus intesti- 
nalis, goes through a cyanide- and carbon monoxide-sensitive 
heavy metal protein, probably cytochrome oxidase. McDonald 
and Brown (1952) observed that the prepupal diapause of the 
larch sawfly, Pristiphora erichsonii, shows no decrease in cyto- 
chrome oxidase and no change in cyanide sensitivity. Ludwig 
(1953) obtained high values for the activity of cytochrome oxi- 
dase during the larval diapause of the Japanese beetle, Popillia 
japonica. He suggested that in forms with a larval diapause, this 
condition may be controlled by some mechanism other than the 
cytochrome system. 

The present experiments were undertaken to determine whether 
the diapause of the Japanese beetle larva is associated with any 
change in the activity of succinic dehydrogenase. These experi- 
ments were extended to include a study of the activity of this 
enzyme throughout the period of metamorphosis. 

* This work was supported in part by the Medical Research and Develop- 
ment Board, Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, under 
Contract No DA-49-007-MD-444. 


162 


New York Entomological Society 


[VOL. LXIII 


MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The Japanese beetle larvae were obtained from eggs collected 
in the laboratory ; and the metamorphosing individuals, from 
larvae collected in the field during the winter months. The larvae 
of both groups were kept individually in one ounce metal salve 
boxes containing moist soil to which several grains of wheat were 
added to serve as food, and kept at a temperature of 25° C. until 
used in the experiment. Each larva was examined every four or 
five days, and food or water added as needed. On the approach 
of a molt, the insect was examined daily until it had molted and 
the date of the molt recorded. In this manner, an accurate record 
of each individual was obtained. 

Readings on the activity of succinic dehydrogenase were made 
on insects for each week of the larval stage beginning with the 
second instar and continuing through the third instar until the 
beginning of metamorphosis. Readings were made on early and 
late prepupae, on pupae for each day of this stage, and on newly- 
emerged adults. 

The activity of succinic dehydrogenase was determined on indi- 
vidual insects by the method of Cooperstein and Lazarow (1950). 
All readings were made on homogenates in a final dilution of 
1 : 1,000 in a Beckman DU spectrophotometer at a wave length of 
550 m|j. Calculations of succinic dehydrogenase activity were 
made using the formula given by Cooperstein and Lazarow. 

OBSERVATIONS 

The changes in the activity of succinic dehydrogenase during 
diapause and metamorphosis are shown in Table 1. The values 
are expressed as A log [CyFe +++ ] per minute. The enzyme activi- 
ties obtained for prediapause third instar larvae are grouped, 
and those for larvae from the fifth to twelfth week after the second 
molt (diapause larvae), are also grouped. The figures show that 
diapause in the Japanese beetle larva is associated with a high 
activity of succinic dehydrogenase; the value for prediapause 
third instar larvae is 0.019, and for diapause larvae, 0.028. 

Metamorphosis of the Japanese beetle is associated with a 
U-shaped change in the activity of succinic dehydrogenase. The 
activity values drop very rapidly on the transformation from 
larva to prepupa. This decrease in activity continues until two 


1955] 


Ludwig & Bars A: Japanese Beetle 


163 


days after pupation when a low value of 0.005 was obtained. 
Enzyme activity increases throughout the remainder of the pupal 
stage reaching a value of 0.023 just before, and of 0.053, just after 


TABLE 1 

Succinic Dehydrogenase During Growth, Diapause, and 
Metamorphosis of the Japanese Beetle 


Stage of development 

No. of 
readings 

Enzyme activity 
A log [CyEe+++]/min. 

Second instar larva 

6 

0.013 

Third instar larva 

Prediapause 

21 

0.019 

Diapause 

45 

0.028 

Postdiapause 

8 

0.030 

Prepupa 

Early 

8 

0.012 

Late 

4 

0.010 

Pupa 

Just molted 

6 

0.008 

1 day after molt 

4 

0.007 

2 days after molt 

5 

0.005 

3 days after molt 

5 

0.006 

4 days after molt 

4 

0.007 

5 days after molt 

5 

0.008 

6 days after molt 

6 

0.013 

7 days after molt 

6 

0.011 

8 days after molt 

6 

0.015 

9 days after molt 

6 

0.023 

Adult 

Just molted 

7 

0.053 


adult emergence. No difference was noted in the enzyme activity 
of male and female insects. 


DISCUSSION 

These results closely parallel those obtained by Ludwig (1953) 
for the activity of cytochrome oxidase during the growth, dia- 
pause, and metamorphosis of the Japanese beetle, except that 
they are considerably lower. In general, the values for succinic 
dehydrogenase are approximately one-third of those previously 
reported for cytochrome oxidase. This ratio is the same as that 
found by Ludwig and Wugmeister (1955) for the activities 


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[Yol. lxiii 


of these enzymes during the first three and last two days of 
the embryonic development of the Japanese beetle at 30°C., and 
by Schneider (1946) for their activities in rat liver cells. The 
results indicate that diapause in the Japanese beetle is associated 
with relatively high activities for both succinic dehydrogenase 
and cytochrome oxidase. 

Ludwig (1931) showed that the respiration of the Japanese 
beetle during metamorphosis follows the characteristic U-shaped 
curve with the lowest rate of oxygen consumption in insects two 
and three days after pupation. In 1953, he obtained a similar 
series of changes in the activity of cytochrome oxidase during 
metamorphosis, the low point also being present in 2-day and 
3-day pupae. The present experiments indicate that the same 
series of changes occurs in the activity of succinic dehydrogenase. 
They are in agreement with those of Agrell (1949) who found 
that in the blow fly, Calliphora erythrocepliala, malic, succinic, 
citric, and glutamic dehydrogenases all follow a U-shaped activity 
curve. 

The principal difference in the activities of cytochrome oxidase 
and succinic dehydrogenase was noted in the adult stage. Lud- 
wig (1953) reported much higher cytochrome oxidase activities 
in the male than in the female. In the present experiments, no 
sex differences were observed in the activities of succinic dehy- 
drogenase. 

SUMMARY 

Determinations on the activity of succinic dehydrogenase were 
made during diapause and metamorphosis of the Japanese beetle. 

The activity of this enzyme, expressed as A log [CyFe +++ ] per 
minute, increases during the prediapause portion of the third 
instar for a low of 0.013 to 0.028, the former figure being char- 
acteristic of the second instar; and the latter, of the diapause 
third instar. It decreases during the prepupal stage and early 
part of the pupal stage, reaching a low value of 0.005 in insects 
two days after pupation. The remainder of the pupal period is 
characterized by a gradual increase in enzyme activity which 
reaches a value of 0.023 just before, and of 0.053, just after adult 
emergence. No sex difference was noted in the activity of suc- 
cinic dehydrogenase. 

Diapause in the Japanese beetle is associated with relatively 


1955] 


Ludwig & Barsa: Japanese Beetle 


165 


high activities for both cytochrome oxidase and succinic dehydro- 
genase, the former being approximately three times as active as 
the latter. 

Literature Cited 

Agrell, I. P. S. 1949. Localization of some hydrogen-activating enzymes 
in insects during metamorphosis. Nature. 164: 1039-1040. 

Bodine, J. H. 1934. The effect of cyanide on the oxygen consumption of 
normal and blocked embryonic cells (Ortlioptera). Jour. Cell. Comp. 
Physiol. 4: 397-404. 

Cooperstein, S. J., and A. Lazarow. 1950. A microphotometric method for 
the determination of succinic dehydrogenase. Jour. Biol. Chem. 186: 
129-139. 

Levenbook, L. 1951. The effect of carbon dioxide and certain respiratory 
inhibitors on the respiration of larvae of the horse bot fly ( Gastrophilus 
intestinalis De Geer). Jour. Exp. Biol. 28: 181-202. 

Ludwig, D. 1931. Studies on the metamorphosis of the Japanese beetle 
( Popillia japonica Newman). I. Weight and metabolism changes. 
Jour. Exp. Zool. 60: 309-323. 

. 1953. Cytochrome oxidase activity during diapause and metamor- 
phosis of the Japanese beetle ( Popillia japonica Newman). Jour. Gen. 
Physiol. 36: 751-757. 

Ludwig, D., and M. Wugmeister. 1955. Respiratory metabolism and the 
activities of cytochrome oxidase and succinic dehydrogenase during the 
embryonic development of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica New- 
man. Jour. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 45: 157-166. 

McDonald, S., and A. W. A. Brown. 1952. Cytochrome oxidase and cyan- 
ide sensitivity of the larch sawfly during metamorphosis. 83rd Ann. Rep. 
Ent. Soc. Ontario. 30-34. 

Schneider, W. C. 1946. Intracellular distribution of enzymes. I. The 
distribution of succinic dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, adenosine- 
triphosphatase, and phosphorus compounds in normal rat tissues. Jour. 
Biol. Chem. 165: 585-593. 

Williams, C. M. 1948. Extrinsic control of morphogenesis as illustrated 
in the metamorphosis of insects. Growth. 12: 61-74. 


166 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


ROBERT J. SIM, 1881-1955 

Robert J. Sim, naturalist, antiquarian, one time contributor to 
the Journal of the New York Entomological Society and entomol- 
ogist of the New Jersey Department of Agriculture died in the 
McKinley Memorial Hospital, Trenton, New Jersey, on Novem- 
ber 26, 1955, after a brief illness. Mr. Sim was born at Geddes, 
a suburb of Syracuse, New York, August 16, 1881, his parents 
being Eli F. and Ruby Ayer Sim. About a year after his birth, 
the family moved to Jefferson, Ashtabula County, Ohio, and it 
was there that his interest in natural history was fostered by 
his mother who was a naturalist and a writer of articles on nat- 
ural history. Along with his school work, the young man took 
private art lessons. For two years, Mr. Sim attended the Cleve- 
land School of Design and later enrolled at Ohio State Univer- 
sity, where he studied for the most part, only subjects in which 
he was interested. At that period he made the illustrations for 
a book on botany by Dr. E. N. Transeau. On November 28, 1919, 
he married Mary A. Bechtol of Ashtabula, Ohio, and the follow- 
ing summer was spent at Cranberry Lake in the Adirondacks, 
where he did illustrations for the New York State College of 
Forestry. 

During a period of two years, 1921-1923, Mr. Sim was the 
artist for the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture at Harris- 
burg, Pennsylvania. From January 1, 1924 to December 31, 
1928 he was employed by the New Jersey Department of Agri- 
culture on Japanese beetle work. From January 1, 1929 to July 
1, 1934 he was employed as an agent by the Bureau of Entomol- 
ogy, United States Department of Agriculture, working as an 
artist, photographer and entomologist, at the Japanese Beetle 
Laboratory, Moorestown, New Jersey. From July 1, 1934 until 
his death he was employed by the Division of Plant Industry of 
the New Jersey State Department of Agriculture, where his 
knowledge of entomology, and his artistic and photographic abil- 
ities were used and appreciated. 

Robert J. Sim was one of a small group of old-time naturalists, 
who have all but disappeared. He had a lively interest in plants, 
birds, mammals, reptiles and insects and his knowledge of the 


1955] 


Weiss: Eobert J. Sim 


167 


many common forms and their habits was extensive. As a re- 
sult, he was an ideal companion in the field. He was also a 
skilled artist and photographer and his illustrations adorn many 
publications. 

Of late years, Mr. Sim had expanded his interests to include 
what might be called rural antiquities. He was interested in 
early New Jersey pottery and in early New Jersey industries, 
particularly those connected with farming and rural life both 
inside and out of the home. During the course of these activities, 
lie made many friends and acquaintances all over the State. The 
New Jersey Department of Agriculture published his work on 
old farm houses and vanishing phases of rural life, and the New 
Jersey Agricultural Society his “Pages From the Past of Rural 
New Jersey.” Just before his death his last work appeared on 
charcoal burning, in collaboration with Harry B. Weiss. In ad- 
dition Mr. Sim was an ardent collector of various kinds of early 
tools used on farms and in farm households. 

As a collaborator with Mr. Sim, and as a recipient of his help 
in many ways over the years, I was in a position to become fully 
acquainted with his ability in various fields and to recognize and 
appreciate his varied talents. For the past year we worked 
closely on a history of early gristmills in New Jersey. Once ac- 
tively interested in a subject, Mr. Sim pursued it enthusiastically 
and intensely to the exclusion of everything else. With his death 
I have lost an agreeable companion upon whom I depended for 
many things, and also a valued friend. Mr. Sim is survived by 
his wife, Mary B. Sim of Yardville Heights, New Jersey. — Harry 
B. Weiss. 


Papers by Robert J. Sim 

ENTOMOLOGY 

Five lace-bug species not previously recorded from New Jersey. Jour. N. Y. 
Ent. Soe., 44: 280. 1936. 

Five sericine beetles. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 40: 379-383. 1932. 

Hesperia larva defoliating Kudzu vine. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 44: 316. 1936. 
New Jersey lace-bug notes. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 45: 402. 1937. 

Note on the giant swallow-tail butterfly in New Jersey. Jour. N. Y. Ent. 
Soe., 45: 402. 1937. 

Phyllophaga (Scarabaeidae) of the United States and Canada. Circ. 145, 
N. J. Dept. Agric., 60 p., 6 figs., 12 pi. May, 1928. 


168 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. lxiii 


ScarabseidsB, Coleoptera: Observations on species unrecorded or little-known: 
in New Jersey. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 38: 139-147. 1930. 

ORNITHOLOGY 

The common loon. Bird-Lore, 25,(3). 

Notes on the Holbeell grebe. Wilson Bull., 16(3). 

POTTERY 

Banded cream ware. Antiques, 48(2): 82-83, August, 1945. Illustrated.. 
The Cheesquake potteries (with Arthur W. Clement). Antiques 45(3) r 
122-125, March, 1944. Illustrated. 

RURAL ANTIQUITIES 

Charcoal-burning in New Jersey from early times to the present, (with 
Harry B. Weiss). New Jersey Agricultural Society, Trenton, N. J.,. 
62 p. 1955. Illustrated. 

Pages from the past of rural New Jersey. New Jersey Agricultural Society,. 

Trenton, N. J., 121 p. 1949. Illustrated. 

Some old farms and farm houses in New Jersey. Circ. 299, N. J. DepL 
Agric., 53 p. Dec., 1938. 

Some vanishing phases of rural life in New Jersey. Circ. 327, N. J. Dept. 
Agric., 60 p. June, 1941. 

Some Works Containing Illustrations in Color, Wash and Line 
By Robert J. Sim* 

ENTOMOLOGICAL 

Characters useful in distinguishing larvae of Popillia japonica, etc. U.S.D.A. 
Circ. 334. 1934. 

An Ecological Study of the Hemiptera of the Cranberry Lake Region of 
New York. Osborn & Drake. N. Y. St. Col. Forestry. Tech. Pub. 16. 
1922. 

Heteroptera of Eastern North America. W. S. Blatchley. 1926. 

The Japanese Beetle. Smith & Hadley. U.S.D.A. Circ. 363. 

A Little Gateway to Science, Hexapod Stories. Edith M. Patch. Atlantic 
Monthly Press. 

A Meadow Caterpillar. E. M. Patch. Me. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 302. 
Parasites of Popillia japonica . Clausen & King. U.S.D.A. Bull. 1429. 

BOTANICAL 

Science of Plant Life by E. N. Transeau. 

ORNITHOLOGICAL 

Bird Stories. E. M. Patch. Atlantic Monthly Press. 

Birds of Alabama. A. H. Howell. U.S.D.A. and Dept. Game & Fisheries 
of Alabama. 1924. 13 plates. 

* Supplied by Mrs. Robert J. Sim. 


1955] 


Proceedings of the Society 


169 


.Birds of the Katmia Region. J. S. Hine. Ohio Jour. Sci. 10: (8). 

A Bob White Covey. Dr. Lynds Jones. Wilson Bull. 10(4). 

Distribution and Migration of JST. A. Gulls and Allies. Wells W. Cooks. 
U.S.D.A. Bull. 619. 

Food Habits of Seven Species of American Shoal-Water Ducks. Douglas 
C. Mabbott. U.S.D.A. Bull. 862. 1920. 

Food Habits of Some Winter Bird Visitants. U.S.D.A. Bull. 1249. 1924. 

Food Habits of the Thrushes of U. S. U.S.D.A. Bull. 280. 

Food Habits of the Vireos. U.S.D.A. Bull. 1355. 

Some Common Birds of S. E. United States. Beal, McAtee & Kalmbach. 
U.S.D.A. Farmers Bull. 755. 

Some Common Game, Aquatic and Rapacious Birds. McAtee and Beal. 
U.S.D.A. Farmers Bull. 497. 

Food Habits of the SwalloAvs. Beal. U.S.D.A. Bull. 619. 

Food of Some Well-known Birds of Forest, Farm and Garden. Beal and 
McAtee. U.S.D.A. Farmers Bull. 506. 

MAMMALS 

Laws Relating to Fur-Bearing Animals. (Cover design). Lawyer and 
Earnshaw. U.S.D.A. Farmers Bull. 1238. 1921. 

GENERAL 

First Lessons in Nature Study. E. M. Patch. The MacMillan Co. 1926. 
Game Laws for 1918. (Cover design). U.S.D.A. Bull. 1010. 

The Outdoor Heritage of New Jersey. N. J. Fish and Game Comm. 1937. 


( Continued from page 160 ) 

Mr. Irving Huntington, to make Mr. William P. Comstock an Honorary 
Member of the New York Entomological Society. The citation reads as 
follows : 

11 William P. Comstock has for many years been an excellent student of 
West Indian zoogeography, entomological bibliography, and an outstanding 
authority on the classification of the Lycaenidae and Heliconidae. He has 
also been for many years a Research Associate of the Department of Insects 
and Spiders of the American Museum of Natural History. He was Vice- 
President of the New York Entomological Society in 1942 and its President 
in 1943”. The proposal was passed without dissent. 

The paper of the evening was given by Dr. Lucy Clausen on “ Insects 
and People”. Dr. Clausen envisioned cave man with having to face two 
economic problems, first cockroaches in his cave and secondly, dermestid 
beetles in his spare loin cloth. In the course of history man has used his 
insect associates to his own advantage. Dr. Clausen enumerated several 
facets of this part of the story. Insects have been used, a) for therapeutic 
value, b) as a basis of commerce, c) as part of his religious belief and rites, 
d) as objects and contestants in sports, and e) as laboratory experimental 
.animals. Dr. Clausen discussed the origin of insects from the point of view 


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New York Entomological Society 


t Vol. LXIII 


of the American Indian, whose belief was that the Great Spirit made pebbles 
of many colors and that the South Wind breathed life into these pebbles 
so that they became the first moths and butterflies. Dr. Clausen pointed 
out, among other things, that the intestinal tract of the silkworm is the 
source of the best surgical gut; that the silkworm disease, first worked on 
by Pasteur, laid the basis for the modern germ theory of disease, the 
egyptian scarab is not only a symbol of religion and resurrection, but also 
considered by many as a good luck talisman. 

Elaborating on the study of scarabs, Dr. Clausen pointed out that in 
carvings, scarabs are usually made very accurately and copied from six 
genera. At death, in the ancient egyptain religion, the heart of the de- 
ceased was removed and replaced with a scarab carving, or an actual scarab 
was used in the wrappings, or the scarab was placed on the sarcophagus. 
Egyptians considered all scarabs as males and that each segment of the body 
had an involved symbolism. 

Cricket fighting is the national sport of China. Dr. Clausen gave many 
points on the raising of these insects with the idea that in America there 
may be a time when fighting between crickets will become a home pastime 
replacing the current “ Scrabble” rage. 

Insects as a source of dyes served to highlight the interesting exhibit set 
up in the meeting room. The brilliant red coat of the British Army 
soldier worn during the Revolutionary War was dyed with cochineal derived 
from the scale insects of that name. 

Dr. Clausen’s concluding remarks on the use of insects in diet, whet the 
appetites of all members present, for many members have tasted ‘ ‘ goozanos ’ ’ 
as canapes. Thereupon Mrs. Monros and Dr. Pohl swapped recipes with 
Dr. Clausen in regard to their favorite insect dishes. In the discussion 
that followed Dr. Pohl told of his various entomophagus gastronomic de- 
lights. 

Dr. Clausen’s talk was illustrated with her excellent kodachrome slides 
and an interesting exhibit laid out in the meeting room. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:34 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 

Note — Minutes of meeting of January 19, 1954 are not available. 

Meeting of February 2, 1954 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. President Clausen was in the chair. On motion of Mr. 
Soraci, seconded by Dr. Vishniac, the reading of the minutes of the previous 
meeting was suspended. There were 14 members and three guests present. 

Dr. Vishniac introduced the speaker of the evening, Dr. Hansens of 
The New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station at Rutgers University. Dr. 
Hansens outlined the three year project upon which he is working, to wit, 
the mammalian ectoparasites found in the State of New Jersey. In the 
course of this survey 3000 rats, obtained principally from municipal dumps, 
were examined. Dr. Hansens had extensive cooperation from the N. J. 


1955] 


Proceedings of the Society 


171 


Department of Agriculture, the U. S. Public Health Service, the New Jersey 
Pest Control Operators and the New Jersey Fish and Game Commission. 
The work was started in 1951 at 20 stations in northern New Jersey, at 
which points collections were made about once a month. The survey was 
then extended to other parts of the State. The unique method of collecting 
the parasites was of some interest. Each captured rat was put in a 2-quart 
jar to which was added a washing solution of the insecticide, Lindane, and 
a detergent. The jar was then shaken about one hundred times. After a 
waiting period the wash water was drained off and taken to the laboratory 
where the free ectoparasites were sorted and placed in vials with 70% 
alcohol. The results of the study show that the flea index is 1.3 per rat; 
the louse index is 4.0 to 5.0 per rat. One rat had as many as 16,000 lice 
on its body. Many ticks were taken, about 5% of which will be described 
as new species. In general the bulk of the specimens taken were of the 
same species. Dr. Hansens announced that he will continue his work for 
some time in the future. 

After some discussion on the paper of the evening, Dr. Clausen announced 
that she had heard from Dr. Hagan who seems to be enjoying life on his. 
farm in Nebraska. 

The meeting adjourned at 9 : 15 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 

Note — Minutes are not available for the meeting of Feb. 16, Mar. 2,. 
Mar. 16, Apr. 6, Apr. 20, May 4 and May 18, 1954. 

Meeting of October 5, 1954 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. President Clausen was in the chair. There were eleven 
members and one visitor present. 

On the motion of Dr. Forbes, the minutes of the preceding meeting were 
tabled. 

The evening was devoted to a discussion of the summer experiences of 
the members. 

Dr. Marks reported on his continued work in the genus Papilio. The 
Papilio portions of the Smith, Sperry, and Rindge collections have been 
incorporated into the collection. The material from the fourth Archbold 
Expedition to New Guinea is being worked upon. New Guinea, a very large 
island with extensive mountain ranges, is an area in which Papilio has 
undergone extensive subspeciation. Dr. Marks then displayed copies of “A 
Laboratory Guide for Students of Entomology ’ ’ of which he is co-author 
with Dr. James A. Mullen. 

Dr. Mullen has been working on the blood of the Milkweed Bug. He is 
particularly interested in the ion content. 

Mr. Teale spent part of the summer on the Maine-Canadian border at 
Moose River. His most interesting entomological observation was the 
finding of a nymphal shell of a damsel fly — 52 feet away from the water I 


172 


New York Entomological Society 


[VOL. LXIII 


He also noted, ornitliologically, the attraction of a ruby throated humming- 
bird for a red plaid jacket. 

The first newspaper he saw on his return to civilization was serializing 
our President’s new book. 

Dr. Schneirla went even farther afield. He attended a conference at the 
University of Paris on “ Instinct in Animals”. While there he had the 
opportunity to observe many species of European ants. He also studied 
the indigenous ant fauna of Central Park in New York. 

Dr. Forbes continued his efforts to correlate the male genitalia of ants 
with the taxonomy of the group. He also commented on the many fine 
reviews received by Dr. Clausen’s volume. Mr. Dix and Mrs. Loewning 
collected at Monroe, New York. Mrs. Loewning exhibited a fly trap. Dr. 
Schneirla told of how Coati’s learned to turn fly traps over in the Canal 
Eone. Mr. Teale commented on the great numbers of katydids this year. 

Mr. Pallister gave an interesting account of the entomological year as 
seen from the desk of a museum curator. The year begins with Elm Leaf 
Beetles. This is followed by the wasps. The year ends as it begins with 
the Elm Leaf Beetle. He has written several papers on South American 
nnd Central American beetles. 

It was called to the attention of the Society that Mr. Pallister had 
worked up the insect portion of “The Animal Kingdom” (Greystone 
Press) . 

Mr. Hubermann called Dr. Mullen’s attention to an 84 foot high termite 
colony — termites in a wooden ball atop a flagpole. 

Dr. Vishniac reported that he had worked on insect vision and insect 
flight during the past summer months. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:30 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 

Note — Minutes not available for meetings of October 19 and November 
16, 1954. 

Meeting of December 7, 1954 

The meeting of the New York Entomological Society, held at the American 
Museum of Natural History, was called to order at 8:05 by the President, 
Dr. Lucy Clausen. In the absence of the Secretary, a motion was passed 
to suspend the reading of the minutes of the previous meeting, and the 
President asked Dr. James Forbes to serve as Secretary for the meeting. 

Dr. Clausen welcomed the 23 members and 7 guests present and extended 
an invitation to our coming meetings. Two persons were proposed for 
membership; Mr. Edward J. Feeley of 208 East 123rd Street, New York 35, 
N. Y. and Mr. Carl D. Prota of 221 County Street, New Haven 11, Conn. 
These proposals will be held over to be voted upon at the next meeting. 

Dr. Vishniac introduced the speaker of the evening, Dr. E. S. Hodgson 
of the Department of Zoology of Barnard College and Columbia University 
whose topic for discussion was “Recent Studies on Insect Chemoreception. ” 

The speaker’s opening remarks were that the literature on chemoreceptors 
and chemoreception in insects is voluminous and overwhelming because of 


1955] 


Proceedings of the Society 


173 


the diversity of observations and interpretations of the investigators. In 
briefly tracing the history of these investigations, he pointed out that the 
earlier workers spent considerable time in delving into the anatomy and 
histology of these structures and then trying to explain their functioning 
on the basis of what is known about chemoreceptors in mammals and humans. 
This has continued up to rather recent times. In some previous work on 
chemoreceptors in water beetles, Dr. Hodgson located sensilla on the tips 
of the antennae and on the tips of the maxillary and the labial palps. 
These were determined to be chemoreceptors by covering other sensilla and 
various parts of the head with lacquers and paraffin. 

Within the past few years, Dethier, in his work on the sensilla in flies, 
has described bristles on the labellar lobes of the fly proboscis. These are 
chemoreeeptive, because the proboscis is extended and reacts when they are 
touched with sugar solutions. At the base of each bristle there are three 
fairly large cells, which are probably nerve cells because of their position, 
their morphology, and their staining reactions. Two of these nerve cells 
send processes to the tip of the bristle where they are combined in a 
specialized ending. All three cells are connected by processes to the central 
nervous system. 

The speaker then explained the work he has been doing in Dr. Roeder’s 
laboratory in studying the electric potentials and in making oscillographic 
recordings of the functioning of these chemoreceptors on the fly labellum. 
He explained the apparatus he uses, and the techniques he employs. He 
showed the results he has obtained, so far. The difficulties in both technique 
and interpretation were discussed. 

In summary Dr. Hodgson made the following points. Insects apparently 
do not have chemoreceptors similar to mammals and humans, which respond 
to various kinds of substances (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter). The re- 
sponse in the insect is one of either acceptance or non-acceptance. The 
anatomy and histology of these receptors is important, but structure alone 
will not reveal all the story. Lastly, the state of the central nervous sys- 
tem, as a whole, is important, and not only the reception and the response 
of the end organ. A discussion of the techniques used and the interpreta- 
tions made followed the presentation of the paper. 

The President appointed a Nominating Committee, consisting of Dr. 
Herbert Ruckes, Mr. Edwin W. Teale, and Dr. James Forbes as Chairman, 
to arrange for a slate of candidates for the various offices to be presented 
at the annual meeting in January. Dr. Clausen mentioned that the second 
meeting in December, which should be the next regularly scheduled meeting 
of the Society, has been postponed by the Executive Committee because this 
year it falls too close to Christmas. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:40 P.M. 

James Forbes, Secretary, pro tern. 

Meeting of January 4, 1955 

The annual meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. There were 14 members and 6 guests present. President 


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New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


Dr. Clausen in the chair. The minutes of the previous meeting were ac- 
cepted as read. It was announced that the annual reports of the Secretary 
and Treasurer would be given at a later date. Mr. Edward J. Feeley of 
208 East 123rd St., New York City and Mr. Carl D. Prota of 221 County 
Street, New Haven 11, Connecticut, were elected to membership. 

Dr. Clausen reported on the health of two members. Dr. Pohl is re- 
covering in a very satisfactory fashion from surgery. Mr. Chris Olsen has 
been in the hospital for three months and is recuperating nicely. 

Dr. Forbes then reported for the Nominating Committee of which he was 
chairman. 

The following officers were nominated: 

President — Dr. Boman Vishniac 
Vice-President — Dr. Asher Treat 
Secretary — Dr. Louis S. Marks 
Assistant Secretary — Dr. Frederick Bindge 
Treasurer — Mr. Jacob Huberman 
Assistant Treasurer — Mrs. Patricia Vaurie 
Editor emeritus — Dr. Harry B. Weiss 
Editor — Mr. Frank A. Soraci 

Trustees — Drs. L. Clausen, M. Cazier and H. Euckes, and Mr. E. L. 
Huntington 

Mr. Teale seconded the nominations. The Secretary was empowered to 
cast one ballot for the nominated slate. The retiring President, Dr. Clausen, 
then thanked the members and officers who had cooperated with her and 
turned the chair over to the new President, Dr. Vishniac. 

Dr. Vishniac thanked Dr. Clausen and asked for the continuing help of 
the membership. He then introduced for the speaker of the evening — Dr. 
Clausen — who spoke on “Some Thoughts of a Eetiring President.” After 
commenting that the title may not have been particularly appropriate, Dr. 
Clausen recalled the early and middle history of the Society. The Society 
started in 1892 and originally met at the home of the members. In 1900 
this cozy group found a meeting place in the American Museum of Natural 
History. The Society is now sixty three years old. She recalled the days 
of Lutz, Mutchler, W. P. Comstock, and W. T. Davis. 

Dr. Clausen recalled that on her first meeting with W. T. Davis, he 
discussed two major topics: first, his ulcers, and secondly, he informed her 
“The graveyards of Staten Island are full of Clausens.” 

She then paid a glowing tribute to Andrew J. Mutchler who had a gruff 
countenance but a heart of gold. Mr. Mutchler had a phenomonal memory, 
especially on library materials. In Mr. Mutchler >s later years, Dr. Clausen 
became his “eyes”, i.e., she sat at the microscope while he read the keys 
and descriptions. 

The meetings of the Society at this time were very well attended. Groups 
of ten to twelve members gathered for dinner before the meetings. The 
conversation at the dinner table was often better than at the meetings. 
The most famous — or infamous — meeting in recent times was arranged 


1955] 


Proceedings of the Society 


175 


by Dr. Curran. The topic was the use of maggots in the treatment of 
osteomyelitis. The accompanying movies were excellent. Everything went 
well until a couple of dull ‘ ‘thuds’ ’ made it necessary to put the lights 
back on. Some of the members had fainted. 

Dr. Clausen was the Society’s thirty-fifth President. During her presi- 
dency, three problems have faced the Society. 

1. Meetings. — During Dr. Clausen’s presidency, a new meeting policy 
was followed. A reading of a scientific paper was alternated with a sym- 
posium. Symposia were held on Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, 
spiders, ants and Lepidoptera. This seemed to work out fairly well. An 
unresolved question is that of a token payment to out-of-town speakers. 

2. Publications. — The movement to change printers started during the 
Presidency of Dr. Hagen, was brought to successful fruition. The Editor, 
Mr. Soraci, worked very hard on making this change a success. Due to the 
delay — the March Journal came out in October. The June, September and 
December, 1954 Journals are in the process of being edited. 

3. Membership. — The membership is divided into two groups, the older 
group and the younger group. This is really not a chronological division, 
but one based on knowledge of the field of entomology. We welcome new- 
comers. 

Dr. Vishniac thanked Dr. Clausen. 

Dr. Janvrin called the attention of the Society to his own 1901 election. 
He recalled the old meetings in the Tower Room. The Secretary showed 
copies of the 1894 By-laws and membership list. 

The January 18 meeting will be a discussion of “Insect Flight” by Dr. 
Vishniac — the new president. 

Mr. Huberman made a motion that the Secretary notify the newspapers. 
Mr. Teale made a motion that notices be sent to members at frequent in- 
tervals. These motions carried. Dr. Treat suggested the possibility of 
student membership. This will be referred to the executive Committee. 
The meeting adjourned at 9:05 P.M. 

L. S. Marks, Secretary 

Note — Minutes of the meeting of January 18, 1955 are not available. 

Meeting of February 1 , 1955 

This regular meeting of the Society, at the American Museum of Natural 
History, was called to order at 8:00 p.m. by the President, Dr. Roman 
Vishniac. In the absence of the Secretary, the minutes of the previous 
meeting were not available for reading, and Dr. James Forbes was asked 
to serve as temporary secretary. Ten members and six guests were present. 

Two notices of coming events were brought to the attention of the mem- 
bers by the President. First, Mr. Hubert J. Thelen of the Brooklyn Ento- 
mological Society is to present a color slide show, “Fragments of Nature,” 
at their February 9th meeting. Second, an American Chemical Society 
meeting on February 11th to be held in the Carbon & Carbide Cafeteria, 
30 E. 42nd St., at 7:30 p.m. will have as its topic, “Basic Considerations 
in Development of Agricultural Chemicals.” 


176 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


Two persons were proposed for membership; Mr. Robert Pioselli of 651 
East 220th St., N. Y. 67, N. Y., proposed by E. Irving Huntington and 
Mr. Isaiah Cleeve Gordon Cooper of 280 Bidwell Ave., Staten Island 14, 
N. Y., proposed by R. Vishniac. The members will vote on these proposals 
at the next meeting. 

Dr. Vishniac commented on some moving pictures which had been pre- 
sented at the recent annual meeting of the New York Zoological Society. 
Dr. William Beebe’s picture about the metamorphosis of the euchromid 
moth, Aethria carnicaude, was excellent. The larva plucks out some of its 
body hairs and arranges them in whorls at either end of its body around 
the twig upon which it is going to pupate. These hairs serve as barricades 
to protect the larva while it is spinning its cocoon. The other picture, 
which was about the sexes of butterflies being attracted to models of the 
opposite sex, he thought was not too conclusive. 

Dr. Forbes passed around some preserved mealworm larvae, which had the 
imaginal wing pads everted. These specimens had been found by Dr. 
Ludwig of Fordham University in his culture. This phenomenon, prothetely, 
is due apparently to an hormonal imbalance at the time of molting. 

The meeting was then turned over to Dr. Forbes who acted as chairman 
of the evening ’s program, which was entitled ‘ 1 Insects Alive ’ ’, a discussion 
of the rearing techniques, material needed, and problems encountered in the 
culturing of some common insects. Mr. Albert Kasper, a graduate student 
in the Biology Department of Fordham University, opened the program by 
explaining and illustrating how he rears cockroaches. He was followed by 
another Fordham graduate student, Mr. P. V. Joseph, who discussed his 
rearing techniques for the housefly. The food used for both these insects 
is dog-food pellets which supply a balanced diet. In the case of the house- 
flies, when the larvae are ready to pupate, sawdust is poured onto the top 
of the culture to supply a drier environment for pupation. Both speakers 
had small cultures of the insects they discussed. 

Dr. Vishniac added that apparently all roaches are not as easily reared 
in the laboratory. The wood-feeding roach, Cryptocercus, has given Dr. 
Cleveland and his workers considerable difficulty. The molting of this insect, 
which occurs about the end of May each year, is correlated with the sexual 
reproduction cycle of its intestinal protozoa. For some inexplicable reason 
this is a hazardous time for the insects. 

Mr. Huberman had a small roach in a bottle, which he had picked up 
from one of his exterminating jobs. This he said was the brown-banded 
roach, a relatively new import, which seems to be becoming more numerous 
about New York City. 

Dr. Ruckes mentioned that in the insectary at Cornell University, where 
they are rearing flies in large quantities for insecticide testing, the culture 
medium used is cow manure moistened every other day or so with evaporated 
milk. 

Miss Alice Gray of the Department of Insects and Spiders of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, the next panel member, pointed out that 
cultures of insects were maintained in their department to provide food 


1955] 


Proceedings of the Society 


177 


for living displays. Cultures of the giant tropical roach and mealworms 
are maintained practically constantly and fruitflies and other forms as 
they are needed. The roaches and mealworms are used to feed tarantulas, 
scorpions, and the black-widow spider. Miss Gray had these arachnids and 
insects on display. 

A small culture of the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, which had 
been arranged by Dr. James A. Mullen from a larger culture in his labora- 
tory, was displayed and commented upon by Dr. Forbes in Dr. Mullen’s 
absence. 

Dr. Vishniac had some black field crickets which he had collected near 
Carmel, N. Y. He was hoping to hear them chirp during the winter months. 
Miss Gray remarked that he would probably need a fairly large cage or 
container for them to keep happy and chirping. 

The meeting was adjourned at 9:20 p.m. so that those present could get 
a chance to see the displays and to continue the discussions and questions 
informally. 

James Forbes, Secretary , pro tern. 

Meeting of February 15, 1955 

The meeting at the American Museum of Natural History, was called to 
order at 8:10 P.M., President Vishniac in the chair. There were twenty- 
one members and guests present. Dr. Ruckes was appointed secretary pro 
tempore in the absence of Dr. Marks. 

Dr. Forbes read the minutes of the previous meeting (February 1, 1955) 
which were approved as read. 

Dr. Vishniac remarked upon the fact that the present period of the year 
represents the height of insect inactivity. Over the weekend no evidence of 
insect life was observed, merely evidence of life to come was found in the 
form of egg clusters (tent caterpillar), and these were passed around for 
inspection. Dr. Vishniac also drew attention to an article by Lindauer in 
the German journal “Die Unschau” on the cooling and warming systems 
used by insects. 

Dr. Treat reported for the program committee and stated that the pro- 
gram for the remainder of the year has virtually been completed. The 
committee also discussed the possibility of procuring, from time to time, 
paid outside speakers. No action of this proposal was taken, however. 

The Society elected two new members: Robert Pioselli, 651 East 220th 
Street, and Mr. Cooper, 280 Bidwell Avenue, Staten Island. Dr. Vishniac 
introduced Mr. Cooper, now Curator of the William T. Davis collection at 
the Staten Island Museum. Mr. Cooper invited all members of the New 
York Society to visit at St. George, Staten Island, at any time. 

Dr. William S. Creighton, speaker of the evening, chose for his topic 
“Some Notes on the Habits of Desert Ants”. He called particular atten- 
tion to the species Veromessor pergandei (Mayr), one of the harvester ants 
of the southwest. With the showing of a number of very beautiful Koda- 
chrome slides, Dr. Creighton set the stage for his talk which covered the 
area of the Chihuahuan, Sonoran and Mojave deserts. In these areas pre- 


178 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. lxiii 


cipitation varies from five inches (Mojave) to twenty inches (Chihuahuan) 
of rainfall a year, and daily temperatures range from 40 degrees F. in early 
morning to more than 130 degrees F. during midday. It becomes soon 
patent that all life is geared at least to these two climatic conditions. 
Harvester ants are vegetarians, so their activities are tied in with the cyclic 
development of the vegetation which in turn is dependent on rainfall and 
temperature. While grain seeds (the food of these ants) are present in 
small quantities all year round, most grasses produce their seeds in large 
quantity during only limited periods. Therefore harvester ants can forage 
either — a) all year round, or — b) during that annual period when seed 
production is at its maximum, i.e., during the mid and late summer after 
sufficient earlier rainfall. V eromessor pergandei appears to follow the later 
procedure. After seeds are harvested they are carried to the nests for 
storage and soon thereafter are shucked of their hulls which are then dis- 
posed of outside of the nest on the slopes of the 1 ‘crater”. There seems 
to be a definite periodicity in the activity of these ants and a specific be- 
havior pattern followed. Dr. Creighton was interested in trying to explain 
this behavior. The activity is somewhat as follows: In early morning (about 
5:30 A.M.) the ants emerge from the nests, begin foraging when tempera- 
tures are near 40 degrees F. and light of day still rather dilute; foraging 
continues until about 10:30 A.M. when all foraging seems to cease and the 
ants return to their nests. At this time the temperatures may be as high 
as 115 degrees or may be much lower (90 degrees) but there is full sunlight 
present. No further foraging activity is evident until about 5:30 P.M. 
when the activity recommences. In the interim the ants have been actively 
engaged in shucking the seeds previously gathered and disposing of the 
hulls outside the nest. During the mid-day period the ground temperatures 
reach as high as 145 degrees F. and even more; if at this time ants are 
removed from the nest they immediately scurry back if close by, but if 
placed too far from the entrance of the nest (travelling time 20 seconds to 
iy 2 minutes) they die. Temperature seems to play some role but is not the 
sole factor controlling the activity. Dr. Creighton tried modifying light 
intensities by using various shading devices but no definite conclusions 
could be reached since most ants were somewhat uncooperative. 

In summation Dr. Creighton pointed out that there is apparently an in- 
teraction of several factors involved in interpreting this behavior: 1) tem- 
perature, 2) light intensity, 3) time of day, and 4) the quantity of seed 
collected during the foraging period (foraging does not recommence in the 
afternoon until all seeds collected during the morning period have been 
shucked). General discussion followed the presentation of this fine paper. 
Emphasis was laid on the possibility of another factor, i.e., color intensity, 
being involved. The measuring, both quantitatively and qualitatively of 
color intensity might be very important and add considerable to a better 
understanding of this phenomenon. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:45 P.M. 

Herbert Euckes, Secretary, pro. tern. 

Note — Minutes of the meeting of March 1, 1955 are not available. 


1955] 


Proceedings of the Society 


179 


Meeting of March 15, 1955 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History, President Vishniac in the chair. There were 25 members 
and 14 guests present. The minutes of the preceding meeting were ac- 
cepted as read. The Program Committee chairman, Dr. Treat, read the 
program for the next four meetings. 

Mr. Robert Bloch, 781 Ocean Avenue, Brooklyn, sponsored by Mr. Huber- 
man, was elected to membership. The following were proposed for mem- 
bership: Mr. John G. Lloyd, B. D. #2, Farmingdale, New Jersey, proposed 
by Dr. James Forbes, and Mr. Eoger M. Gable, Eidgefield Eoad, North 
Salem, New York, proposed by Mr. Lucien L. Pohl. 

Dr. Vishniac introduced Mr. Baumhoner who had worked with him in 
Orlando, Florida. Mr. Baumhoner spoke on his work with screwflies in Cur- 
acao. The release of sterile males cuts down the reproductive potential of 
the entire screwfly population. He used 400 sterile males per square mile. 
Within two weeks success had been achieved. This procedure has virtually 
eliminated the screwworm in the area. 

Dr. Vishniac then introduced the speaker of the evening, the Osborn 
Professor of Zoology at Yale, Dr. Charles Remington, who spoke on mimicry. 

Dr. Remington traced the concept of mimicry in historical fashion start- 
ing with the work of Henry Walter Bates on the Amazon in 1862 in which 
he discovered this phenomenon in Heliconids, Ithomiids, and Pierids. 

Bates noticed the resemblance between the forms and formulated the 
theory today called in his honor Batesian mimicry. 

In Batesian mimicry the insect is conspicuous to serve as a warning to 
predators. A conspicuous pattern means nonedibility. The models which 
are poisonous are common. The mimics which are non-poisonous are very 
rare. The predator learns to reject the model and thus the mimic is pro- 
tected. 

Dr. Remington discussed Carpenter’s feeding experiments and some done 
in his own laboratory that illustrated the education of predators or their 
innate refusal to take certain forms. He also showed evidence of beak 
marks and lizard mouth outlines on butterfly wings. 

An interesting conclusion presented by Dr. Remington was that one can- 
not generalize about the feeding habits of predators in relation to mimicry 
phenomena. 

Dr. Remington very briefly discussed the genetics of mimicry. He then 
also briefly discussed Mullerian mimicry in which there are two or more 
distasteful models which are almost identical. In Mullerian mimicry abun- 
dance is no criterion. 

The talk was illustrated by Kodachromes of specimens and plates from 
various books. 

The meeting adjourned at 10:00 P.M. 


Louis S. Marks, Secretary 


180 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


Meeting of April 5, 1955 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History (Room 129), President Vishniac in the chair. There were 
fifteen members and eight guests present. The minutes of the preceding 
meeting were accepted as read. Mr. John G. Lloyd, R. D. #2, Farming- 
dale, New Jersey, and Mr. Roger M. Gable, Ridgefield Road, North Salem, 
New York, were elected to membership. Dr. William J. Wall, New York 
State College for Teachers, Albany, New York, was proposed by Dr. Minnie 
B. Scotland (per notification of the Secretary). 

The President called attention to the death of Judge Parker of Woods 
Hole. He also called attention to Edgerton’s work on undersea photog- 
raphy with electronic flash which appeared in the last issue of National 
Geographic magazine. 

The Secretary displayed the Fordham University copy of the 1862 paper 
of Henry Walter Bates and the 1879 paper of Fritz Muller. These two 
papers are the starting points for any discussion of Batesian and Mullerian 
mimicry. 

Dr. Vishniac then introduced the speaker of the evening, Dr. Louis S. 
Marks of Fordham University, the Secretary of the Society, who spoke on 
“ Insects and Stamps”. 

Dr. Marks briefly traced the history of stamp collecting from its infancy 
in the 1850’s until the present day. He divided it into three parts. The 
early period in which the entire philatelic output of the world w'as collected. 
The period came to a close because the rarity of certain items made their 
collection impossible and the rise of forgeries of some of these items — the 
classics, as they are called — discouraged the average collector. Of this 
period, Dr. Marks displayed some of the early newspaper stamps of Austria, 
including forgeries and reprints. 

The second period was the age of specialization in one country, or period, 
or even in one issue or one stamp. This still remains a favorite means of 
collecting. 

The third and most recent period involves the collecting of stamps on one 
topic or theme. Of this period Dr. Marks displayed seven frames of stamps. 

A successful, complete collection of insects on stamps (including the 
entomologists) would contain 205 stamps from 41 countries. Only the more 
spectacular stamps were on display. 

Dr. Marks explained why insects appear on stamps. They may be decora- 
tive as corner fillers; the Netherlands Indies are of this type. They may be 
used on Charity issues to make them attractive. The Swiss “Pro Juven- 
tute” issues are of this type. Or as in the case of the famous Mozambique 
butterflies and Portuguese Guinea beetles, the collectors eye and alas! his 
pocketbook, may be the ultimate objective. The acquisition, arrangement 
and display of a collection of this type was discussed. 

The literature of Insects on Stamps was reviewed. The Kodachrome 
slides of the stamps shown were from the collection of Dr. Lucy Clausen. 


1955] 


Proceedings of the Society 


181 


For the Lepidoptera, Dr. Marks showed slides of the various Papilio which 
have appeared on stamps from his own slide collection. 

Mr. Sidney Hessel showed a page of early United States “Bee” can- 
cellations and graciously distributed copies of a reprint on “ Philatelic 
Lepidoptera’ ’ by Smith which had appeared in the Lepidopterists News. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:45 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 
Meeting of April 19, 1955 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. In the absence of Dr. Vishniac, Vice-President Treat 
was in the chair. There were fourteen members and one guest present. 
The minutes of the preceding meeting were accepted as read. The program 
committee announced that Dr. Cazier will speak on the new Southwest 
desert laboratory early in the Fall. Dr. A. B. Klots will speak in December. 

Dr. William J. Wall, New York State College for Teachers, Albany, New 
York, was elected to membership. 

The Secretary called the attention of the Society to the illness of Mr. 
Arthur Roensch, a former treasurer of the Society. Dr. Ruckes made a 
motion to send a get-well card to Mr. Roensch. This was enthusiastically 
seconded. 

Dr. Treat called attention to all of the past presidents present — Dr. 
Ruckes, Dr. Forbes, Mr. Teale, Dr. Clausen. 

Dr. Treat then introduced Dr. Forbes who conducted the symposium on 
live insects. The members and their guests gathered about the table in a 
mode and mood reminiscent of the early days of the Society. 

Dr. Clausen exhibited Ptinid or spider beetles feeding on Pablum and 
some cicadas. Mr. Dix exhibited the German roach. The Carolina mantes 
from Louisiana was shown by Miss Alice Gray. 

Dr. Treat showed an ant nest designed by Dr. Creighton and exhibited 
moths of the genus Zate which contained a new mite. The mite nests in 
both “ears” — but later leaves the ear. This confirms certain theories of 
Dr. Treat. Dr. Treat also discussed his experiences with “black light” 
collecting. He uses a 15 watt GE tube with a maximum emission at a wave 
length of 3,000 Angstroms. 

Dr. Mullen exhibited a thriving colony of termites which he has kept 
going for four years. He furthermore described a colony he has kept going 
for ten years without any alate forms. Dr. Mullen described many strange 
habits of termites which he has reported in the literature, i.e. their wine 
imbibing propensities and the most interesting fact that they will bore 
through lead. 

Mr. Teale discussed the first signs of Spring. Spring moves north at 
the rate of fifteen miles per day. Mr. Teale showed photographs of a neu- 
ropteran which was identified by Dr. Rehn as a member of the Ascalaphidae. 
He mentioned two interesting examples of nest building — one in which a 
house wren used part of a tent caterpillar nest as material and another 
where a Polistes used clothesline. 


182 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


Mr. Teale, Miss Gray and Dr. Rehn engaged in a discussion of the habits 
of mantids. There was also a discussion of Ants and Aphids including an 
instance in which an Ant removed a woolly aphid. The members decided 
this was an example of culling the herd. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:30 P.M. 

Louis S. Marks, Secretary 

Note — Minutes of the meetings of May 3 and May 17, 1955 are not 
available. 


BOOK NOTICES 

Insects in their World. By Su Z an N. Swain. Garden City 

Books. Garden City, New York. 1955. 8% x 11% inches, vi 

+ 53 pp. Illustrated. $2.50. 

If further proof is needed of the ability of Su Zan Swain, 
honorary member of the New York Entomological Society, to 
teach and enthuse children and adults in the fields of entomology 
and art, it is contained in this fine book. 

Starting her message with the sentence, “This book was writ- 
ten to encourage you to explore the world of insects.”, Mrs. 
Swain proceeds to tell and show how, where, when and why. 
With uncluttered language, she introduces her readers to the 
world of insects. Her careful, beautiful and profuse illustra- 
tions lead the neophyte by the hand through the field of insect 
study and the pleasures and benefits that might be derived. 

Interesting insects and insect habits are selected, outlined, il- 
lustrated and discussed to whet the appetite of youngsters and 
laymen. 

To serve its purpose, this book should be made available to 
children in grade and high schools. The budding entomologist 
or naturalist might easily use this work as a first step before 
taking the second step to the much used and very helpful, f ‘ The 
Insect Guide,” earlier publication by Ralph B. Swain. It is 
suggested that you keep Mrs. Swain’s book in mind when trying 
to select a gift for the youngster who is a little tired of modern 
living and needs a breath of good, fresh air. — F.A.S. 


1955] 


Proceedings of the Society 


183 


Dragonflies of North America. By James G. Needham and Min- 
ter J. Westfall, Jr. 1955. University of California Press. 
Berkeley 4, California. 6y 2 x 9% inches, xii + 615 pp. 341 
figs. $12.50. 

To the many entomologists, who are interested in the Dragon- 
flies, this book must become the Bible. Through its pages the 
suborder Anisoptera is fully covered. The book is divided into 
two parts; the first of which deals with the dragonflies in gen- 
eral, providing an excellent introduction to the Odonata and its 
suborder, collection, rearing and preservation of specimens and 
suggestions on use of the taxonomic information, which com- 
prises the second part of the book. A list of genera and species 
completes the first part. 

Part two of the book is taken up with Systematic Classifica- 
tion. In the descriptions, keys and tables the language used is 
as simple as is consistent with clarity. Diagrams and photo- 
graphic illustrations are well utilized throughout, to give every 
possible help to the beginner. A glossary is also presented as 
an important aid. And finally there is a helpful list of synonyms. 

The authors took cognizance of the need for information on 
the nymphal stages of the dragonflies. Characters by which 
these stages might be recognized are treated in separate keys 
and tables. Illustrations of nymphs of each of the 66 genera are 
provided. 

An authoritative manual on the dragonflies has been needed 
for many years. Entomologists, experts and beginners, will find 
it indispensable. — F.A.S. 

Mosquitoes of North America. By Stanley J. Carpenter and 
Walter J. La Casse. 1955. University of California Press. 
Berkeley 4, California. 9 x ll 1 /^ inches, vi + 360 pp. + 127 
full page plates. $10.00. 

This book provides an excellent reference and a much needed 
single manual on the mosquitoes of North America. The 127 
full plates of adult mosquitoes, contributed by Japanese artists 
Saburo Shibata and Kakuzo Yamazaki are outstanding. 

Good general information on mosquito life history, collecting, 
preparation of specimens and anatomy of all stages is given in 
the first 24 pages of the book. The remainder is devoted to de- 


184 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIII 


scriptions and keys of the 143 species and subspecies treated. 
Keys are provided for genera and species, adults and larvae. 
The descriptions cover adult females, males and male terminalia, 
and larvae. There is included an impressive bibliography and 
a systematic index, which add further to the usefulness of the 
book. 

It is very likely that Mosquitoes of North America will become 
the standard encyclopedia on this subject. The arrangement of 
genera and species follows closely that of Edwards. Figures, 
largely from standard references capably illustrate the larval 
characteristics. 

Entomologists, engineers and all others engaged in the study 
and control of mosquitoes are indebted to the authors for the 
production of this excellent manual. — F.A.S. 


INDEX TO NAMES OF INSECTS AND PLANTS IN 
VOLUME LXIII 

Generic names begin with capital letters. New genera, subgenera, species, 


varieties and new names are printed i 

Aehsearanea, 60 

tepidariorum, 70 
vittata, 60 
Achea lueulenta, 61 
Aedes, 43 

sollicitans, 123 
Agapema, 14 
Anisomorpha, 85 

Anopheles quadrimaculatus, 43, 123 
Apis mellifica, 107 
Arctogeophilus fulvus, 158 
Arenophilus bipuncticeps, 158 
Argynnis lais, 95 
Argyrodes elegans, 68 
Attacns pernyi, 9, 107 

Bittacus 

apicalis, 55 
oceidentalis, 56 
pilicornis, 56 
stigmaterus, 56 
strigosus, 56 
Blatta orientalis, 85 
Bombyx mori, 107, 149 
Boreus 

brumalis, 56 
nivoriundus, 56 

Bothropolys multidentatus, 156 

Calliphora, 149 

erythrocephala, 164 
vomitaria, 107 
Catallagia 

borealis, 139 
onaga, 139 

Ceratophyllus gallinae, 105 
Chrysso, 59 

albomaculata, 59, 61 
davisi, 61 
diplosticha, 63 
diplostichus, 65 
ecuadorensis, 66 


italics. 

elegans, 68 
huanuco, 64 
indicifer, 65, 66 
lyparus, 63 
marice, 68 
nigriceps, 65 
nigripalpus, 60 
nigrosternum, 60 
perblexum, 60 
quadratum, 60 
sicTci, 67 
splendida, 60 
sulcata, 67 
vallensis, 59, 64, 65 
vexabilis, 62, 63 
Clethrionomys gapperi, 139 
Coleosoma flavipes, 60 
Conorhinopsylla stanfordi, 139 
Cryphula, 135 

abortiva, 135, 137 
apicatus, 137 
fasciata, 137 
Key to species, 136 
nitens, 135 

parallelogramma, 135, 137 
subunicolor, 136 
trimaculata, 136 
Ctenocephalides 
canis, 139 
felis, 104, 139 
Culex 

quinquefasciatus, 43 
restuans, 131 
Cyclommatus tarandus, 35 

Deilephila euphorbise, 149 
Dorylus (Anomma) nigricans, 36 

Eciton 

hamatum, 21 

Key to larval stages, 30 
Eptescopsylla chapini, 140 


185 


186 


New York Entomological Society 


t Vol. LXIIE 


Erioptera (Mesocyphona) celestior, 
121 

Forficula auricularia, 35 

Galleria mellonella, 9 
Garrina parapoda, 159 
Gastrophilus intestinalis, 161 
Geophilus 

mordax, 158 
vittatus, 158 

Helvibis sulcata, 67 

Leueopliea maderiae, 85 
Limonia 

(Dicranomyia) 
altandina, 111 
andinalta, 112 
clavistyla, 113 
penana, 114 
(Geranomyia) 
oneris, 117 
stenoleuca, 118 
yunquensis, 119 
Liquidambar, 62 
Lithobius forficatus, 156 
Lucilia sericata, 149 

Malacosoma amerieana, 107 
Melanoplus 

differentialis, 161 
femur-rubrum, 85 
Merope tuber, 56 
Musca domestiea, 9, 125, 141 
Myrmica rubra, 36 

Nadabius iowensis, 156 
Neolithobius 

suprenans, 155 
voracior, 155 

Nosopsyllus fasciatus, 104 

Oeeopliylla longineda, 36 
Orchopeas caedens durus, 139 

Pachymerium ferrugineum, 158 
Panorpa 


acuta, 56 
amerieana, 57 
banksi, 57 
bifida, 56 
canadensis, 56 
chelata, 57 
claripennis, 56 
decorata, 56 
dissimilis, 57 
elaborata, 56 
latipennis, 56 
maculosa, 55 
mirabilis, 56 
nebulosa, 56 
rufescens, 56 
signifer, 56 
subfurcata, 56 
submaculosa, 56 
venosa, 56 
Virginia, 57 

Paratenodera sinensis, 85 
Periplaneta americanum, 85 
Phormia regina, 13 
Pinus 

insularis, 44 
palustris, 44 
taeda, 44 

Pokabius bilabiatus, 155 
Popillia japonica, 9, 107, 141, 149, 
161 

Platysamia cecropia, 14, 161 
Phyllophaga, 85 
Pristipliora erichsonii, 161 
Pseudomyrmex 
apache, 20 
brunnea, 19 
elongata, 17 
cubaensis, 18 
subatra, 19 
tandem, 18 
gracilis mexicana, 19 
Key to U. S. species, 19 
pallida, 20 
Prosopis juliflora, 17 
Psoroptes, 44 

Quercus 

fusiformis, 17 


1955] 


Index 


187 


virginiana, 17 

Tenebrio molitor, 107, I 
Theatops, 155 

Komalea microptera, 85 

spinicauda, 157 
Theridion, 60 

Saturnia pyri, 9, 107 

albomaculatum, 61 

Scolopocryptops 

ansatum, 70 

rubiginosa, 157 

cambridgei, 60 

sexspinosa, 157 

diplostichum, 65 

Scutigera coleoptrata, 159 

elegans, 68 

Sigibius urbanus, 155 

elevatum, 73 

Sigmatomera (Sigmatomera) felix, 

emendatum, 68 

120 

fordulum, 73 

Sonibius politus, 155 

fordum, 70, 73 

Sozibius providens, 156 

indiciferum, 66 

Speyeria (Speyeria) atlantis lielena, 

keyserlingi, 65 

95 

lyparum, 63 

Spbinx ligustri, 9, 107 

migrans, 7 0 

Steatoda 

mixtum, 7 2 

albomaculata, 61 

passivum, 70 

elegans, 68 

sulcatum, 67 

elevata, 73 

texanum, 73 

forda, 71 

vexabile, 63 

mixta, 72 

volutum, 61 

voluta, 61 

Tidarren, 59, 69 

Strigamia 

fordum, 71 

bidens, 158 

minor, 73 

bothriopa, 158 

mixtum, 72 

Strumigenys 

sisyphoides, 70 

cultriger, 97 

Tococa formicaria, 102 

deltisquama, 99 
prospiciens, 98 

Tomotaenia urania, 159 

tococae, 101 

Xenopsylla clieopis, 104 




£ 


The 


New York Entomological Society 

Organized June 29, 1892 — Incorporated February 25 , 1893 
Reincorporated February 17, 1943 


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Officers for the Year 195 5 


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Vice-President, DR. ASHER TREAT 

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Assistant Secretary, DR. FREDERICK H. RINDGE 

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; ' ' - 

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PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

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DELEGATE TO THE N. Y. ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

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JOURNAL 

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Volume LXIV 


1956 

Journal 

of the 

New York Entomological Society 

Devoted to Entomology in General 

Editor Emeritus HARRY B. WEISS 



Edited by FRANK A. SORACI 


Publication Committee 

FRANK A. SORACI HERBERT F. SCHWARZ 

E. W. TEALE JAMES MULLEN 


Subscription $5.00 per Year 


CONTENTS 


William Phillips Comstock, 1880-1956 

By Cyril F. dos Passos 1 

i 

Proceedings of the New York Entomological Society 6 

A Revision of the Genus Ephuta (Mutiilidae) in America 
North of Mexico 

By R. M. Schuster I 7 

The Relationships of the Tyroglyphoid Mite, Histiostoma 
Polypori (Qud.) with the Earwig, Forficula Auric- 
uiaria Linn. 


The* Occurrence of the Rat Louse (Polyplax Spinulosa) 
on the Norway Rat in New Jersey 

By JElton J. .Hansens 95 

A Preliminary Lislt of the Aphids of New Jersey 

BY Mortimer D. Leonard 99 

An Aberrant Maxillary Palpus and other Abnormalities in 
a Female of Acronycta Grisea Walker 

By Asher E. Treat 125 

Flies bn tfa^ Faces of Egyptian Children 

0 By J. D. De Ooursey and J. S. Otto 129 

Undescribed Species of Crane-Flies from the Himalaya 
Mountains (Tipulidae, Diptera), I 

By • Charles R Alexander 137' 

The . Abundance and Habits of Laelaps Echidninus on 

Rats in New Jersey 

By H. Allen Thomas 149 


Endamoeba Histolytica and Certain Other Protozoan 
Organisms Found in Cockroaches in Cairo, Egypt 

By John D. De Cqursey and James S. Otto ... 157 

The Reaction Time of Noctuid Moths to Ultrasonic Stim- 
ulation 

By Asher E. Treat 4. 165* 

Book Notice ..., 172 

The Anoplura. of New Jersey 

By Stuart. R' Race 173 

. 

NOTICE: Volume LXXIX of the Journal 
of the New York Entomological Society 
was Published on March 8, 1957 


Published Quarterly for the Society 
By Business Press, Inc. 

Lancaster, Pa. 

Subscriptions should be sent to the Treasurer, J. Huberman, American Museum of 
Natural History, New York 24, N. Y. 


/' 


1 



Journal 

of the 

New York 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Devoted to Entomology in General 


VOLUME L X I V 


^ITKSt^iAN INSTiTimOM 


Published by the Society 
New York, N. Y. 



Business Press, Inc. 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania 


CONTENTS OF VOLUME LXIV 


PAGE 

Alexander, Charles P. 

Undescribed Species of Crane-Flies from the Himalaya 

Mountains (Tipulidae, Diptera), I 137 

Behura, Basanta Kumar 

The relationships of the Tyroglyphoid Mite, Histiostoma 
Polypori (Ond.) with the Earwig, Forficula Auricu- 

laria Linn 85 

Book Notice 172 

De Coursey, John D. and James S. Otto 

Endamoeba Histolytica and Certain Other Protozoan 
Organisms Found in Cockroaches in Cairo, Egypt 157 

Flies on the Faces of Egyptian Children 129 

dos Passos, Cyril F. 

William Phillips Comstock, 1880-1956 1 

Hansens, Elton J. 

The Occurrence of the Rat Louse (Polyplax Spinulosa) 

on the Norway Rat in New Jersey 95 

Leonard, Mortimer D. 

A Preliminary List of the Aphids of New Jersey 99 

Proceedings of the New York Entomological Society 6 

Race, Stuart R. 

The Anoplnra of New Jersey 173 

Schuster, R. M. 

A Revision of the Genus Ephuta (Mutillidae) in America 

North of Mexico 7 

Thomas, H. Allen 

The Abundance and Habits of Laelaps Echidninns on 

Rats in New Jersey 149 

Treat, Asher E. 

An Aberrant Maxillary Palpus and other Abnormalities 
in a Female of Acronycta Grisea Walker 165 

The Reaction Time of Noctuid Moths to Ultrasonic 

Stimulation 165 

iii 



WILLIAM PHILLIPS COMSTOCK 


Journal of the 

New York Entomological Society 


Vol. LXIY 


1956 


WILLIAM PHILLIPS COMSTOCK, 1880-1956 

William Phillips Comstock was born at New York City, New 
York on 1 March 1880. He was the only child of William Tomp- 
kins Comstock, formerly of Redding, Connecticut, and Mary Ida 
Phillips of Nashua, New Hampshire. Although an only child, 
he was brought up, fortunately, with two orphaned cousins, 
Elizabeth and Ida Comstock, daughters of his uncle, Dr. David 
Close Comstock, who were like sisters to him. 

Will, as he was familiarly known to his friends, was educated 
at the Horace Mann School in New York City, and in 1903 gradu- 
ated from Columbia University from which he received his B.A. 
degree, and also earned his athletic ‘ ‘ C ’ ’ by serving as coxswain 
of the varsity crew. 

After graduation Will entered his father’s publishing house in 
New York City, The William T. Comstock Company, which spe- 
cialized in architectural books and published a magazine entitled 
“Architecture and Building.’ ’ This was not entirely to Will’s 
liking, but because of his father’s poor health he stayed there 
until his father’s death in 1910. He then turned to construction 
work, which was more to his taste, and during the First World 
War, being ineligible for military service, he worked on a large 
army supply base that was being erected in New Orleans. After 
the war he worked in Baltimore on another substantial construc- 
tion job undertaken by the American Sugar Refining Company. 
When that job was completed, Will became consulting engineer 
for the Roanoke Water Company and was located at times in 
Virginia and at other times on Long Island, New York. 

With the coming of the depression in 1932 most construction 
and engineering jobs ceased, and Will turned to his life interest, 
entomology, which thus far had been a side line or hobby. 


2 


New York Entomological Society 


[VOL. LXIV 


At an early age Will became interested in entomology and by 
good fortune made the acquaintance of Frank Edward Watson 
(1877-1947), with whom he formed a close friendship that lasted 
as long as they lived. Together they collected, mostly Rhopalo- 
cera, in the vicinity of New York City, and especially in Van 
Cortlandt Park. It must be remembered that in the Nineteenth 
Century upper New York City was open country, and there were 
many good collecting grounds which have long since disappeared. 

Living at 117 Lincoln Avenue, Newark, New Jersey, where he 
had moved with his family in 1907, residing there until 1953, he 
went with the Newark Museum as a Research Assistant in Novem- 
ber of 1934 and worked in their Science Department on the ento- 
mological collection. This connection continued until 1937 when 
he came to the American Museum of Natural History where, in 
1944, he became a Research Associate in the Department of In- 
sects and Spiders. 

Will’s main interest in Lepidoptera was in the Lycaenidae, and 
most of his papers deal with that family. However, during the 
last years of his life and until 1950 when he retired due to ill 
health, he was engaged with the late Frank Johnson in writing 
a Monograph of the genus Anaea, which was completed but has 
not yet been published. This is a beautiful work, excellently 
illustrated by many colored figures. 

Will was interested also in philately and formed a nice collec- 
tion of United States and foreign stamps, which was disposed of 
some years before his death. This collection showed his usual 
care and close attention to details. 

Will was a mild-mannered, friendly man who had scores of 
friends and no enemies. During our friendship, which began in 
1935 through Watson, who was then a Scientific Assistant in the 
Department of Insects and Spiders of the American Museum of 
Natural History, he and his wife often visited me. At the Mu- 
seum, where we met frequently, he usually wore a blue smock and 
invariably a blue bow tie and a striped shirt. Blue was his 
favorite color. With hair that was grey, he looked more like an 
artist than an entomologist. The accompanying photograph, 
taken about 1950, is an excellent likeness. 

No one had greater aptitude than Will for inventing and 
making things. He was, what has been termed, a “jack of all 


1956] 


Don Passos: Comstock 


3 


trades.” With Watson they planned and made several hun- 
dreds of what became known as the Watson-Comstock insect box. 
It is quite an ingenious, light and inexpensive affair with top 
and bottom of heavy cardboard and sides of wood. The bottom 
is lined with pressed cork. During the Second World War, Will 
and his sons organized a small machine shop in the cellar of their 
home, where parts for munitions, etc., were turned out. Any- 
thing or any job that had to be done about the home, Will was 
qualified and able to handle. 

A member of the New York Entomological Society, President 
for the year 1943, and Delegate to the New York Academy of 
Sciences from 1945 to 1950, Will was a member also of the Brook- 
lyn Entomological Society, Newark Entomological Society and 
The Lepidopterists’ Society. 

Will was first married in 1907 to Eleanor Robinson of Newark, 
New Jersey, but became a widower two months later. On 16 
April 1914 he was married to Mary Rait Robinson of Chelsea-on- 
Hudson, New York and later Newark, New Jersey, who survives 
him. They have three sons, also surviving, Richard Underhill, 
William Phillips, Jr., and Theodore Robinson, as well as thirteen 
grandchildren. One snapshot that has been seen recently shows 
Will beaming in the midst of three daughters-in-law, five young 
grandchildren as well as Mrs. Comstock and a friend with her 
small child. While the Comstock boys were in service, their 
families lived with Will and his wife, and during that time Will’s 
disposition, as usual, was perfect. 

After a long illness Will passed away at his home in Shark 
River Hills, Neptune, New Jersey on 23 September 1956. De- 
parted friends can never be replaced. They live on in their 
works and in our memories. 

John Adams Comstock of Del Mar, San Diego County, Cali- 
fornia, has published a sumptuous book, “A history and geneal- 
ogy of the Comstock family in America,” (1949), to which the 
reader is referred for other family details. 

I. Papers by William Phillips Comstock 

1909. On the use of coal tar creosote as a preventative of cabinet pests. 

Jour. New York Ent. Soc. 17 : 73-74. 

1911. Theda chrysalus, Edwards, and its variety citima, Henry Edwards. 

Canadian Ent. 43: 65-66. 


4 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LX1V 


1911. On the identity of Thecla muiri, Henry Edwards. Jour. New York 

Ent. Soc. 19: 86-87. 

1912. Erebus odora. Ibid. 20: 68. 

1913. A new North American butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. Bull. 

Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 8: 33-36, pi. 2. 

1913. On the recurrence of Thecla wittfeldii Edw. (Lep.). Ent. News. 

24: 261-263. 

1914. Lycaenidae of California described by Boisduval. Jour. New York 

Ent. Soc. 22: 33-37. 

1914. Theda sylvinus and allied species. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 9: 32-34. 
1914. Erycinidae and Lycaenidae from the island of Trinidad. Jour. New 
York Ent. Soc. 22: 152-154. 

1940. Butterflies of New Jersey. A list of the Lepidoptera suborder 

Rhopalocera occurring in the State of New Jersey; giving time 
of flight, food plants, records of capture with locality and date. 
Ibid. 48: 47-84. 

1942. The genera of the Systema Glossatorum of Fabricius (Lepidoptera). 
Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 37: 46-49. 

1942. The name Biblis, generic and specific (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera, 
Nymphalidae). Ibid. 37: 89-90. 

1942. [Book notice.] Butterflies. A handbook of the butterflies of the 
United States, complete for the region north of the Potomac 
and Ohio Rivers and east of the Dakotas, by Ralph W. Macy 
and Harold H. Shepard. Jour. New York Ent. Soc. 50: 36. 
1942. Dating the Systema Entomologiae, by Fabricius and Papillons 
Exotiques Volume I, by Cramer. Ibid. 50: 189-190. 

1942. Papilio lavina , Fabricius and Cramer. Ibid. 50: 190-191. 

1942. The Monarch butterfly. Ibid. 50: 213. 

1942. Nymphalidae of the Antilles (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). Ibid. 50: 

283-288. 

1943. The genus Ascia in the Antilles (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Amer. 

Mus. Novitates, no. 1229. 7 pp. 

1943. Notes on the subgenus Glutophrissa, genus Appias (Lepidoptera, 
Pieridae). Ibid. no. 1238. 6 pp., 2 figs. 

1943. New records (Lepidoptera). Jour. New York Ent. Soc. 51: 110, 

132, 224. 

1944. Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Rhopalocera or 

butterflies. In Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin 
Islands. New York, published by the New York Academy of 
Sciences, 12, pt. 4: 421-622. figs. 1-29. pis. 1-12. 1 table. 

1945. Viola Harriet dos Passos and her North American moths. Jour. 

New York Ent. Soc. 53: 47-48. 

1946. A Saturniid from the Bahamas (Lepidoptera). Ibid. 54: 171-172. 

II. Papers by Ernest Layton Bell and William Phillips Comstock 

1941. The synonymy of Papilio coridon Poda, Papilio phocion Fabricius 

and others. Jour. New York Ent. Soc. 49: 371-374. 


1956] 


Dos Passos: Comstock 


5 


1948. A new genus and some new species and subspecies of American 

Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). Amer. Mus. Novitates, 
no. 1379. 23 pp. 16 figs. 

III. Papers by William Phillips Comstock and 

Frederick Martin Brown 

1950. Geographical variation and subspeciation in Heliconius charitonius 
Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Amer. Mus. Novitates, 
no. 1467. 21 pp. 3 figs. 4 tables. 

1952. Some biometrics of Heliconius charitonius (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera, 

Nymphalidae). Ibid. no. 1574. 53 pp. 8 figs. 13 tables. 

IV. Papers by William Phillips Comstock and 

Edgar Irving Huntington 

1943. Lycaenidae of the Antilles (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). Ann. New 
York Acad. Sei. 45: 49-130. figs. 1-2. pi. 1. tables 1-3. 

1949. Origins and relationships of Mexicans and Antillean Papilionoidea 

(Lepidoptera). Sobretiro de los An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Mex. 20: 
385-391. 

V. Paper by Frank Edward Watson and 
William Phillips Comstock 

1920. Notes on American Lepidoptera with descriptions of new varieties. 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 42: 447-457. 

VI. Paper by Frank Johnson and William Phillips Comstock 

1941. Anaea of the Antilles and their continental relationships with de- 
scriptions of new species, subspecies and forms (Lepidoptera, 
Rhopalocera, Nymphalidae). Jour. New York Ent. Soc. 49: 
301-343. pis. 8-12. 

VII. Paper by Frederick Hastings Rindge and 
William Phillips Comstock 

1953. An unnamed Lycaenid from Trinidad (Lepidoptera). Jour. New 

York Ent. Soc. 61: 99-100. 

Literature Cited 

Comstock, John Adams. 1949. A history and genealogy of the Comstock 
family in America. Los Angeles, California, The Commonwealth Press, 
Inc., [privately printed for the author], xvi + [4] + 715 + [1] pp., coat 
of arms (colored), num. photographs. 


Cyril F. dos Passos 
Mendham, New Jersey 


6 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LX1V 


A NEW RECORD OF THE ANDROMEDA LACE BUG 

(STEPHANITIS GLOBULIFERA (MATSUMURA)) 

FROM NEW JERSEY 

By Rose Ella Warner 

Entomology Research Branch, Agricultural Research Service 
United States Department of Agriculture 

While recently visiting in South Orange, New Jersey, I was 
asked to examine Andromeda shrubs in the front yard. The 
shrubs were planted about 1922 and were of considerable size. 
Those in the backyard were already dead and the others were very 
severely damaged. From all indications this was the work of an 
insect. The foliage was much mottled with grayish-yellow 
blotches. Some leaves were completely blanched, others brown 
and ready to drop off. On the lower surface of the infested leaves 
were numerous, flattened, black, shiny, sticky spots of excrement. 
The owner of the property had observed the work of the insect 
for some time but it was not until September that adults were 
noticed. At the time I looked at the plants (October 24, 1954) 
the adults were destructively abundant and very active on the 
lower surface of the leaves. A number of the lace bugs were col- 
lected and brought back to Dr. Reece I. Sailer for determination. 
They proved to be the lace bug currently known as Stephanitis 
globulifera when compared with specimens in the National 
Museum. 

Apparently a recent introduction from Japan, 8. globulifera is 
a major pest of Andromeda ( Pieris spp.). Report of the pres- 
ence of this pest was first made in North America from Con- 
necticut in 1946 on a specimen of Pieris japonica (Bailey, N. S., 
Entomologica Americana (N.S.) 31, 53-56, 1951). Reports have 
also come from Rhode Island, parts of New York State and Long 
Island (Schread, John C., Conn. Agri. Expt. Station Bull. 568, 
March 1953). 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NEW YORK 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Meeting of October 4, 1955 

A regular meeting of the Society was held at the American Museum of 
Natural History. President Vishniac was in the chair. There were eleven 
( Continued on 'page 84) 


1956] 


Schuster: Ephuta 


7 


A REVISION OF THE GENUS EPHUTA (MUTIL- 
LIDAE) IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 

By R. M. Schuster 

Department of Botany, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 
Part II. Species Group Grisea 1 

A considerable delay in the publication of this second section 
of the paper is partially due to difficulties experienced in the 
study of the Floridian populations of some species. Long series 
of several species, without adequate labels, were submitted in 
February, 1951 by a Floridian collector ; these were all returned 
early in July, 1951, with a request that females, labelled as allo- 
types, be inserted in the collection of the U. S. National Museum, 
or another public museum. To date, these have not been so 
inserted, and data from them are not available for publication, 
thus imposing certain limitations on the description of these 
females, and in the matter of giving exact locality data of the 
allotypes. 

References to figures in this section ( and the forthcoming final 
section) refer to the figures in Plates I-V, pp. 35-43, in Part I 
of this publication. In addition to the help acknowledged in 
Part I of this paper, I would like to especially acknowledge the 
aid and encouragement received from my friend and colleague, 
Karl V. Krombein, in the completion of the final revision of the 
present text. 

Since the publication of Part I of this Revision (Schuster, 
1951), a very considerable additional body of material has be- 
come available for study, almost all collected during the last five 
years, in large part by Karl V. Krombein. The astute collecting 
of the latter has led to the association of several other females 
(E. battlei battlei, E. sabaliana sabaliana ) with their respective 
males, necessitating an emended key to the E. scrupea-pauxilla 
complex of females, i.e., to those females without an evident micro- 
vestiture of the head, and without any trace of discal maculae of 
the second tergite of the abdomen. These are the females, of 

i The first part of this revision appeared in this journal (Volume LIX, 
March 1951, pages 1-43). 


8 


New York Entomological Society 


[Vol. LXIV 


course, which had been lumped in preceding treatments as “E. 
puteola This emended key to the E. puteola- type females fol- 
lows at the close of the final part of this Revision. 

In addition to the undescribed females previously mentioned, 
a third undescribed taxon has been found, in the male sex, which 
is so wholly deviant in the structure of the head that it cannot 
be placed within the genus Ephuta s. str. as diagnosed and dis- 
cussed in the preceding section of this revision. For this wholly 
anomalous species, it is necessary to erect a new subgenus, which 
may prove worthy of generic segregation if the as yet unknown 
female should possess sufficiently striking characters. A key 
separating the two subgenera recognizable in the North Amer- 
ican fauna follows : 

KEY TO SUBGENERA (MALES) 2 

1. Mandibles simply falcate, their tips not strongly deflexed, ventrally 
with the contours smooth, not emarginate nor dentate; dorsal margins 
of mandibles not produced as a lamellate prominent tooth; clypeus con- 
vex, with two usually divergent carinae running down from a com- 
mon origin below and between the antennal tubercles (rarely fused to 
form a common median carina), diverging below to delimit an ob- 
trapezoidal ‘ 1 * clypeal basin ’ ’ ; lateral faces of pronotum not armed with 
a tooth below. Subgenus Ephuta 3 

1. Mandibles contorted, their distal halves sharply deflexed, the ventral 
margins interrupted and with a small subtending tooth; dorsal margins 
of mandibles expanded, before the middle, into a prominent lamellate 
expansion; clypeus strongly depressed, forming a basin with the closed 
mandibles, without carinae, but with a sharp finger-like process at its 
juncture with frons; lateral faces of pronotum armed with a small 
tooth near base of coxae. Subgenus Xenochile subg. n. 

Subgenus Xenochile subg. n. 

Male. Wholly black, with aspect of subgenus Ephuta, the petiole narrow 
and subparallel, hardly longer than broad ; terga 3-6 of gaster longitudinally 
carinate along midline. Head transversely rectangulate, almost subquadrate, 
in dorsal aspect, rather full in temples, with close to contiguous, but rather 
fine puncturation. Genae evenly rounded into postgenal regions, neither 
region armed. Ocelli very small, their length ca. 0.2 the ocellocular dis- 
tance. Clypeus strongly depressed, forming a distinct basin with the 
monstrous, contorted mandibles, nearly flat, without carinae but with a 
sharp, finger-like median process at juncture with frons, which is produced 
down over the clypeal basin as a prominent, finger-like tooth. Mandibles 

2 The female sex of Xenochile is unknown. 

3 See key to species on p. 24 of Part I of this revision. 


1956] 


Schuster: Ephuta 


9 


strongly dilated, the distal halves strongly and sharply, angularly deflexed, 
obliquely bidentate apically, the ventral contours highly irregular, the 
ventral margin with a small but sharp, angular tooth beyond the middle, 
situated proximal of a slight but distinct notch; dilated dorsal margins of 
mandibles produced as a prominent, erect, lamellate and rounded tooth or 
expansion, situated well before the middle of the mandibles. 

Alitrunk as in typical Ephuta, except for the flat lateral faces of the 
pronotum, which are produced at their lower corners as a distinct tooth. 
Gaster wholly identical in form with that of typical Ephuta. 

Genotype: — Ephuta ( Xenochile ) krombeini sp. n. ; the snb- 
genus is monotypic. 

Ephuta {XenochUe) krombeini represents a wholly deviant 
type in the genus Ephuta. It differs at once from all the nearctic 
and neotropical species of the genus known to me in the extra- 
ordinary, wholly anomalous mandibles, whose proximal and dis- 
tal halves lie at a distinct angle to each other, and whose ventral 
and dorsal margins are both armed with teeth or angulations. 
Equally distinctive is the flat clypeus, wholly lacking the ‘ 4 usual” 
divergent carinae, but provided instead with a ligulate prominent 
process, projecting down over the depressed clypeal disk, origi- 
nating just below the juncture of clypeus and frons. In spite 
of the distinctive and very large mandibles, and associated ex- 
pansion of the head capsule and malar space, the single known 
species of Xenochile agrees very closely with the subgenus Ephuta 
in the form of the alitrunk and gaster. Only the slight armature 
of the lower angles of the pronotum represents a valid differenti- 
ating feature from Ephuta s. str. Should the female sex show 
major features differentiating it from the normal Ephuta “type”, 
it will probably prove desirable to elevate Xenochile to the rank 
of a full genus. 

Ephuta (Xenochile) krombeini sp. n . 4 

Male. L